Allegretti O, Brunetti M, Cuccui I, Ferrari S, Nocetti M, Terziev N (2012) Thermovacuum modification of spruce (Picea abies karst.) and fir (Abies albamill.) wood. Bioresources 7:3656–3669
Altgen M, Welzbacher C, Humar M, Militz H (2012) ESR-spectroscopy as a potential method for the quality control of thermally modified wood. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop Cost Action FP0904, Nancy, pp 132–133
Andersons B, Chirkova J, Andersone I, Irbe I (2012) Prediction of the properties of soft deciduous wood in thermal modification. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop Cost Action FP0904, Nancy, pp 96–97
Bächle H, Zimmer B, Wegener G (2012) Classification of thermally treated wood by FT-NIR spectroscopy and SIMCA. Wood Sci Technol 46:1181–1192
Bal BC (2014) Some physical and mechanical properties of thermally modified juvenile and mature black pine wood. Eur J Wood Prod 72:61–66
Bekhta P, Niemz P (2003) Effect of high temperature on the change in color, dimensional stability and mechanical properties of spruce wood. Holzforschung 57:539–546
Boonstra M (2008) A two-stage thermal modification of wood, PhD Thesis in A plied Biological Sciences: Soil and Forest management. Henry Poincaré University, Nancy
Boonstra MJ, Tjeerdsma B, Pizzi A, Tekely P, Pendlebury J (1996) Chemical modification of Norway spruce and Scots pine: a 13C NMR CP-MAS study of the reactivity and reactions of polymeric wood components. Holzforschung 50:215–220
Boonstra MJ, Tjeerdsma B (2006) Chemical analysis of heat treated softwoods. Holz Roh Werkst 64:204–211
Boonstra MJ, Pizzi A, Zomers F, Ohlmeyer M, Paul W (2006) The effects of a two stage heat treatment process on the properties of particleboard. Holz Roh Werkst 64:157–164
Borgeais A (2012). The high temperature treatment of wood. The network timber professionals in Brittany [in French], Book (Abibois), 11 pages. Available at http://abibois.com/category/4-preservation-et-entretien?download=14.
Bourgeois J, Bartholin MC, Guyonnet R (1989) Thermal treatment of wood: analysis of obtained product. Wood Sci Technol 23:303–310
Brischke C, Welzbacher C, Brandt K, Rapp A (2007) Quality control of thermally modified timber: interrelationship between heat treatment intensities and CIE L*a*b* color data on homogenized wood samples. Holzforschung 61:19–22
Burmester A (1970) Formbeständigkeit von Holz gegenüber Feuchtigkeit Grundlagen und Vergütungsverfahren. BAM Berichte Nr. 4.
Burmester A (1973) Investigation on the dimensionnal stabilization of woood. Bundesanstalt fûr Materialprûfung, Berlin-Dahlem, 50–56. Holz Roh Werkst 33:333–335
Burmester A (1975) Zur Dimensionsstabilisierung von holz. Holz Roh Werkst 33:333–335
Candelier K, Chaouch M, Dumarçay S, Petrissans A, Petrissans M, Gérardin P (2011a) Utilization of thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS to study stability of different wood species to thermodegradation. J Anal App Pyrol 92:376–383
Candelier K, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2011b) Mechanical properties of heat treated wood after thermodegradation under different treatment intensity. International Conference “Mechano-chemical transformations of wood during thermo-hydro-mechanical processes”, 16–18 February 2011, Biel (Switzerland).
Candelier K, Dumarçay S, Petrissans A, Desharnais L, Petrissans M, Gérardin P (2013a) Comparison of chemical composition and decay durability of heat treated wood cured under different inert atmospheres: Nitrogen or vacuum. Polym Degrad Stab 98:677–681
Candelier K, Treu A, Dibdiakova J, Larnoy E, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2013b) Utilization of TG-DSC to study thermal stability of beech and silver fir. Document No. IRG/WP 13–40628. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Sweden
Candelier K, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Pétrissans M, Kamdem P, Gérardin P (2013c) Thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS to characterize volatiles formation kinetic during wood thermodegradation. J Anal App Pyrol 101:96–102
Candelier K, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2013d) Comparison of mechanical properties of heat treated beech woods cured under nitrogen or vacuum. Polym Degrad Stab 98:1762–1765
Candelier K, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2014) Advantage of vacuum versus nitrogen to achieve inert atmosphere during softwood thermal modification. Pro Ligno 10:10–17
Candelier K, Hannouz S, Elaieb MT, Collet R, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2015) Utilization of temperature kinetic as a method to predict treatment intensity and corresponding treated wood quality: durability and mechanical properties of thermally modified wood. Maderas-Ciencia Tecnologia 17:253–262
Chaouch M (2011) Effect of treatment intensity on the elemental composition and durability of heat-treated wood: development of a predictive marker of resistance to basidiomycete fungi [in French]. PhD Thesis. Université de lorraine, Nancy
Chaouch M, Pétrissans M, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P (2010) Use of wood elemental composition to predict heat treatment intensity and decay resistance of different softwood and hardwood species. Polym Degrad Stab 95:2255–2259
Chaouch M, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Pétrissans M, Gérardin P (2013) Effect of heat treatment intensity on some conferred properties of different European softwood and hardwood species. Wood Sci Technol 47:663–673
Chen Y, Fan Y, Gao J, Stark NM (2012) The effect of heat treatment on the chemical and color change of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood flour. Bioresources 7:1157–1170
CRIQ (2003) Forest products issued from 2nd transformation processes – Wood heat treatment [in French]. Report to the ministère des Ressources naturelles, de la Faune et des Parcs (MRNFP) by the Centre de recherche industrielle du Québec (CRIQ).
Dilik T, Hiziroglu S (2012) Bonding strength of heat treated compressed Eastern red cedar wood. Mater Des 42:317–320
Elaieb MT, Candelier K, Pétrissans A, Dumarçay S, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2015) Heat treatment of Tunisian soft wood species: Effect on the durability, chemical modifications and mechanical properties. Maderas Ciencia Tecnologia 17:699–710
EN 113 (1996) Wood preservation products. Wood preservatives – Test method for determining the protective effectiveness against wood destroying basidiomycetes – Determination of the toxic values.
EN 335 (2013) Durability of wood and wood-based products - Use classes: definitions, application to solid wood and wood-based products.
EN 350–1 (1994) Durability of wood and wood based products – Natural durability of solid wood – Part 1: Guide to principles of testing and classification of the natural durability of wood.
Esteves B, Pereira H (2008) Quality assessment of heat treated wood by NIR spectroscopy. Holz Roh Werkst 66:323–332
Esteves BM, Domingos IJ, Pereira HM (2007) Improvement of technological quality of eucalyptus wood by heat treatment in air at 170°C-200°C. For Prod J57:47–52
Esteves B, Velez Marques A, Domingos I, Pereira H (2008) Heat-induced color changes of pine (Pinus pinaster) and eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) wood. Wood Sci Technol 42:369–384
Fengel D, Wegener G (1989) Wood chemistry ultrastructure relation. Walter de Gruyter.
Gieleber (1983) Dimensionsstabilierung von holz durch eine Feuchte/Wârme/Druck-Behandlung. Holz Roh Werkst 41:87–94
Gonzáles Peňa M, Hale M (2008) Colour in thermally modified wood of beech, norway spruce and scots pine, Part 2: Properties predictions from colour changes. Holzforschung 63:394–401
Gunduz G, Aydemir D, Karakas G (2009) The effects of thermal treatment on the mechanical properties of wild Pear (Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pall.) wood and changes in physical properties. Mater Des 30:4391–4395
Hakkou M, Pétrissans M, Zoulalian A, Gérardin P (2005) Investigation of wood wettability changes during heat treatment on the basis of chemical analysis. Polym Degrad Stab 89:1–5
Hakkou M, Pétrissans M, Gérardin P, Zoulalian A (2006) Investigation of the reasons for fungal durability of heat-treated beech wood. Polym Degrad Stab 91:393–397
Hamada J, Petrissans A, Mothe F, Petrissans M, Gerardin P (2013) Analysis of the effects of the European oak natural variability on the modification of the density distribution and chemical composition during the heat treatment. Proceedings of the Joint focus workshop of COST Action FP1006 & FP0904, 16–18 October, 2013 Rogla, Slovenia
Hannouz S, Collet R, Bléron L, Marchal R, Gérardin P (2012) Mechanical properties of heat treated French species wood. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop Cost Action FP0904, Nancy, pp 940, 72–74
Hannouz S, Collet R, Buteaud JC, Bléron L, Candelier K (2015) Mechanical characterization of heat treated ash wood in relation with structural timber standards. Pro Ligno 11:3–10
Hietala S, Maunu S, Sundholm F, Jämsa S, Viitaniemi P (2002) Structure of thermally modified wood studied by liquid state NMR measurements. Holzforschung. 56:522–528
Hill CAS (2006) Wood modification: Chemical. Thermal and other processes, Wiley, Chichester
Hillis W (1984) High temperature and chemical effects on wood stability. Part 1. General consideration. Wood Sci Technol 18:281–293
Inari G, Pétrissans M, Lambert JL, Erhardt JJ, Gérardin P (2006) XPS characterization of wood chemical composition after heat treatment. Surf Interf Anal 38:1336–1342
Inari G, Petrissans M, Lambert J, Ehrhardt JJ, Gerardin P (2007) Chemical reactivity of heat-treated wood. Wood Sci Technol 41:157–168
Inari G, Pétrissans M, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P (2009) Elemental composition of wood as a potential marker to evaluate heat treatment intensity. Polym Degrad Stab 94:365–368
Jimenez JP, Acda MN, Razal RA, Madamba PS (2011) Physico-Mechanical Properties and Durability of Thermally Modified Malapapaya [Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem.] Wood. Philipp J Sci 140:13–23
Johansson D, Moren T (2006) The potential of color measurement for strength prediction of thermally treated wood. Holz Roh Werkst 64:104–110
Junga U, Militz H (2005) Particularities in agar block tests of some modified woods caused by different protection and decay resistance. Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Wood Modification, Göttignen
Kačíková D, Kačíkb F, Čabalováb I, Ďurkovičc J (2013) Effects of thermal treatment on chemical, mechanical and colour traits in Norway spruce wood. Bioresour Technol 144:669–674
Kamdem DP, Pizzi A, Guyonnet R, Jermannaud A (1999) Durability of heat treated wood. Document No. IRG/WP 99–40145. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Rosenheim
Kamdem DP, Pizzi A, Jermannaud A (2002) Durability of heat-treated wood. Holz Roh Werkst 60:1–6
Kim G, Yun K, Kim J (1998) Effect of heat treatment on the decay resistance and the bending properties of radiate pine sapwood. Mater und Organismen 32:101–108
Kocaefe D, Poncsak S, Boluk Y (2008) Effect of thermal treatment on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of birch and aspen. Bioresources 3:517–537
Kollman A, Fengel D (1965) Changes in chemical composiyion of wood by heat treatment. Holz Roh Werkst 12:461–468
Kollman A, Schneider A (1963) On the sorption behavior of heat stabilized wood. Holz Roh Werkst 21:77–85
Korkut S, Korkut DS, Kocaefe D, Elustondo D, Bajraktari A, Çakıcıer N (2012) Effect of thermal modification on the properties of narrow-leaved ash and chestnut. Ind CropProd 35:287–294
Kotilanen R (2000) Chemical changes in wood during heating at 150-260°C. Department of Chemistry. Finland, University of Jyväskylä, pp. 51
Li MY, Shi-Chao Cheng SC, Li D, Wang SN, Huang AM, Sun SQ (2015) Structural characterization of steam-heat treated Tectona grandis wood analyzed by FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy. Chin Chem Lett 26:221–225
Matsuo M, Yokoyama M, Umemura K, Gril J, Yano H, Kawai S (2010) Color changes in wood during heating: kinetic analysis by applying time-temperature superposition method. Appl Phys A 99:47–52
Matsuo M, Yokoyama M, Umemura K, Sugiyama J, Kawai S, Gril J, Kubodera S, Mitsutani T, Ozaki H, Sakamoto M, Imamura M (2011) Aging of wood: Analysis of color changes during natural aging and heat treatment. Holzforschung 65:361–368
Mazela B, Zakrzewski R, Grzeskowiak W, Cofta G, Bartkowiak M (2003) Preliminary research on the biological resistance of thermally modified wood. Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Wood Modification, Ghent
Mazela B, Zakrzewski R, Grzeskowiak W, Cofta G, Bartkowiak M (2004) Resistance of thermally modified wood to basidiomycetes. ; EJPAU, Wood Technology, 7(1). Avaible at http://www.ejpau.media.pl.
McDonald A, Fernandez M, Kreber B (1997) Chemical and UV–VIS spectroscopic study on kiln brown stain formation in Radiata pine. Proceedings of the 9th international symposium of wood and pulping chemistry, Montreal, 70, 1–5.
Militz H (2002) Heat treatment of wood: European Processes and their background. Document No. IRG/WP 02–40241. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Cardiff, Wales
Mitsui K, Takada H, Sugiyama M, Hasegawa R (2001) Changes in the properties of light-irradiated wood with heat treatment: Part 1 Effect of treatment conditions on the change in colour. Holzforschung 55:601–605
Mitsui K, Murata A, Kohara M, Tsuchikawa S (2003) Color modification of wood by light-irradiation and heat treatment. Proceedings of the 1st European conference on wood modification, Ghent
Mohareb A, Sirmah P, Pétrissans M, Gérardin P (2012) Effect of heat treatment intensity on wood chemical composition and decay durability of Pinus patula. Eur J Wood Prod 70:519–524
Nguila Inari G, Pétrissans M, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P. (2009). Elemental composition of wood as a potential marker to evaluate heat treatment intensity. Polym Degrad Stab 94:365–368
Nuopponen M., Vuorinen T., Jamsa S., Viitaniemi P (2004) Thermal modifications in softwood studied by FT-IR and UV resonance raman spectroscopie. J Wood Chem Technol 24(1):13–26
Olarescu MC, Campean M, Ispas M, Cosereanu C (2014) Effect of thermal treatment on some properties of lime wood. Eur J Wood Prod 72:559–562
Patzelt M, Emsenhuber G, Stingl R (2003) Color measurement as means of quality control of thermally treated wood. Procedings of the 1st European Conference on Wood Modification, Ghent
Paul W, Ohlmeyer M, Leithoff H (2006) Thermal modification of OSB-strands by a one-step heat pretreatment - Influence of temperature on weight loss, hygroscopicity and improved resistance. Holz Roh Werkst 65:57–63
Pétrissans M, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P (2007) Check the durability of heat-treated beech wood [in French]. Tracés, Bulletin technique Technologie du bois de la Suisse Romande 17:12–16
Pétrissans M, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P (2013) Pore size diameter, shrinkage and specific gravity evolution during the heat treatment of wood. Journal of Innovation In Forest Industry And Engineering Design.
Pétrissans A, Younsi R, Chaouch M, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2014) Wood, thermodegradation: experimental analysis and modeling of mass loss kinetics. Maderas Ciencia Tecnologia 16:133–148
Popescu CM, Popescu MC (2013) A near infrared spectroscopic study of the structural modifications of lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) wood during hydro-thermal treatment. Spectrochim Acta Mol Biomol Spectrosc 115:227–233
Popescu MC, Froidevaux J, Navi P, Popescu CM (2013) Structural modifications of Tilia cordata wood during heat treatment investigated by FT-IR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. J Mol Struct 1033:176–186
Prinks MJ, Ptasinski KJ, Jansen FJJG (2006) Torrefection of wood, part 2. Analysis of products J Anal App Pyrol 77:35–40
Rapp A (2001) Review on heat treatments of wood, COST ACTION E22- Environmental optimisation of wood protection. Proceedings of Special Seminar in Antibes, França
Rep G, Pohleven F, Bucar B (2004) Charateristics of thermally modified wood in vacuum. Document No. IRG/WP 04–40287. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Ljubljana
Rusche H (1973a) Thermal degradation of wood at temperature up to 200°C: Part I. Holz Roh Werkst 31:273–281
Rusche H (1973b) Thermal degradation of wood at temperature up to 200°C: Part II. Holz Roh Werkst 31:307–312
Sandak A, Sandak J, Allegrtti O (2015) Quality control of vacuum thermally modified wood with near infrared spectroscopy. Vacuum 114:44–48
Seborg R, Tarkow H, Stamm A (1953) Effect of heat upon the dimensional stabilization of wood. J For Prod Soc 3(9): 59–67.Sehistedt-Persson (2003) Colour responses to heat treatment of extractives and sap from pine and spruce. Proceedings of the 8th International IUFRO wood drying conference, Brasov, pp 459–464
Sehistedt-Persson M (2003) Colour responses to heat treatment of extractives and sap from pine and spruce. Proceedings of the 8th IUFRO Wood Drying Conference European, Brasov
Senesi N and Senesi GS (2005) Electron-spin resonance spectroscopy. Encyclopedia of soils in the environment. Daniel, H. Oxford, Elsevier, 426–437.
Sivonen H, Maunu SL, Sundholm F, Jämsä S, Viitaniemi P (2002) Magnetic resonance studies of thermally modified wood. Holzforschung 56:648–654
Sjöström E (1981) Wood polysaccharides, in Wood chemistry. Fundamentals and applications. Academic press. Chapter 3:49–67
Stamm A, Hansen L (1937) Minimizing wood shrinkage and swelling: effect of heating in various gases. Ind Eng Chem 29:831–833
Stamm A, Burr H, Kline A (1946) Stayb-wood-A heat stabilized wood. Ind Eng Chem 38:630–634
Sundqvist B (2004) Color changes and acid formation in wood during heating. PhD Thesis. Lulea, University of Technology, Sweden
Sundqvist B, Morén T (2002) The influence of wood polymers and extractives on wood colour induced by hydrothermal treatment. Holz Roh Werkst 60:375–376
Surini T, Charrier F, Malvestio J, Charrier B, Moubarik A, Castéra P (2012) Physical properties and termite durability of maritime pine Pinus pinaster Ait., heat-treated under vacuum pressure. Wood Sci Technol 46: 487–501.
Šušteršic Ž, Mohareb A, Chaouch M, Pétrissans M, Petrič M, Gérardin P (2010) Prediction of decay resistance of heat treated wood on the basis of its elemental composition. Polym Degrad Stab 95:94–97
Tenorio C, Moya R (2013) Thermogravimetric characteristics, its relation with extractives and chemical properties and combustion characteristics of ten fast-growth species in Costa Rica. Thermochim Acta 563:12–21
Tiemann H (1920) Effects of different methods of drying on the strength and hygroscopicity of wood. 3er Ed. “The Kiln drying of lumber”, Chap 11, J.P.Lippincott Co.
Tjeerdsma BF, Militz H (2005) Chemical changes in hydrothermal treated wood: FTIR analysis of combined hydrothermal and dry heat treated wood. Holz Roh Werkst 63:102–111
Tjeerdsma BF, Boonstra M, Pizzi A, Tekely P, Militz H (1998) Characterisation of the thermally modified wood: molecular reasons for wood performance improvement. Holz Roh Werkst 56:149–153
Tjeerdsma BF, Stevens M, Militz H (2000) Durability aspects of hydrothermal treated wood. Document No. IRG/WP00-40160. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Kona Surf, Hawaii
Tudorović N, Popović Z, Milić G, Popadić R (2012) Estimation of heat treated wood properties by color change. Bioressources 7:799–815
Viitaniemi P, Jämsä S, Viitanen H (1997) Method for improving biodegradation resistance and dimensional stability of cellulosic products. United States Patent No. 5678324 (US005678324).
Viitaniemi P, Jämsä S, Sundholm F (2001) Method of determining the degree of modification of heat modified wood products. WO/2001/053812, Search International and National Patent Collections.
Welzbacher CR, Rapp OA (2002) Comparison of thermally modified wood originating from four industrial scale process – durability. Document No. IRG/WP 02–40229. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Cardiff, Wales
Welzbacher CR, Brischke C, Rapp OA (2007) Influence of treatment temperature and duration on selected biological, mechanical, physical and optical properties of thermally modified timber. Wood Mater Sci Eng 2:66–76
Welzbacher CR, Jazayeri L, Brischke C, Rapp AO (2008) Increased resistance of thermally modified Norway spruce timber (TMT) against brown rot decay by Oligoporus placenta – Study on the mode of protective action. Wood Research 53:13–26
Willems W (2013) Methods of TMT quality control. Proceedings of the Cost Action FP 0904 :“Potential of THM Wood in Industrial Production”, May 16–17 2013, Dresden
Willems W, Tausch A, Militz H (2010) Direct estimation of the durability of high-pressure steam modified wood by esr-spectroscopy. Document No. IRG/WP 10–40508. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Biarritz
Willems W, Gérardin P, Militz H (2013) The average carbon oxidation state of thermally modified wood as a marker for its decay resistance against Basidiomycetes. Polym Degrad Stab 98:2140–2145
Yildiz S, Gezer D, Yildiz U (2006) Mechanical and chemical behaviour of spruce wood modified by heat. Build Environ 41:1762–1766
Zanuncio AJV, Motta JP, Silveira TA, De Sa FE, Trugilho PF (2014) Physical and colorimetric changes in Eucalyptus grandis wood after heat treatment. Bioresources 9:293–302