Table of contents


Phylum Ascomycota R.H. Whittaker

Subphylum Pezizomycotina O.E. Erikss. & Winka

Class Dothideomycetes O.E. Erikss. & Winka

Subclass Dothideomycetidae P.M. Kirk et al.


Capnodiales Woron.


Dissoconiaceae Crous & de Hoog

1151.Dissoconium eucalypti Crous & Carnegie, in Crous et al., Fungal Divers. 26(1): 157 (2007), new record of the sexual morph (contributed by Rekhani H. Perera)


Mycosphaerellaceae Lindau

1152.Pseudocercospora maetaengensis J.F. Li & Phookamsak, sp. nov. (contributed by Junfu Li and Rungtiwa Phookamsak)


Subclass Pleosporomycetidae C.L. Schoch et al.


Hysteriales Lindau


Hysteriaceae Chevall.

1153.Hysterobrevium constrictum (N. Amano) E. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, in Boehm et al., Stud. Mycol. 64: 64 (2009), new record for Yunnan, China (contributed by Anusha H. Ekanayaka)

1154.Rhytidhysteron camporesii Ekanayaka & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Anusha H. Ekanayaka)

1155.Rhytidhysteron erioi Ekanayaka & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Anusha H. Ekanayaka)


Pleosporales Luttrell ex M.E. Barr


Amorosiaceae Thambug. & K.D. Hyde

1156.Angustimassarina camporesii D. Pem, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Dhandevi Pem and Mingkwan Doilom)


Camarosporidiellaceae Wanas. et al.

1157.Camarosporidiella camporesii Tibpromma & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Saowaluck Tibpromma)


Coniothyriaceae W.B. Cooke

1158.Foliophoma camporesii D. Pem, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Dhandevi Pem and Mingkwan Doilom)


Dictyosporiaceae Boonmee & K.D. Hyde

1159.Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis N.G. Liu & K.D. Hyde, in Hyde et al., Mycosphere 9(2): 287 (2018), new host record (contributed by Kasun M. Thambugala and Naruemon Huanraluek)

1160.Dictyosporium muriformis N.G. Liu, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, sp. nov. (contributed by Ning-Guo Liu and Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu)


Didymellaceae Gruyter et al.

1161.Ascochyta medicaginicola Qian Chen & L. Cai, Stud. Mycol. 82: 187 (2015), new record for Italy (contributed by Pranami D. Abeywickrama)

1162.Ascochyta pisi Lib., Pl. crypt. Arduenna, fasc. (Liège) 1(nos 1-100): no. 59 (1830), new host record (contributed by Subodini N. Wijesinghe)

1163.Didymella camporesii Manawasinghe & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ishara S. Manawasinghe)

1164.Didymella macrostoma (Mont.) Qian Chen & L. Cai, in Chen et al., Stud. Mycol. 82: 177 (2015), new host record (contributed by Pranami D. Abeywickrama)

1165.Neodidymelliopsis camporesii D. Pem, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Dhandevi Pem and Mingkwan Doilom)

1166.Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi W.J. Li & K.D. Hyde, in Hyde et al., Fungal Divers.: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-016-0373-x, [41] (2016), new host record (contributed by Pranami D. Abeywickrama)

1167.Nothophoma quercina (Syd. & P. Syd.) Qian Chen & L. Cai, Stud. Mycol. 82: 213 (2015), new host record (contributed by Napalai Chaiwan)

1168.Xenodidymella camporesii D. Pem, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Dhandevi Pem and Mingkwan Doilom)


Didymosphaeriaceae Munk

1169.Kalmusia erioi Samarak., Thambugala & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Milan C. Samarakoon)

1170.Montagnula camporesii Phukhams. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Chayanard Phukhamsakda)

1171.Neokalmusia kunmingensis H.B. Jiang, Phookamsak & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Hong-Bo Jiang and Rungtiwa Phookamsak)

1172.Pseudocamarosporium camporesii Q. Tian & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Qing Tian)

1173.Tremateia lamiacearum Samarak. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Milan C. Samarakoon)

1174.Tremateia camporesii Samarak. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Milan C. Samarakoon)


Fuscostagonosporaceae Jayasiri, Camporesi & K.D. Hyde

1175.Fuscostagonospora camporesii Tennakoon & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Danushka S. Tennakoon)


Halotthiaceae Ying Zhang et al.

1176.Brunneoclavispora camporesii Boonmee & Phookamsak, sp. nov. (contributed by Saranyaphat Boonmee and Rungtiwa Phookamsak)


Lentitheciaceae Yin. Zhang et al.

1177.Keissleriella camporesiana Phukhams. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Chayanard Phukhamsakda)

1178.Keissleriella camporesii C.G. Lin & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Chuan-Gen Lin)

1179.Pseudomurilentithecium Mapook & K.D. Hyde, gen. nov. (contributed by Ausana Mapook)

1180.Pseudomurilentithecium camporesii Mapook & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ausana Mapook)


Leptosphaeriaceae M.E. Barr

1181.Plenodomus triseptatus S.N. Wijesinghe, Bulgakov & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Subodini N. Wijesinghe)


Lophiostomataceae Sacc.

1182.Neovaginatispora fuckelii (Sacc.) A. Hashim., K. Hiray. & Kaz. Tanaka, in Hashimoto et al., Stud. Mycol. 90: 188 (2018), new host record (contributed by Shi-Ke Huang)


Macrodiplodiopsidaceae Voglmayr et al.

1183.Pseudochaetosphaeronema kunmingense D.P. Wei, Wanas. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Deping Wei)


Melanommataceae G. Winter

1184.Camposporium appendiculatum D.F. Bao, Z.L. Luo, K.D. Hyde & H.Y. Su, sp. nov. (contributed by Dan-Feng Bao)

1185.Camposporium lycopodiellae (Crous & R.K. Schumach.) Tibpromma & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov. (contributed by Saowaluck Tibpromma)

1186.Camposporium multiseptatum D.F. Bao, Z.L. Luo, K.D. Hyde & H.Y. Su, sp. nov. (contributed by Dan-Feng Bao)

1187.Camposporium pellucidum (Grove) S. Hughes, Mycol. Pap. 36: 9 (1951), new record for Yunnan, China (contributed by Dan-Feng Bao)

1188.Camposporium septatum N.G. Liu, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ning-Guo Liu)

1189.Uzbekistanica pruni Chaiwan, Wanas., Bulgakov & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Napalai Chaiwan)


Occultibambusaceae D.Q. Dai & K.D. Hyde

1190.Occultibambusa bambusae D.Q. Dai & K.D. Hyde, in Dai et al., Fungal Divers.: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-016-0367-8, [26] (2016), new host record from Taiwan (contributed by Anuruddha Karunarathna and Ruvishika S. Jayawardena)


Parabambusicolaceae Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray.

1191.Paramonodictys N.G. Liu, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, gen. nov. (contributed by Ning-Guo Liu and Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu)

1192.Paramonodictys solitarius N.G. Liu, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, sp. nov. (contributed by Ning-Guo Liu and Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu)


Periconiaceae (Sacc.) Nann.

1193.Periconia palmicola J.F. Li & Phookamsak, sp. nov. (contributed by Junfu Li and Rungtiwa Phookamsak)


Phaeosphaeriaceae M.E. Barr

1194.Bhagirathimyces S.M. Singh & S.K. Singh, gen. nov. (contributed by Sanjay K. Singh and S.M. Singh)

1195.Bhagirathimyces himalayensis S.M. Singh & S.K. Singh, sp. nov. (contributed by Sanjay K. Singh and Shiv Mohan Singh)

1196.Loratospora arezzoensis Bundhun, Wanas., Jeewon & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Digvijayini Bundhun)

1197.Neosetophoma camporesii Q. Tian & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Qing Tian)

1198.Paraloratospora Bundhun, Tennakoon, Phookamsak & K.D. Hyde, gen. nov. (contributed by Digvijayini Bundhun and Rungtiwa Phookamsak)

1199.Paraloratospora camporesii Bundhun, Jeewon & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Digvijayini Bundhun)

1200.Paraloratospora gahniae (Crous) Thiyagaraja, Bundhun & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov. (contributed by Vinodhini Thiyagaraja)

1201.Phaeosphaeria chinensis K.K. Zhang, Hongsanan, Tennakoon & N. Xie, Phytotaxa. 419(1): 32 (2019), new host record from Taiwan (contributed by Anuruddha Karunarathna and Ruvishika S. Jayawardena)

1202.Phaeosphaeriopsis pseudoagavacearum Crous & Y. Marín, in Marin-Felix et al., Stud. Mycol. 94: 63 (2019), new record of the sexual morph (contributed by Rungtiwa Phookamsak)

1203.Septoriella camporesii Goonas. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ishani D. Goonasekara)

1204.Wojnowiciella dactylidis (Wijayaw., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde) Hern.-Restr. & Crous, Sydowia 68: 221 (2016), new host record (contributed by Danushka S. Tennakoon)


Tetraplosphaeriaceae Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray.

1205.Ernakulamia tanakae Rajeshkumar & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Kunhiraman C. Rajeshkumar)

1206.Pseudotetraploa rajmachiensis Rajeshkumar, K.D. Hyde & S. Lad, sp. nov. (contributed by Kunhiraman C. Rajeshkumar and Sneha S. Lad)

1207.Tetraploa dwibahubeeja Rajeshkumar, K.D. Hyde & S. Lad, sp. nov. (contributed by Kunhiraman C. Rajeshkumar and Sneha S. Lad)

1208.Tetraploa pseudoaristata Rajeshkumar, K.D. Hyde & G. Anand, sp. nov. (contributed by Kunhiraman C. Rajeshkumar and Garima Anand)

1209.Tetraploa thrayabahubeeja Rajeshkumar, K.D. Hyde & G. Anand, sp. nov. (contributed by Kunhiraman C. Rajeshkumar and Garima Anand)

1210.Tetraploa sasicola (Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray.) Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray., Fungal Divers. 63: 253 (2013), new host record from Taiwan (contributed by Anuruddha Karunarathna and Ruvishika S. Jayawardena)


Torulaceae Corda

1211.Torula camporesii Phookamsak, E.F. Yang & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Rungtiwa Phookamsak and Er-Fu Yang)

1212.Torula gaodangensis J. Yang & K.D. Hyde, in Hyde et al., Fungal Divers. 87: 113 (2017), new host record for Yunnan, China (contributed by Er-Fu Yang and Rungtiwa Phookamsak)


Trematosphaeriaceae K.D. Hyde et al.

1213.Falciformispora uttaraditensis Boonmee, Huanraluek & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Saranyaphat Boonmee and Naruemon Huanraluek)


Dothideomycetes, order incertae sedis


Botryosphaeriales C.L. Schoch et al.


Botryosphaeriaceae Theiss. & H. Syd.

1214.Diplodia mutila (Fr.) Mont., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2 1: 302 (1834), new host record (contributed by Pranami D. Abeywickrama)

1215.Diplodia seriata De Not., Mém. R. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2 7: 26 (1845), new host record (contributed by Ishara S. Manawasinghe)


Muyocopronales Mapook, Boonmee & K.D. Hyde


Muyocopronaceae K.D. Hyde

1216.Setoapiospora Mapook & K.D. Hyde, gen. nov. (contributed by Ausana Mapook)

1217.Setoapiospora thailandica Mapook & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ausana Mapook)


Tubeufiales Boonmee & K.D. Hyde


Tubeufiaceae M.E. Barr

1218.Camporesiomyces D.P. Wei & K.D. Hyde, gen. nov. (contributed by De-Ping Wei and Dhanushaka N. Wanasinghe)

1219.Camporesiomyces mali D.P. Wei & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by De-Ping Wei and Dhanushaka N. Wanasinghe)

1220.Camporesiomyces patagoniensis (R.M. Sánchez, A.N. Mill. & Bianchin) D.P. Wei & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov. (contributed by De-Ping Wei and Dhanushaka N. Wanasinghe)

1221.Camporesiomyces vaccinii (Carris) D.P. Wei & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov. (contributed by De-Ping Wei and Dhanushaka N. Wanasinghe)


Venturiales Y. Zhang ter, C.L. Schoch & K.D. Hyde


Sympoventuriaceae Y. Zhang ter, C.L. Schoch & K.D. Hyde

1222.Verruconis mangrovei Devadatha, V.V. Sarma & E.B.G. Jones, sp. nov. (contributed by Bandarupalli Devadatha, V. Venkateswara Sarma and E.B. Gareth Jones)


Dothideomycetes, familyincertae sedis


1223.Eriomycetaceae Huanraluek & K.D. Hyde, fam. nov. (contributed by Kasun M. Thambugala and Naruemon Huanraluek)

1224.Eriomyces Huanraluek, Thambugala & K.D. Hyde, gen. nov. (contributed by Kasun M. Thambugala and Naruemon Huanraluek)

1225.Eriomyces heveae Huanraluek, Thambugala & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Kasun M. Thambugala and Naruemon Huanraluek)


Class Lecanoromycetes O.E. Erikss. & Winka

Subclass Lecanoromycetidae P.M. Kirk et al. ex Miadl. et al.


Caliciales Bessey


Caliciaceae Chevall.

1226.Pyxine berteriana (Fée) Imshaug, Trans. Am. Microsc. 76: 254 (1957), new host record (contributed by Vinodhini Thiyagaraja)


Class Leotiomycetes O.E. Erikss. & Winka


Helotiales Nannf.


Heterosphaeriaceae Rehm

1227.Heterosphaeria patella (Tode) Grev., Scott. crypt. fl. (Edinburgh) 2: 103 (1823), new host reord (contributed by Kunthida Phutthacharoen)


Ploettnerulaceae Kirschst.

1228.Rhexocercosporidium microsporum (Ekanayaka & K.D. Hyde) Phutthacharoen & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov. (contributed by Kunthida Phutthacharoen)

1229.Rhexocercosporidium senecionis Phutthacharoen, Ekanayaka & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Kunthida Phutthacharoen)


Vibrisseaceae Korf

1230.Srinivasanomyces S. Rana & S.K. Singh, gen. nov. (contributed by Sanjay K. Singh and Shiwali Rana)

1231.Srinivasanomyces kangrensis S. Rana & S.K. Singh, sp. nov. (contributed by Sanjay K. Singh and Shiwali Rana)


Class Pezizomycetes O.E. Erikss. & Winka


Pezizales J. Schröt.


Helvellaceae Fr.

1232.Helvella subtinta M. Zeng, Q. Zhao & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ming Zeng and Qi Zhao)


Pyronemataceae Corda

1233.Wilcoxina verruculosa M. Zeng, Q. Zhao & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ming Zeng and Qi Zhao)


Class Sordariomycetes O.E. Erikss. & Winka

Subclass Diaporthomycetidae Senan. et al.


Diaporthales Nannf.


Cryphonectriaceae Gryzenh. & M.J. Wingf.

1234.Eriocamporesia R.H. Perera, Samarak. & K.D. Hyde, gen. nov. (contributed by Rekhani H. Perera and Milan C. Samarakoon)

1235.Eriocamporesia aurantia R.H. Perera, Samarak. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Rekhani H. Perera and Milan C. Samarakoon)


Cytosporaceae

1236.Cytospora fusispora M. Niranjan & V.V. Sarma, sp. nov. (contributed by M. Niranjan and V. Venkateswara Sarma)

1237.Cytospora rosigena Chaiwan, Wanas., Bulgakov & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Napalai Chaiwan)


Diaporthaceae

1238.Diaporthe camporesii Manawasinghe & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ishara S. Manawasinghe and Indunil C. Senanayake)

1239.Diaporthe cynaroidis Marinc., M.J. Wingf. & Crous, CBS Diversity Ser. (Utrecht) 7: 39 (2008), new record of the sexual-asexual connection (contributed by Indunil C. Senanayake)

1240.Diaporthe foeniculina (Sacc.) Udayanga & Castl., in Udayanga et al., Persoonia 32: 95 (2014), new host record from Italy (contributed by Pranami D. Abeywickrama and Indunil C. Senanayake)

1241.Diaporthe nigra Brahmanage & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Rashika S. Brahmanage)


Myrmecridiales Crous


Myrmecridiaceae Crous

1242.Neomyrmecridium guizhouense N.G. Liu, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, sp. nov. (contributed by Ning-Guo Liu)


Phomatosporales Senan. et al.


Phomatosporaceae Senan. & K.D. Hyde

1243.Lanspora cylindrospora Devadatha, V.V. Sarma & E.B.G. Jones, sp. nov. (contributed by Bandarupalli Devadatha, V. Venkateswara Sarma and E.B. Gareth Jones)


Diaporthomycetidae, genus incertae sedis


1244.Pseudoconlarium N.G. Liu, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, gen. nov. (contributed by Ning-Guo Liu and Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu)

1245.Pseudoconlarium punctiforme N.G. Liu, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, sp. nov. (contributed by Ning-Guo Liu and Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu)


Subclass Hypocreomycetidae O.E. Erikss. & Winka


Glomerellales Chadef. ex Réblová et al.


Glomerellaceae Locq. ex Seifert & W. Gams

1246.Colletotrichum hederiicola Jayaward. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ruvishika S. Jayawardena)


Hypocreales Lindau


Bionectriaceae Samuels & Rossman

1247.Acremonium chiangraiense J.F. Li, R.H. Perera & Phookamsak, sp. nov. (contributed by Junfu Li, Rekhani H. Perera and Rungtiwa Phookamsak)

1248.Clonostachys eriocamporesiana R.H. Perera & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Rekhani H. Perera)

1249.Clonostachys eriocamporesii R.H. Perera & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Rekhani H. Perera)


Nectriaceae Tul. & C. Tul.

1250.Mariannaea atlantica A.L. Alves, A.C.S Santos & P.V. Tiago, sp. nov. (contributed by Amanda Lucia Alves, Ana Carla da Silva Santos and Patricia Vieira Tiago)


Subclass Savoryellomycetidae Hongsanan et al.


Conioscyphales Réblová & Seifert


Conioscyphaceae Réblová & Seifert

1251.Conioscypha verrucosa J. Yang & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Jing Yang)


Pleurotheciales Réblová & Seifert


Pleurotheciaceae Réblová & Seifert

1252.Neomonodictys Y.Z. Lu, C.G. Lin & K.D. Hyde, gen. nov. (contributed by Yong-Zhong Lu and Chuan-Gen Lin)

1253.Neomonodictys muriformis Y.Z. Lu, C.G. Lin & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Yong-Zhong Lu and Chuan-Gen Lin)


Savoryellales Boonyuen et al.


Savoryellaceae Jaklitsch & Réblová

1254.Canalisporium aquaticium J. Yang & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Jing Yang)


Subclass Sordariomycetidae O.E. Erikss & Winka


Coniochaetales Huhndorf et al.


Coniochaetaceae Malloch & Cain

1255.Coniochaeta vineae S.K. Huang & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Shi-Ke Huang)


Pseudodactylariales Crous


Pseudodactylariaceae Crous

1256.Pseudodactylaria camporesiana W. Dong, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Wei Dong and Mingkwan Doilom)


Chaetosphaeriales , genera incertae sedis

1257.Neoleptosporella camporesiana R.H. Perera & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Rekhani H. Perera)


Subclass Xylariomycetidae O.E. Erikss & Winka


Amphisphaeriales D. Hawksw. & O.E. Erikss.


Apiosporaceae K.D. Hyde et al.

1258.Arthrinium marii Larrondo & Calvo, Mycologia 82 (3): 397 (1990), new host record from Italy (contributed by Kasun M. Thambugala)


Pseudotruncatellaceae Crous

1259.Pseudotruncatella camporesii Goonas. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ishani D. Goonasekara)


Sporocadaceae Corda

1260.Pseudopestalotiopsis theae (Sawada) Maharachch., K.D. Hyde & Crous, in Maharachchikumbura et al., Stud. Mycol. 79: 183 (2014), new record for Guangdong, China (contributed by Indunil C. Senanayake)


Xylariales Nannf.


Diatrypaceae Nitschke

1261.Diatrypella yunnanensis Brahmanage, Thyagaraja & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Rashika S. Brahmanage)

1262.Fasciatisporaceae S.N. Zhang, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, fam. nov. (contributed by Sheng-Nan Zhang and Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu)

1263.Fasciatispora cocoes S.N. Zhang, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, sp. nov. (contributed by Sheng-Nan Zhang and Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu)


Xylariaceae Tul. & C. Tul.

1264.Astrocystis bambusicola R.H. Perera & K.D. Hyde, in Hyde et al., Index Fungorum 347: 1 (2017), new record from Yunnan, China (contributed by Hong-Bo Jiang and Rungtiwa Phookamsak)


Xylariales , genera incertae sedis

1265.Melanographium phoenicis S.N. Zhang, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, sp. nov. (contributed by Sheng-Nan Zhang and Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu)

1266.Xenoanthostomella Mapook & K.D. Hyde, gen. nov. (contributed by Ausana Mapook)

1267.Xenoanthostomella chromolaenae Mapook & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. (contributed by Ausana Mapook)


Subphylum Saccharomycotina O.E. Erikss. & Winka

Class Saccharomycetes O.E. Erikss. & Winka


Saccharomycetales, genusincertae sedis

1268.Diutina bernali Haelew., Pfliegler, Horváth & Imre, sp. nov. (contributed by Walter P. Pfliegler and Enikő Horváth)

1269.Diutina sipiczkii Pfliegler, Haelew., Horváth & Imre, sp. nov. (contributed by Alexandra Imre and Danny Haelewaters)


Phylum Basidiomycota R.T. Moore

Subphylum Agaricomycotina Doweld

Class Agaricomycetes Doweld

Subclass Agaricomycetidae Parmasto


Agaricales Underw.


Cortinariaceae R. Heim ex Pouzar

1270.Cortinarius ainsworthii Liimat. & Niskanen, sp. nov. (contributed by Kare Liimatainen and Tuula Niskanen)

1271.Cortinarius aurae Niskanen & Liimat., sp. nov. (contributed by Kare Liimatainen and Tuula Niskanen)

1272.Cortinarius britannicus Liimat. & Niskanen, sp. nov. (contributed by Kare Liimatainen and Tuula Niskanen)

1273.Cortinarius heatherae Overall, sp. nov. (contributed by Andy Overall)

1274.Cortinarius scoticus Niskanen & Liimat., sp. nov. (contributed by Tuula Niskanen and Kare Liimatainen)

1275.Cortinarius subsaniosus Liimat. & Niskanen, sp. nov. (contributed by Kare Liimatainen and Tuula Niskanen)


Subclass Auriculariomycetidae Jülich


Auriculariales J. Schröt.


Auriculariaceae Fr.

1276.Adustochaete nivea Alvarenga, sp. nov. (contributed by Renato Lúcio Mendes Alvarenga and Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni)

Introduction

Fungi have been under studied for more than 40 years and species concepts are still confused. This was mainly because of a lack of reliable methods to resolve species taxonomy and reliance on morphological characters and therefore rather subjective classifications (Dayarathne et al. 2016). This meant that when identifying a collection of a taxon, the preferred option meant clumping a species into an existing name (see Than et al. 2008). It is only in the past 15 years that molecular data has provided a better understanding of a species, and this has resulted in a great increase in the number of new species described in recent years (Hyde et al. 2018b, c). Secondly, fungi are neither plants nor animals and thus not studied by many researchers, nor are they common organisms investigated by microbiologists (Hawksworth 1981) and therefore the study of mycology has seen a decline since the 1980s. Thirdly, most previous research was in temperate countries and was on the decline (e.g. at Exeter and Portsmouth Universities and IMI in the UK). In the tropics and many temperate countries, funding for most areas of science was minimal. However, with the rise of Asian and other world economies, more funding has been placed in science in these countries, resulting in an expansion in research, including mycology. This has resulted in many more scientific publications coming out of Asia (see Dai et al. 2015) and Brazil and relatively less from Europe and the USA.

In plant pathology, fungal species were identified to what are now known as species complexes (Jayawardena et al. 2016), however, with the use of molecular data it has become easier to define a species in pathogenic genera (Hyde et al. 2014; Nilsson et al. 2014). Hyde and Alcorn (1993) and Hyde and Philemon (1994) published checklists of the pathogens of northern Australia and the Western Province of Papua New Guinea based solely on morphology and we now suspect that many of the taxa identified, were wrongly named. For example, in the case of Colletotrichum, Hyde and Alcorn (1993) identified several Colletotrichum species, including C. gloeosporioides, which have now been shown to be species complexes. Hyde et al. (2009) and Cai et al. (2009) published papers which were the start of a complete change to the taxonomic understanding of Colletotrichum species predominantly based on sequence data. Therefore, Phoulivong et al. (2010) was able to show that C. gloeosporioides did not occur in the tropics. Subsequent publications (e.g. Cannon et al. 2012; Damm et al. 2013; Huang et al. 2014) resulted in drastic changes in the understanding of the genus. Hyde et al. (2014) provided a “One Stop Shop” for identifying species in the genus and this was updated by Jayawardena et al. (2019a, b, c). Similar advances have taken places in all other plant pathogenic genera, such as Botryosphaeriales (Dissanayake et al. 2016; Phillips et al. 2019), Diaporthe (Dissanayake et al. 2017b), Fusarium (Jayawardena et al. 2019b) and Phyllosticta (Wikee et al. 2013) and it is now essential to use molecular data to identify species in the majority of plant pathogenic genera (Jayawardena et al. 2019a, b, c).

Similarly, many asexual hyphomycetes and coelomycetes have now been linked to the sexual counterparts and renamed with the use of molecular data (Shenoy et al. 2006, 2007, 2010; Wijayawardene et al. 2016a, b; Li et al. 2020). In the past, it was only possible to link asexual morphs if one isolated an ascomycete and it formed a hyphomycete or coelomycete in culture or vice versa (Wijayawardene et al. 2017b). Some links were concluded based on the asexual and sexual morphs growing alongside each other, but these links were not often verified. It also meant that the related sexual and asexual morph had different names in the dual nomenclature system (Hawksworth 2011). Molecular data now allows us to link the asexual and sexual morphs based on comparison of gene sequences. This has led to not only a large number of sexual and asexual morphs being linked, but the Botanical Congress introducing a (at the time revolutionary and disputed) new rule that one fungus species can only have one name (Hawksworth 2011).

With such vast advances in our understanding of fungi and species, it has been possible to classify the fungi in reliable classification schemes. The first outlines for the Ascomycota were provided by Eriksson (1982), periodically updated (Eriksson and Hawksworth 1991, 1993), Myconet, Outlines by Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2007, 2010), and more recently Notes on Ascomycota (Wijayawardene et al. 2017a) and the Outline of Ascomycota (Wijayawardene et al. 2018a). Most recently, outlines of basal fungi (Wijayawardene et al. 2018b) and Basidiomycota (He et al. 2019) have been published and will finally culminate in the first outline of the Kingdom fungi (Wijayawardene et al. in press).

The next major question to be researched and resolved is what “is a species”. Previously, morphology (Hyde et al. 2011), chemotaxonomy (Kuhnert et al. 2017), analysis of ITS sequence data, analysis of multi-genes (rDNA and protein coding genes) and more recently whole genomes have advanced the understanding of species concepts. However, the final decision as to introduce a new species or not, is still mainly subjective and relies on genes available, morphology, taxon sampling in phylogenetic tree and interpretation of nucleotide differences (Jeewon and Hyde 2016). As more and more molecular data becomes available and obtaining whole genomes becomes cheaper, we will have more data than we can possibly handle. Therefore, selected studies are needed to establish what “is a species”, but the results are unlikely to establish strict rules across all groups of fungi, but only recommendations for good science.

Although fungi play vital roles in all ecosystems, as decomposers, epiphytes, endophytes, symbionts of plants, as well as animal and plant pathogens, they have been relatively understudied (Hyde et al. 2018a, c). As plant and human pathogens they seriously impact on our daily lives (Hyde et al. 2018b) and require enhanced study. Fungi also have an important place in biotechnological applications as has been shown in the recent paper of Hyde et al. (2019b), which demonstrated 50 application areas of the fungi. As mycorrhizae, biocontrol agents and food and beverage components, more research is needed on these important organisms. Similarly, Asian culture and the demand for consuming different mushrooms from those consumed in Europe and the USA, as well as medicinal mushroom products (Thongbai et al. 2015; Bandara et al. 2019; Jumbam et al. 2019), means there is a great potential for industrial utilization and profit from any mushroom research (Hyde et al. 2019b). Several recent reviews have shown that consumption of medicinal mushrooms is likely to have beneficial impacts on health and thus important as medicinal products (De Silva et al. 2012a, b; Wisitrassameewong et al. 2012).

The knowledge of species, genera and higher taxa will only increase if we collect, isolate, sequence and provide new data on the world’s fungi. By providing more data on a species it will be possible to resolve what is a species, genus or higher taxon. By providing isolates it will be possible to carry out assays to establish any potential benefit or novel compounds produced. By collecting plant pathogens it will be possible to better resolve species and make recommendations for quarantine and plant breeding. The Fungal Diversity Notes series (e.g. Tibpromma et al. 2018), Fungal Planet series (Crous et al. 2017), Mycosphere notes series (Hyde et al. 2018b; Pem et al. 2019b), Cryptogamie Mycologie series (Buyck et al. 2017), Botanica marina series (Jones et al. 2019a), Fungal Systematics and Evolution series (Song et al. 2019) and Asian Journal of Mycology notes series (Hyde et al. in press) do all of the above and will significantly help to improve our knowledge of the fungi.

The scientific community is moving towards a web-based provision of knowledge and in this regard mycologists are developing websites that are keeping abreast of developments. The early databases (Index Fungorum and MycoBank) provide a nomenclature for the fungi, while recent additions provide data on the fungal groups, genera and species (Jones et al. 2019b, Monkai et al. 2019; Pem et al. 2019a). This trend will continue and expand so that more information becomes digital.

The present paper is the 11th in the series of Fungal Diversity Notes with entries 1151–1276. The paper introduces new taxa, new data, and other taxonomic contributions on various groups of fungi. This special issue of Fungal Diversity, in its 100th volume, is a tribute to Erio Camporesi, a prolific collector of fungi in Italy, where many of the earlier studies on fungi were initiated (Saccardo 1912).

Materials and methods

Materials and methods follow the previous fungal diversity notes (Hyde et al. 2016; Tibpromma et al. 2017; Wanasinghe et al. 2018; Phookamsak et al. 2019). Taxa described in this study were mainly collected from Italy and some Asian countries viz. China, India and Thailand, as well as in some other European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom), North American (Panama) and South American (Brazil) countries. Taxa were described and illustrated based on morphological features coupled with phylogenetic analyses performed by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference criteria. Colour codes followed the Methuen Handbook of Colour (Kornerup and Wanscher 1978). The new taxa are justified based on guidelines of Jeewon and Hyde (2016).


Ascomycota R.H. Whittaker

Notes: We follow the latest treatments and updated accounts of Ascomycota in Wijayawardene et al. (2017a, 2018a).


Subphylum Pezizomycotina O.E. Erikss. & Winka


Class Dothideomycetes O.E. Erikss. & Winka

Notes: We follow the latest treatments and updated accounts of Dothideomycetes in Hyde et al. (2013) and Liu et al. (2017a)


Subclass Dothideomycetidae P.M. Kirk et al.


Capnodiales Woron.

Notes: We follow the latest treatments and updated accounts of Capnodiales in Chomnunti et al. (2011, 2014) and Hyde et al. (2013). The evolution of Capnodiales with other fungal epiphytes using molecular clock dating was discussed in Hongsanan et al. (2016).


Dissoconiaceae Crous & de Hoog

Notes: Dissoconiaceae was introduced by Crous et al. (2009) to accommodate Dissoconium de Hoog, Oorschot & Hijwegen and Ramichloridium Stahel ex de Hoog. Species of Dissoconiaceae is characterised by immersed, globose, pseudothecial ascomata, bitunicate asci, ellipsoid-fusoid, 1-septate, hyaline ascospores, subcylindrical, subulate or lageniform to cylindrical conidiophores and, ellipsoid to obclavate or globose, 0–1-septate, olivaceous-brown conidia (Crous et al. 2009).


Dissoconium de Hoog, Oorschot & Hijwegen

Notes: Dissoconium was established based on D. aciculare de Hoog et al. as the type (de Hoog et al. 1983). The genus is characterised by medium brown, subcylindrical conidiophores and solitary, pale olivaceous-brown, smooth, ellipsoid to obclavate or globose, 0–1-septate conidia. There are no sexual morphs reported for the genus (Crous et al. 2007b, 2009). In this study, we report the sexual morph of D. eucalypti on Laurus nobilis from Italy for the first time with an updated phylogenetic tree for Dissoconium (Fig. 2).


Dissoconium eucalypti Crous & Carnegie, in Crous et al., Fungal Divers 26(1): 157 (2007)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 06961; Fig. 1

Fig. 1
figure 1

Dissoconium eucalypti (MFLU 16-2906). a Herbarium material. b, c Appearance of ascomata on host substrate. d Section through ascoma. e Section through the peridium. f Section through ostiole. gj Asci. kp Ascospores. (np in 5% KOH). Scale bars: c = 500 µm, d = 200 µm, ej = 50 µm, kp = 20 µm

Holotype: AUSTRALIA, New South Wales, Morpeth Park, Plantation, Bonalbo, 152º 36′ 47″ E, 28º 46′ 3″, on leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis, 8 February 2006, A. Carnegie, CBS-H 19770, cultures ex-type CPC 13004 = CBS 120039, CPC 13005–13006.

Associated with dead branches of Laurus nobilis. Appearing as black raised, spots, each surrounded by a thin, yellow border. Sexual morphAscomata up to 180–315 µm high, 240–340 µm wide, pseudothecial, single, globose, immersed becoming erumpent, dark brown, ostiolate. Ostiole 63–90 µm high, papillate, periphysate. Peridium 22–36 µm wide, composed of 3–4 layers of thick-walled, medium brown cells of textura angularis, with yellow vacuoles, inner layer of flattened, hyaline cells of textura angularis. Pseudoparaphyses lacking. Asci 90–105 × 15–28 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 96 × 19.8 μm, n = 15), 8-spored, bitunicate, fasciculate, subsessile, cylindrical-clavate to broadly clavate, straight or slightly incurved. Ascospores 16.3–28.8 × 7.1– 10.6 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 24.3 × 8.6 μm, n = 35), bi-seriate above, uni-seriate below, filling the ascus almost completely, ellipsoid-fusoid, with subobtuse ends, 1-septate, equilateral or inequilateral, constricted at the septum, with 2 larger guttules and many small guttules, straight to slightly curved, hyaline, with a mucoid sheath. Asexual morph See Crous et al. (2007b).

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena, Via Lombardini - Forlì, dead aerial branch of Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae), 24 November 2016, E. Camporesi, IT3170 (MFLU 16-2906).

Known host and distribution: Eucalyptus tereticornis (Australia), Malus domestica (United States) (Farr and Rossman 2020).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN699134, LSU = MN699129.

Notes: Our new collection groups with ex-type strain of Dissoconium eucalypti (CBS 120039) which was isolated from Eucalyptus tereticornis in Australia (Crous et al. 2007b), with high statistical support (96% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 2). However, there were no sexual morphs have been reported for D. eucalypti or Dissoconium (Crous et al. 2007b). Our new fungus resembles Dissoconiaceae in having pseudothecial, immersed, globose, unilocular, papillate ascomata and ellipsoid-fusoid, 1-septate, hyaline ascospores (Crous et al. 2009). DNA sequences of D. eucalypti strains (MFLU 16-2906 and CBS 120039) differ in 2 nucleotides of the ITS region (0.4%, no gaps), while LSU sequences were identical. However, molecular data does not provide evidence for delimiting the new collection from D. eucalypti (Jeewon and Hyde 2016). Hence, it is reported here as the sexual morph of D. eucalypti.

Fig. 2
figure 2

Phylogram generated from RAxML analysis based on combined ITS and LSU sequence data of Dissoconium isolates. Related sequences were obtained from GenBank. Sixteen taxa are included in the analyses, which comprise 1290 characters including gaps. Single gene analyses were carried out and tree topologies of the tree and clade stability were compared. Tree is rooted to Uwebraunia musae CBS 122453, U. dekkeri CBS 567.89, U. commune CBS 114238 and U. australiensis CBS 120729. Tree topology of the ML analysis was similar to the BI. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 2658.535271 is presented. The matrix had 115 distinct alignment patterns, with 25.48% of undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows; A = 0.228902, C = 0.267138, G = 0.292715, T = 0.211244; substitution rates AC = 1.455206, AG = 1.069034, AT = 0.782623, CG = 1.123134, CT = 4.226060, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 958.405199. RAxML bootstrap support values ≥ 70% (BT) and Bayesian posterior probabilities ≥ 0.99 (BYPP) are given at the nodes. The scale bar indicates 0.02 changes. The isolates obtained in this study are in blue and ex-types are in black bold


Mycosphaerellaceae Lindau

Notes: Mycosphaerellaceae is one of the largest ascomycetous families representing more than 5900 known species (Crous et al. 2009; Hongsanan et al. in press). Members of this family are commonly referred to as cercosporoid fungi and comprise dematiaceous, holoblastic asexual morphs and mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs (Braun et al. 2016; Videira et al. 2017). See Braun et al. (2014, 2015, 2016), Videira et al. (2017) and Hongsanan et al. (in press) for more details.


Pseudocercospora Speg.

Notes: Pseudocercospora was introduced based on P. vitis (Lév.) Speg. (type species) which was recognized as a foliar pathogen of grapevines by Spegazzini (1911). Pseudocercospora is a diverse genus which are mostly reported as plant pathogens associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts (Crous et al. 2013; Videira et al. 2017; Wanasinghe et al. 2018). Species in this genus can occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, subtropical and tropical regions (Crous et al. 2013a; Farr and Rossman 2020). Based on phylogenetic analyses of a combined ITS and LSU sequence dataset (Fig. 4), P. maetaengensis is introduced from unidentified fallen dead leaves.


Pseudocercospora maetaengensis J.F. Li & Phookamsak, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556890; Facesoffungi number: FoF 07054; Fig. 3

Fig. 3
figure 3

Pseudocercospora maetaengensis (MFLU 14-0206, holotype). a, b Appearance of fungal colonies on host substrate. c, eg Close up conidiophores and conidiogenous cells. d Conidiophores. ho Conidia. p Germination of conidia. qr Culture. Scale bars: a = 1 cm, b = 50 µm, cd, eg = 10 µm, hp = 5 µm, qr = 0.5 cm

Etymology: Name reflects the location from which it was collected, Mae Taeng, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Holotype: MFLU 14-0206.

Saprobic on fallen dead leaves. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphSynnemata 100–130 μm high, 5.9–8 μm wide, erect, simple, unbranched, dark brown to black, comprising various conidiophores twisted together in synnemata, with bubble-like, tightly interwoven, branched hyphae, compacted into an elongate bundle. Conidiophores 100–130 μm long × 1.8–3.5 μm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 124 × 2.6 μm, n = 10). Conidiogenous cells 2.5–3 μm long × 1.6–2 μm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 2.8 × 1.8 μm, n = 20), monoblastic, integrated, terminal, determinate or percurrent, cylindrical, doliiform, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled. Conidia 13–28 μm long × (2.5–)2.7–3.6(–4) μm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 21 × 3.1 μm, n = 20), acrogenous, solitary, hyaline, ellipsoidal, clavate, 2–4-septate, dry, simple, straight, curved, fusiform, smooth- and thin-walled.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on PDA within 14 h and germ tubes produced from top cells. Colonies growing on PDA, hairy or cottony, grey to dark grey, reaching 5 mm in 20 days at 25 °C, mycelium superficial, effuse, grey to dark grey hyphae; Asexual spores and sexual spores were not formed within 60 days.

Material examined: THAILAND, Chiang Mai Province, Mae Teang District, Mushroom Research Center (M.R.C.), on unidentified fallen dead leaves, 25 November 2013, X. Zeng (MFLU 14-0206, holotype), ex-type living culture MFLUCC 14-0411.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN648323, LSU = MN648328, SSU = MN648320, TEF1-α = MN821071.

Notes: Morphologically, Pseudocercospora maetaengensis resembles P. vitis in having septate, straight or slightly curved conidia, with a rounded apex and conidiophores grouped in synnema (Ellis 1971). However, P. maetaengensis is unique in its short, dark synnemata and smaller, less septate, subhyaline, fusiform conidia. Phylogeny based on a combined ITS and LSU sequence dataset reveals P. maetaengensis as an independent lineage distinct from P. vitis and further differs from other species in Pseudocercospora with significant support (77% ML, 0.98 BYPP; Fig. 4). Therefore, a new species, P. maetaengensis is established.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Phylogram generated from the best scoring of the RAxML tree based on combined ITS and LSU sequence data of taxa in Pseudocercospora. Pallidocercospora heimii (CPC 11716) is selected as the outgroup taxon. The best RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 10821.117889 is presented. RAxML analysis yielded 609 distinct alignment patterns and 19.20% of undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.248806, C = 0.241445, G = 0.281063, T = 0.228686, with substitution rates AC = 1.648825, AG = 3.373595, AT = 1.202983, CG = 0.838400, CT = 6.421832, GT = 1.000000. The gamma distribution shape parameter alpha = 0.165747. Bayesian posterior probabilities (BYPP) from MCMC were evaluated with final average standard deviation of split frequencies = 0.008723. Bootstrap support values for maximum likelihood (ML) equal to or greater than 70%; BYPP equal to or greater than 0.95 are given above or below the nodes as ML/BYPP. Type sequences are in black bold and newly generated sequences are indicated in blue bold


Subclass Pleosporomycetidae C.L. Schoch et al.


Hysteriales Lindau

Notes: The order Hysteriales was introduced by Engler and Prantl (1897). This order includes single family Hysteriaceae that is characterised by hysteriform apothecia. They are mostly saprobic and widely distributed (Jayasiri et al. 2018). We follow the latest treatment and updated accounts of Hysteriales in Hyde et al. (2013) and Jayasiri et al. (2018).


Hysteriaceae Chevall.

Notes: Hysteriaceae was introduced by Chevallier (1826). Currently this family includes 14 genera (Wijayawardene et al. 2018a). Taxa in this family are mostly found as saprobes on dead plant material and are characterised by erumpent or superficial, hysterothecial or navicular ascomata, sometimes branched or discoid. The exciple is composed of cells of textura angularis and is carbonaceous, 2–4-layered, thick, stout, rarely thin. Hamathecium composed of pseudoparaphyses with tips sometimes darkened or branched above the asci. Asci are clavate to cylindrical, fissitunicate, with a distinct apical chamber. Ascospores are ellipsoid, fusoid or clavate, hyaline or brown, variously septate, smooth or ornamented, sometimes with a sheath. Asexual morphs are pycnidial or hyphomycetous (Jaklitsch et al. 2016; Jayasiri et al. 2018). Based on phylogenetic analyses coupled with morphological characteristics, we introduce two novel species, Rhytidhysteron camporesii Ekanayaka & K.D. Hyde and R. erioi Ekanayaka & K.D. Hyde in this study. Furthermore, Hysterobrevium constrictum (N. Amano) E. Boehm & C.L. Schoch is also reported from Yunnan, China for the first time.


Hysterobrevium E. Boehm & C.L. Schoch

Notes: Hysterobrevium was introduced by Boehm et al. (2009). The genus is characterised by navicular hysterothecia with a prominent longitudinal slit, bitunicate, cylindrical to clavate asci and pigmented or hyaline, septate ascospores (Boehm et al. 2009). Currently, six species are accommodated in this genus (Index Fungorum 2020).


Hysterobrevium constrictum (N. Amano) E. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, in Boehm et al., Stud. Mycol. 64: 64 (2009)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 06461; Fig. 5

Fig. 5
figure 5

Hysterobrevium constrictum (KUN-HKAS102101). a Substrate. b Ascomata on wood. c Cross section of an ascoma. d Pseudoparaphyses. eg Cylindrical asci. hn Muriform ascospores. Scale bars: c = 200 µm, d = 30 µm, eg = 25 µm, hn = 10 µm

Gloniopsis constricta N. Amano, Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 24(3): 289 (1983)

Holotype: JAPAN, Yunohana Onsen, Tateiwa-mura, Minaimiaizu-gun, Fukushima Pref., Y. Doi, 18 September 1982, F-237162.

Saprobic on dead stems. Sexual morphAscomata 350–450 µm high, 700–1000 µm long, apothecial, arising singly or in small groups, sessile, slightly erumpent from the substrate. Receptacle cupulate, black, hysteriform. Disc concave, black when fresh. Margins black. Excipulum 35–50 µm wide, ectal excipulum carbonaceous, thick-walled, black cells of textura globulosa to angularis, medullary excipulum composed of narrow, long, thin-walled, hyaline to brownish cells of textura porrecta. Hymenium hyaline. Pseudoparaphyses numerous, branched, septate. Asci 115–130 × 25–32 µm, 8-spored, short pedicellate, rounded at the apex, J-, croziers abscent at the asci base. Ascospores 27–35 × 10–12 µm, multi-seriate, hyaline, smooth-walled, ellipsoid to fusoid, muriform. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Kunming City, Kunming Institute of Botany, Botanical garden, on dead stems, 24 May 2018, A.H. Ekanayaka, HC13 (KUN-HKAS102101).

Known host and distribution: Lonicera xylosteum, Populus tremula, Quercus robur (Sweden), on decaying wood (Thailand, Japan, China and New Zealand) (Boehm et al. 2009; Farr and Rossman 2020).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN429070, LSU = MN429073, SSU = MN420986, TEF1-α = MN442088.

Notes: This species is characterised by sessile, erumpent, naviculate apothecia, cylindrical asci and hyaline, muriform ascospores. In the comparison of ITS sequence, our new strain shows 93% (443/478 bp) similarity to Hysterobrevium mori (Schwein.) E. Boehm & C.L. Schoch (MFLUCC 14-0520) but differs from 35 base pairs including eight gaps. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence dataset showed that our strain forms a robust clade with H. constrictum (GKM426N) with high support (96% ML, 0.99 BYPP; Fig. 8). Moreover, our strain is also similar to the description of H. constrictum provided by Boehm et al. (2009) except in having slightly larger ascospores. We therefore, identify our taxon as H. constrictum from Yunnan, China.


Rhytidhysteron Speg.

Notes: The genus was introduced by Spegazzini (1881). Taxa are characterised by hysterothecial ascomata, which are sometimes branched or discoid and erumpent or superficial. The exciple is composed of carbonaceous cells of textura angularis and hamathecium is composed of pseudoparaphyses and their tips are sometimes darkened or branched above asci. Asci are clavate to cylindrical, fissitunicate, with a distinct apical chamber. Ascospores are ellipsoid to fusoid, light brown to dark brown, septate and smooth or ornamented (Thambugala et al. 2016; Jayasiri et al. 2018). Twenty-one species are listed in the genus in Index Fungorum (2020).


Rhytidhysteron camporesii Ekanayaka & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556783; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06459; Fig. 6

Fig. 6
figure 6

Rhytidhysteron camporesii (KUN-HKAS 104277, holotype). a Substrate. b Ascomata on wood. c Cross section of an ascoma. d Vertical section of the ascoma at margin. e Apically swollen paraphyses. f, g Cylindrical asci. hj Ellipsoid ascospores. Scale bars: b = 500 µm, c = 400 µm, d = 100 µm, eg = 50 µm, hj = 10 µm

Etymology: Referring to the significant contribution Erio Camporesi made to mycology

Holotype: KUN-HKAS 104277

Saprobic on dead stems. Sexual morphAscomata 500–650 µm high, 800–1100 µm long (\( \bar{x} \) = 570.1 × 1002.4 µm, n = 10), apothecial, arising singly or in small groups, short stipitate, erumpent from the substrate. Receptacle cupulate, black, hysteriform. Disc concave covered by margins. Margins black, slightly dentate. Ectal excipulum 65–95 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 71.9 µm, n = 10) carbonaceous, composed of blackish cells of textura globulosa to angularis. Medullary excipulum 19–22 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 20.4 µm, n = 10), composed of narrow, long, thin-walled, hyaline to brownish cells of textura porrecta. Hymenium hyaline. Paraphyses 3–5 µm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 4.4 µm, n = 20) at the apices, numerous, septate, branched at the base, exceed asci in length, apically swollen, slightly branched, slightly granulated and pigmented, pigments are brownish in water, magenta in KOH, apices glued together with gelatinous material to form pseudo-epithecium. Asci 165–175 × 13–15 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 171.8 × 13.5 µm, n = 30) 8-spored, short pedicellate, long, cylindrical, rounded at the apex, J-, croziers abscent at the asci base. Ascospores 25–28 × 9–11 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 26.1 × 10.4 µm, n = 40), 1-seriate, hyaline to light brown, 1–2-septate when immature, dark brown, 3-septate at maturity, smooth-walled, ellipsoidal to fusiform, slightly rounded or pointed at both ends, guttulate. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Kunming City, Kunming Institute of Botany, Botanical garden, on dead stems of unidentified woody plant, 14 April 2016, A.H. Ekanayaka, HC 005 (KUN-KHAS 104277, holotype).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN429069, LSU = MN429072, TEF1-α = MN442087.

Notes: The new taxon is characterised by short stipitate apothecia, apically swollen, granulated and pigmented paraphyses, ascospores with slightly rounded and pointed ends. In the comparison of ITS sequences, our new strain shows 94% (486/517 bp) similarity to Rhytidhysteron rufulum (Spreng.) Speg. (MFLUCC 12-0568) and 94% (480/510 bp) to R. thailandicum Thambug. & K.D. Hyde (MFLUCC 14-0503) but differs from R. rufulum in 31 base pairs including six gaps and from R. thailandicum in 30 base pairs including five gaps. Phylogenetically this new species formed an independent lineage with strong statistical support (86% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 8). Rhytidhysteron camporesii is morphologically similar to R. neorufulum Thambug. & K.D. Hyde, but they are different in having sessile apothecia, and longer and highly guttulate ascospores in R. neorufulum (Thambugala et al. 2016). Rhytidhysteron tectonae Doilom & K.D. Hyde is also similar to R. camporesii, but differs in having apically swollen, granulated and pigmented paraphyses (Doilom et al. 2017).


Rhytidhysteron erioi Ekanayaka & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556788; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06460; Fig. 7

Fig. 7
figure 7

Rhytidhysteron erioi (MFLU 16-0584, holotype). a Substrate. b, c Ascomata on wood. d Cross section of an ascoma (mounted in KOH). e Close up of a vertical section of the ascoma at margin. f Septate paraphyses. gj Cylindric-clavate asci. kn Ellipsoid ascospores. Scale bars: b, c = 500 µm, d = 200 µm, e = 100 µm, f = 75 µm, gj = 40 µm, kn = 10 µm

Etymology: Referring to the significant contribution Erio Camporesi made to mycology

Holotype: MFLU 16-0584

Saprobic on dead stems. Sexual morphAscomata 270–360 µm high, 600–1200 µm long, apothecial, arising singly, substipitate, superficial or slightly erumpent from the substrate. Receptacle cupulate, convex or flat, black when fresh. Disc orange when fresh, become magenta with the presence of KOH. Margins black when fresh, dentate. Ectal excipulum 55–75 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 63.3 µm, n = 10) composed of large, thin-walled, dark brown cells of textura angularis to textura globulosa. Medullary excipulum 14–20 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 17.3 µm, n = 10) composed of hyaline cells of textura porrecta. Hymenium hyaline to brownish, enclosed in a thick gelatinous matrix. Paraphyses 2–2.5 µm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 2.3 µm, n = 2 0) wide at the apices, numerous, filiform, septate, slightly branched at the base, slightly swollen at the apices, apices glued together to develop pseudo-epithecium, gelatinous material include yellowish to brownish pigments which turns magenta in KOH. Asci 140–200 × 9–16 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 184.3 × 14.5 µm, n = 30) 8-spored, bitunicate, short pedicellate, cylindrical, rounded at the apex, J-. Ascospores 22–28 × 9–11 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 27.1 × 10.3 µm, n = 40), 1-seriate, ellipsoid, hyaline to light brown, aseptate, with wrinkled walls when young, dark brown, 3-septate, smooth- and thick-walled, with guttulate. Asexual morph Undetermined (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8
figure 8

Phylogram generated from a maximum likelihood analysis of sequences of Hysteriaceae Based on LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence dataset. The newly generated nucleotide sequences were compared against the GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) database using the Mega BLAST program. Related sequences were obtained from GenBank. Thirty-eight strains were included in the sequence analyses, which comprised 3194 characters including gaps (LSU: 1–937, ITS: 938–1443, SSU: 1444–2464, TEF1-α: 2465–3194). Glonium circumserpens (CBS 123343) was used as the outgroup taxon. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 11291.754630 is presented. The matrix had 782 distinct alignment patterns, with 43.58% of undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows; A = 0.248, C = 0.235, G = 0.283, T = 0.233; substitution rates AC = 1.339408, AG = 2.211853, AT = 1.176124, CG = 0.711220, CT = 7.949676, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.140525. Bayesian posterior probabilities equal or greater than 0.90 BYPP are given as the first set of numbers above the nodes and Bootstrap support values for ML equal or greater than 50% are given as the second set of numbers above the nodes. Newly generated sequences are in blue. Ex-type strains are indicated in bold

Material examined: THAILAND, Chiang Rai Province, Doi Pui, on unidentified decaying wood, 19 June 2015, A.H. Ekanayaka, HD 022 (MFLU 16-0584, holotype).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN429068, LSU = MN429071, TEF1-α = MN442086.

Notes: Rhytidhysteron erioi is characterised by substipitate apothecia, paraphyses with slightly swollen apices without pigments and 3-septate ascospores. In the comparison of ITS data, our new strain shows 95% (466/492 bp) similarity to R. rufulum (MFLUCC 12-0568) and R. mangrovei (MFLUCC 18-1113) and 94% (461/492 bp) similarity to R. neorufulum (MFLUCC 13-0221), but differs in 26 base pairs including four gaps, 22 base pairs including five gaps and 31 base pairs including five gaps. Our strain is phylogenetically close to R. hysterinum (Dufour) Samuels & E. Müll. and R. thailandicum. However, R. hysterinum differs from our species in having 1-septate ascospores (Samuels and Müller 1979). Rhytidhysteron thailandicum differs in having yellowish to brown ascospores with smooth walls when both mature and immature (Thambugala et al. 2016). Rhytidhysteron mangrovei differs in having smaller asci (110–150 × 9.4–10 μm) and not having wrinkled ascospores at a young stage (Kumar et al. 2019).


Pleosporales Luttrell ex M.E. Barr

Notes: Among the Dothideomycetes, Pleosporales is the largest and most diverse order. This comprises over 4700 species (Ariyawansa et al. 2018) classified in more than 400 genera and 75 families (Wijayawardene et al. 2018a). The taxonomic circumscription of Pleosporales has changed frequently in recent years due to the addition of large numbers of families, genera and species.


Amorosiaceae Thambug. & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Amorosiaceae was established by Thambugala et al. (2015) to accommodate two genera namely Amorosia Mantle & D. Hawksw. and Angustimassarina Thambug., Kaz. Tanaka & K.D. Hyde. The family can easily be recognized by its solitary or gregarious ascomata, 8-spored, bitunicate cylindrical to cylindric-clavate, pedicellate asci and fusiform to cylindrical, or ellipsoidal-fusiform, 1(–3)-septate hyaline ascospores which sometimes appear as light-brown when mature (Thambugala et al. 2015) The asexual morph of Amorosia is hyphomycetous. Species of Amorosiaceae resemble species of Massariaceae Nitschke, Lophiostomataceae Sacc., Floricolaceae Thambug., Kaz. Tanaka & K.D. Hyde and Sporormiaceae Munk in having cylindrical to cylindric-clavate asci as well as ellipsoidal-fusiform ascospores. However, they differ from these families in having hyphomyceteous asexual morphs and appear to grow within ascomata of other ascomycetes and may be mycoparasites. We follow the latest treatment of Amorosiaceae in Thambugala et al. (2015) and updated accounts of taxa in Amorosiaceae in Wijayawardene et al. (2018a) and Hyde et al. (2019a). In this paper, we introduce a new species, Angustimassarina camporesii in Amorosiaceae.


Angustimassarina Thambug., Kaz. Tanaka & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Angustimassarina was introduced by Thambugala et al. (2015) with Angustimassarina populi Thambug. & K.D. Hyde as the type species. The morphological characters that define the genus are solitary or gregarious, immersed to semi-immersed ascomata, central, cylindrical, papillate ostioles usually composed of pseudoparenchymatous cells, peridium composed of several layers of dark brown to lightly pigmented cells of textura angularis, 8-spored cylindrical to cylindric-clavate asci and hyaline to brown fusiform to cylindrical or ellipsoidal-fusiform ascospores (Thambugala et al. 2015). The asexual morph is undetermined (Wijayawardene et al. 2017b). Eleven species epithets are registered under Angustimassarina (Index Fungorum 2020). Species of Angustimassarina can be found worldwide especially in Germany and Italy.


Angustimassarina camporesii D. Pem, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556796; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06465; Fig. 9

Fig. 9
figure 9

Angustimassarina camporesii (MFLU 18-0057, holotype). a, b Appearance of ascomata on host surface. c Vertical section through the ascoma. d Peridium. e Hamathecium. fi Asci. jm Ascospores. n Ascospore in Indian ink, showing sheath. Scale bars: a = 2000 μm, b = 1000 μm, c, d = 50 μm, e = 5 μm, fi = 25 μm, jn = 10 μm

Etymology: The epithet honours Mr. Erio Camporesi who collected this fungus.

Holotype: MFLU 18-0057

Saprobic on dead aerial stem of Galium sp. Sexual morphAscomata 130–240 × 130–190 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 177.8 × 170.7 µm, n = 20), semi-immersed to immersed with flat at the base, solitary or in small groups, globose to subglobose, visible as black dots on the host surface, conspicuous at the surface, ostiolate, papillate, black. Ostiole crest-like, papillate, immersed in ascomata, with a pore-like opening. Peridium 15–21 µm wide, thin comprised of dark brown to pale brown 3–5 layer of cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising 1–2 µm wide, numerous, septate, hyaline, smooth, pseudoparaphyses, attached to the base, longer than asci. Asci 62–88 × 10–13 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 77.1 × 11.2 µm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindric-clavate, slightly curved, long with a club-shaped pedicel, with apex rounded with a minute ocular chamber, smooth-walled. Ascospores 15–18 × 4–5 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 17.1 × 4.5 µm, n = 20), overlapping 2–3-seriate at the centre and apex,1-seriate at the base, fusiform, hyaline, 1-septate at the centre, with 4–5 large guttules, enlarged cell near the central septum, constricted at the septum, conical at both ends, smooth-walled, surrounded by a mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Borgo Paglia – Cesena, on dead aerial stem of Galium sp. (Rubiaceae), 26 March 2018, E. Camporesi, IT 3603 (MFLU 18-0057, holotype).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN244197, LSU = MN244167, SSU = MN244173, TEF1-α = MN593307.

Notes: Our new collection is morphologically and phylogenetically (Fig. 10) related to Angustimassarina premilcurensis Tibpromma, Camporesi & K.D. Hyde, but differs in having smaller ascomata (138–241 × 138–190 μm versus 231–238 × 290–311 μm) and smaller ascospores (15–18 × 4–5 μm versus 19–23 × 4–7 μm). A comparison of ITS and TEF1-α nucleotide shows 7.95% and 2.5% differences between A. camporesii and A. premilcurensis. We, therefore, introduce A. camporesii as a new species in Angustimassarina.

Fig. 10
figure 10

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence data representing Amorosiaceae and the outgroup. Related sequences are taken from Hyde et al. (2019). Seventeen strains are included in the combined analyses which comprise 2701 characters (733 characters for LSU, 825 characters for SSU, 463 characters for ITS, 677 characters for TEF1-α) after alignment. Eremodothis angulata (CBS 610.74) in Sporormiaceae (Pleosporales) is used as the outgroup taxon. Single gene analyses were also performed to compare the topology and clade stability with combined gene analyses. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian inference analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood values of − 4904.871734 is presented. The matrix had 162 distinct alignment patterns, with 27.94% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.241624, C = 0.242160, G = 0.272716, T = 0.243500; substitution rates AC = 0.606042, AG = 1.263408, AT = 1.243145, CG = 0.610875, CT = 5.612203, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 3.242368. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood (ML) equal to or greater than 50% and clade credibility values greater than 0.90 (the rounding of values to 2 decimal proportions) from Bayesian inference analysis labeled on the nodes. Ex-type strains are in bold and black, the new isolate is indicated in bold and blue


Camarosporidiellaceae Wanas., Wijayaw., Crous & K.D. Hyde

Notes: The family Camarosporidiellaceae was erected by Wanasinghe et al. (2017a) based on both morphology and multi-gene analysis, with Camarosporidiella Wanas., Wijayaw., K.D. Hyde as the type genus of this family and belongs to the order Pleosporales. This species can be saprobic, endophytic or pathogenic on leaves and wood (Wanasinghe et al. 2017a). The sexual morph is characterised by cylindrical asci with (2–)4–8-spored, ellipsoidal, muriform ascospores with 3–8 transverse septa and 1–2 longitudinal septa with a coelomycetous asexual morph (Wanasinghe et al. 2017a). Twenty-two epithets are listed in Index Fungorum (2020). We introduce a new species of Camarosporidiella isolated from Coronilla emerus based on morphology and phylogeny.


Camarosporidiella Wanas., Wijayaw. & K.D. Hyde

Notes: The genus Camarosporidiella was erected by Wanasinghe et al. (2017a) to accommodate C. caraganicola (Phukhams. et al.) Phukhams., Wanas. & K.D. Hyde. The members can be saprobic, endophytic or pathogenic on leaves and wood in terrestrial habitats (Wanasinghe et al. 2017a). The features of Camarosporidiella are cucurbitaria-like, fissitunicate, cylindrical asci containing eight ascospores with muriform, mostly ellipsoidal, 3–8-transverse septa, and without a mucilaginous sheath; the asexual morph has brown to dark brown, phragmosporous to muriform macroconidia and microconidia when present are oblong or ellipsoidal and hyaline (Wanasinghe et al. 2017a).


Camarosporidiella camporesii Tibpromma & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556781; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06383; Fig. 11

Fig. 11
figure 11

Camarosporidiella camporesii (MFLU 19-0296, holotype). a Appearance of ascomata on host substrate. b Section of ascoma. c Peridium. d Close up of ostiole. e Pseudoparaphyses. f, g Asci. hj Ascospores. k Germinating ascospore. Scale bars: b = 100 μm, c, d = 20 μm, e = 5 μm, f, g = 20 μm, hj = 5 μm, k = 10 μm

Etymology: Named in honour of Erio Camporesi, who is the best fungi collector from Italy and in recognition of his immense contribution to mycology.

Holotype: MFLU 19-0296

Saprobic on dead branch of Coronilla emerus. Sexual morphAscomata 370–500 × 340–430 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 411 × 379 μm, n = 5), superficial to semi-immersed, globose to subglobose, solitary, scattered, conspicuous at the surface, uniloculate, black, ostioles, without papilla. Peridium 35–80 μm wide, thick-walled, comprising subhyaline to yellow–brown cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium 1.5–3 μm wide, comprising numerous, filamentous, branched, septate, pseudoparaphyses. Asci 100–190 × 10–15 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 158 × 13 μm, n = 20), 4(6)–8-spored, mostly 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, pedicellate, with minute ocular chamber. Ascospores 19–25 × 8–13 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 21 × 10 μm, n = 20), 1-seriate, sometimes overlapping, muriform, ellipsoidal to subfusiform, slightly curved, upper part wider than the lower part, 3–5 transversely septate, with 1–3 vertical septa, constricted at the central septum, slightly constricted at the septa, initially subhyaline, becoming yellow–brown to brown at maturity, with narrowly rounded ends, with guttules, thick and smooth-walled, lacking a mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA at room temperature reaching 9 cm in 6–8 weeks, circular with curved edges, white mycelium raised from the medium surface, not sporulating in culture within two months.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Monte Colombo-Predappio, on dead aerial branch of Coronilla emerus (L.) Lassen (Fabaceae), 25 November 2018, E. Camporesi, IT4136 (MFLU 19-0296, holotype), ex-type living cultures, KUMCC 19-0204, KUMCC 19-0205.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN654369, LSU = MN417515, SSU = MN654373, TEF1-α = MN735983 (KUMCC 19-0204); ITS = MN654369, LSU = MN417516, SSU = MN654373, TEF1-α = MN735984 (KUMCC 19-0205).

Notes: Our new species is placed in Camarosporidiella (Camarosporidiellaceae), and well-separated from other species in Camarosporidiella (Fig. 12). Camarosporidiella camporesii is similar to C. caraganicola (Phukhams.) Phukhams., Wanas. & K.D. Hyde in having ellipsoidal ascospores with conical or narrow at the ends but differs in its ascomata and vertical septa. Camarosporidiella camporesii has ascomata without papilla and 1–3 vertically septate ascospores, while C. caraganicola has rough or hairy ascomata with 2–4 vertically septate ascospores (Wanasinghe et al. 2017a).

Fig. 12
figure 12

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined ITS, TEF1-α, LSU and SSU sequence dataset. Related sequences were obtained from Wanasinghe et al. (2017a). One hundred and two strains are included in the combined sequence analysis, which comprise 3466 characters with gaps. Pleospora herbarum (CBS 191.86) is used as the outgroup taxon. Tree topology of the ML analysis was similar to the BI analysis. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 7863.756111 is presented. The matrix had 433 distinct alignment patterns, with 12.36% of undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.241851, C = 0.243745, G = 0.267231, T = 0.247173; substitution rates AC = 1.388341, AG = 3.299126, AT = 2.098924, CG = 0.473406, CT = 7.522186, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.020000. Bootstrap support values for ML equal to or greater than 60% and Bayesian posterior probabilities equal to or greater than 0.95 BYPP are given above the nodes. Newly generated sequences are in blue

In a BLASTn search on NCBI GenBank, the closest matches of ITS sequence of KUMCC 19-0204 and KUMCC 19-0205 are 99.65% identical to Camarosporidiella eufemiana Wanas., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde strain MFLUCC 17-0207 (MF434145), while the closest matches with the TEF1-α sequence were with 99.89% similarity with C. mirabellensis Wanas., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde strain MFLU 17-228 (MF434426). We also compared ITS and TEF1-α nucleotides and found that they are different 6 bp (1.09%) in 563 ITS (+5.8S) nucleotides and 26 bp (2.73%) in 951 TEF1-α nucleotides.


Coniothyriaceae W.B. Cooke

Notes: The family Coniothyriaceae was introduced by Cooke (1983) to accommodate Coniothyrium spp. Kirk et al. (2008) synonymized Coniothyriaceae with Leptosphaeriaceae M.E. Barr. De Gruyter et al. (2013) showed that C. palmarum Corda is distinct from Leptosphaeriaceae and they reinstated the family Coniothyriaceae in Pleosporales. Some Phoma species were also transferred to Coniothyrium Corda as they group in Coniothyriaceae. Three genera were accommodated in this family viz. Coniothyrium, Hazslinszkyomyces Crous & R.K. Schumach and Ochrocladosporium Crous & U. Braun (Wijayawardene et al. 2018a). Foliophoma Crous was added to the family by Crous and Groenewald (2017).


Foliophoma Crous

Notes: The monotypic genus Foliophoma was introduced by Crous and Groenewald (2017) with Foliophoma fallens (Sacc.) Crous as the type species. The latter was obtained from culture. The genus is characterised by eustromatic conidiomata, uni- to multi-loculate with 1–3 ostioles and conidiogenous cells with periclinal thickening or percurrent proliferation at the apex (Crous and Groenewald 2017). We introduce a new species Foliophoma camporesii isolated from dead branch of Maclura pomifera in Italy.


Foliophoma camporesii D. Pem, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556797; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06466; Fig. 13

Fig. 13
figure 13

Foliophoma camporesii (MFLU 17-1006, holotype). a, b Appearance of conidiomata on host surface. c Close up of conidioma. dg Conidiogenesis. hm Conidia. Scale bars: a, b = 200 μm, c = 100 μm, d, e, g = 10 μm, f, hm = 5 μm

Etymology: Named in honour of Erio Camporesi, a prolific collector of fungi from Italy and in recognition of his immense contribution to mycology.

Holotype: MFLU 17-1006

Saprobic or pathogenic on dead aerial stem of Maclura pomifera. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphConidiomata 40–47 × 40–69 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 43.3 × 48 µm, n = 20), pycnidial, globose to subglobose, ellipsoidal, or irregular, immersed to semi-immersed, carbonaceous. Pycnidial walls 15–40 μm, comprising 1–2-layered of cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells 2–4 × 2–3 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 2.6 × 2.2 µm, n = 20), phialidic with periclinal thickening or percurrent proliferation at apex, hyaline, smooth, globose to short cylindrical. Conidia 2–6 × 3–5 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 4.9 × 3.9 µm, n = 20), ovoid to ellipsoidal, hyaline when immature, brown at maturity, aseptate, smooth- and thin-walled.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA, 20–25 mm diam. after 7 days at 16 °C, margin regular, circular, aerial mycelia thinly hairy, white and flat; reverse grey and white at the margin.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Predappio Alta-Predappio, on dead aerial stem of Maclura pomifera (Moraceae), 5 May 2017, E. Camporesi, IT 3345 (MFLU 17-1006, holotype), ex-type living cultures, MFLUCC 18-1129.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN244200, LSU = MN244170, SSU = MN244176.

Notes: Strain MFLUCC 18-1129 was isolated from dead stem of Maclura pomifera in Italy. Foliophoma camporesii has a close phylogenetic affinity to F. fallens, the type species of Foliophoma (Fig. 14). It differs from F. fallens in having smaller conidiomata (40–47 × 40–69 μm versus 120–250 μm) and brown conidia. ITS nucleotide comparisons show a difference of 12 base pairs or 2% difference between our new taxon and F. fallens. We, therefore, introduce F. camporesii as the second species in Foliophoma.

Fig. 14
figure 14

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, SSU and ITS sequence data representing Coniothyriaceae and the closely related families in Pleosporales. Related sequences are taken from Crous and Groenewald (2017). Thirty-four strains are included in the combined analyses which comprise 2573 characters (885 characters for LSU, 1023 characters for SSU and 665 characters for ITS) after alignment. Didymella exigua (CBS 183.55) and Ascochyta pisi (CBS 126.54) in Didymellaceae (Pleosporales) are used as the outgroup taxa. Single gene analyses were also performed to compare the topology and clade stability with combined gene analyses. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian Inference analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood values of − 8723.938065 is presented. The matrix had 590 distinct alignment patterns, with 27.94% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.251588, C = 0.216344, G = 0.270099, T = 0.261970; substitution rates AC = 1.615107, AG = 3.847488, AT = 2.932232, CG = 0.678880, CT = 7.305403, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.512104. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood (ML) equal to or greater than 50% and clade credibility values greater than 0.90 (the rounding of values to 2 decimal proportions) from Bayesian inference analysis labeled on the nodes. Ex-type strains are in bold and black, the new isolate is indicated in bold and blue


Dictyosporiaceae Boonmee & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Boonmee et al. (2016) introduced this family and its members usually occur on decaying wood and plant debris in terrestrial and freshwater habitats (Boonmee et al. 2016; Liu et al. 2017c; Hyde et al. 2018b). The family currently comprises 12 genera. The new species Dictyosporium muriformis is introduced from decaying wood from a small freshwater stream in Guizhou, China and a new record of Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis is also reported from Brachiaria mutica in Thailand.


Dendryphiella Bubák & Ranoj

Notes: Ranojevic (1914) established Dendryphiella and designated D. interseminata (Berk. & Ravenel) Bubák as the type species. Dendryphiella is a hyphomycetous genus included in the family Dictyosporiaceae (Liu et al. 2017c; Hyde et al. 2018b) and 17 species are currently recognized in the genus (Liu et al. 2017c; Hyde et al. 2018b; Iturrieta-González et al. 2018; Index Fungorum 2020).


Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis N.G. Liu & K.D. Hyde, Mycosphere 9 (2): 287 (2018)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 03897; Fig. 15

Fig. 15
figure 15

Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis (MFLU 18-0757). a, b Colonies on substrate. di Conidiophores and developing conidia. j – m Conidia. n Germinating conidium. Scale bars: c g = 50 µm, hm = 10 µm, n = 20 µm

Holotype: THAILAND, Phitsanulok Province, on decaying wood, 10 October 2016, N. Liu, J4 (MFLU 17-2651), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 17-2513.

Saprobic on Brachiaria mutica. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphColonies on natural substrate superficial, effuse, dark brown to black. Conidiophores 150–300 μm long, 4–6 μm wide, macronematous, mononematous, fasciculate, dark brown at base, slightly paler towards the apex, thick-walled, erect, straight or slightly flexuous, finely verruculose, septate, unbranched or rarely branched. Conidiogenous cells 22–38 × 3.5–8 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 31 × 6 μm, n = 20), polytretic, terminal, later becoming subterminal, proliferating asymmetrically, integrated, brown, finely verrucose, enlarged at apex. Conidia (10 –)16–31 × 5–9 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 24 × 7 μm, n = 60), solitary to catenate, when catenate in acropetal chain, fusiform to ellipsoidal, rounded at apex, truncate at base, pale brown to brown or dark brown, 3-septate, constricted at the medium septum, slightly constricted at other septa, thick-walled, verrucose.

Culture characteristics: Colonies growing on MEA reaching 25 mm diam. after 10 days at 25 °C, circular, umbonate to flat, moderately dense, surface white, grayish white at the margin, reverse dark yellowish to blackish brown at the middle, white at the margin, smooth surface with edge entire to slightly curled.

Material examined: THAILAND, Chiang Rai Province, Mueang District, on dead culms of Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf (Poaceae), 28 January 2017, N. Huanraluek, Gkk1 (MFLU 18-0757; HKAS 97496), living culture MFLUCC 17-2242.

Known host and distribution: On decaying wood and dead culms (Thailand) (Liu et al. 2017c).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MH118115, LSU = MH109525.

Notes: Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis was described in Thailand on decaying wood (Hyde et al. 2018b). This is the first report of D. phitsanulokensis on Brachiaria mutica. The new collection (MFLU 18-0757) and the type material (MFLU 17-2651; Hyde et al. 2018b) are morphologically very similar. In addition, there is also no phylogenetic divergence in the strain MFLUCC 17-2242 compared to the ex-type strain of D. phitsanulokensis (Fig. 17). Two Dendryphiella species have been so far recorded from Thailand (Liu et al. 2017c; Hyde et al. 2018b).


Dictyosporium Corda

Notes: Corda (1836) introduced Dictyosporium based on the type D. elegans Corda. The sexual morph of Dictyosporium species is characterised by subglobose ascomata, bitunicate cylindrical asci, and hyaline, fusiform, uniseptate ascospores with or without a sheath, while the asexual morph is characterised by micronematous to macronematous conidiophores and cheiroid, digitate complanate conidia with several parallel rows of cells (Goh et al. 1999; Boonmee et al. 2016; Yang et al. 2018a). Dictyosporium species have a worldwide distribution and have been reported from both terrestrial and aquatic habitats (Goh et al. 1999; Tanaka et al. 2015; Boonmee et al. 2016; Yang et al. 2018a).


Dictyosporium muriformis N.G. Liu, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557096; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06707; Fig. 16

Fig. 16
figure 16

Dictyosporium muriformis (MFLU 19-2853, holotype). a, b Colonies in natural substrates. ce Conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidia. fi Conidia. j Germinated conidium. Scale bars: ci = 5 μm, j = 10 μm

Etymology: Name reflects the muriform conidia.

Holotype: MFLU 19-2853

Saprobic on decaying wood. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morph Hyphomycetous. Colonies on natural substrate sporodochial, scattered, black, glistening. Conidiophores semi-micronematous, mononematous, subhyaline to pale brown, aseptate, cylindrical, smooth-walled, thin-walled. Conidiogenous cells 3–3.7 μm wide, monoblastic, integrated, terminal, subhyaline to pale brown, enlarge at apex. Conidia 20–30 × 11–14.5 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 24.5 × 14.5 μm, n = 20), solitary, acrogenous, cheiroid, median brown, not complanate, guttulate, consisting of 14–27 cells arranged in (3–)4(–5) closely compact rows, 2–7-euseptate in each column.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on water agar within 24 h. Germ tubes produced from the base of conidia. Mycelia superficial, dense, circular, with entire edge, greyish brown from above and below.

Material examined: CHINA, Guizhou Province, Dushan, on decaying wood in a bank of a small freshwater, 6 July 2018, N.G. Liu, DS024 (MFLU 19-2853, holotype), ex-type living culture, GZCC 20-0006.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MT002304, LSU = MN897834, SSU = MN901117, TEF1-α = MT023011, RPB2 =  MT023014.

Notes: Phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 17) show that Dictyosporium muriformis is basal to D. meiosporum Boonmee & K.D. Hyde, and D. tetrasporum L. Cai & K.D. Hyde and constitute an independent lineage within Dictyosporium. The conidia of D. muriformis resemble those of other species which consist mainly of four compact arms. However, D. nigroapice and D. tubulatum have conidial appendages which are absent in D. muriformis. Moreover, the conidia of D. muriformis are thinner than those of D. tetrasporum (11–14.5 versus 16–21.5 μm), and wider than those of D. meiosporum (11–14.5 versus 6–8.5 μm).

Fig. 17
figure 17

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence data representing Dictyosporiaceae (Dothideomycetes). Sixty strains are included in the combined analyses which comprise 2364 characters (862 characters for LSU, 580 characters for ITS, 922 characters for TEF1-α) after alignment. Periconia igniaria (CBS 379.86) in Periconiaceae (Pleosporales) is used as the outgroup taxon. Single gene analyses were also performed to compare the topology and clade stability with combined gene analyses. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood values of − 13815.246477 is presented. The matrix had 844 distinct alignment patterns, with 31.91% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.234018, C = 0.251157, G = 0.271122, T = 0.243703; substitution rates AC = 1.698556, AG = 3.692510, AT = 2.823016, CG = 0.799026, CT = 9.194311, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.186936. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood (ML) equal to or greater than 75% and clade credibility values greater than 0.95 from Bayesian-inference analysis labeled on the nodes. The new isolates are indicated in bold and blue


Didymellaceae Gruyter et al.

Notes: The family Didymellaceae comprises economically important plant pathogens, such as the causal agents of blackleg and ascochyta blight and various endophytic, fungicolous, lichenicolous and saprobic taxa (McDonald and Peck 2009; Aveskamp et al. 2010; de Gruyter et al. 2013; Chen et al. 2015, 2017; Doilom et al. 2018). The family Didymellaceae was established by de Gruyter et al. (2009). The type genus is Didymella Sacc. The family was established in order to accommodate the type species Didymella exigua (Niessl) Sacc., together with some Phoma Fr. or phoma-like genera which formed a strong familial clade in the phylogenetic tree (Hyde et al. 2013; Chen et al. 2017). Species of the family Didymellaceae are characterised by immersed, seldom superficial, separate or gregarious, globose to flattened, ostiolate, ascomata, with 2–5(–8) layers of pseudoparenchymatous cells. Asci are bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical to clavate or saccate, 8-spored and arise from a broad hymenium among pseudoparaphyses. Ascospores are frequently hyaline or brownish and 1-septate to multi-septate (Jayasiri et al. 2017). Correct species identification in this family is difficult, mainly relying on morphology and plant host association (Aveskamp et al. 2010; Chen et al. 2015, 2017). Chen et al. (2017) provided a revision of Didymellaceae, considering all genera and proposed a new classification based on an initial phylogeny of LSU, ITS, RPB2 and TUB2 sequence data of 108 didymellaceous taxa, containing total 19 recognized genera. Consequently, 27 genera are included in the family Didymellaceae. The asexual morphs are coelomycetous or hyphomycetous which are formed on natural substrates or culture (Woudenberg et al. 2009; Chen et al. 2015).


Ascochyta Lib.

Notes: Ascochyta was introduced by Libert (1830) with A. pisi Lib. as type species. The peculiar morphological characters are the globose locules with perithecial protuberances immersed in the stroma. Species are mostly endophytes, pathogens and saprobes and associated with a number of hosts worldwide (Wijayawardene et al. 2017a; Farr and Rossman 2020). Ascochyta was accommodated in Didymellaceae (Hyde et al. 2013; Kirk et al. 2013). The asexual morphs of Ascochyta are coelomycetes (Chen et al. 2015). There are around 400 species epithets in the genus Ascochyta, however, the genus needs revision as more than 1000 records are available. We report Ascochyta medicaginicola from Medicago sp. in Italy and A. pisi is also reported as a new host record from Dioscorea communis (Dioscoreaceae) in Italy.


Ascochyta medicaginicola Qian Chen & L. Cai, Stud. Mycol. 82: 187 (2015)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 03938; Fig. 18

Fig. 18
figure 18

Ascochyta medicaginicola (MFLU 17- 0826). a Appearance of fruiting bodies on host substrate. b Close up view of conidiomata. c Section through conidioma. d Close up of ostiole. e Section through pycnidial wall. f Immature and mature conidia attached to conidiogenous cells. g Conidium. h Germinated conidium. Scale bars: a = 1000 µm, b = 200 µm, c = 50 µm, dh = 10 µm

Replaced synonym: Phoma medicaginis Malbr. & Roum., in Roumeguère, Fungi Selecti Galliaei Exs., Cent. 37: no. 3675 (1886)

Type: USA, Minnesota, from Medicago sativa, September 1953, M.F. Kernkamp, CBS H-16487, ex-type culture CBS 112.53.

Saprobic on dead aerial stem of Medicago sp. Conidiomata visible as round to oval dark brown to black dots on the host surface. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morph Coelomycetous. Conidiomata 100–200 μm high, 80–200 μm diam., pycnidial, solitary, scattered or gregarious, globose to subglobose, semi-immersed to immersed, sometimes erumpent, unilocular, thin-walled, with a single papillate, centrally located ostiole. Pycnidial walls composed 3–4 layers, similarly dense at the apex and base, with ostiole thicker than other parts, outer 1–2 layers dark brown to black, inner 1–2 layers hyaline, with thin-walled cells of textura angularis. Conidiogenous cells 4–7 × 2–4 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 6 × 3 µm, n = 20), hyaline, phialidic, globose. Conidia 5–10 × 1–4 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 8 × 3 µm, n = 20), ellipsoidal to cylindrical, rounded at both ends, hyaline, straight or slightly bent at the middle, aseptate, thin- and smooth-walled, with guttulate.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA reaching 80 mm diam. after 7 days at 25 °C, circular colony, olivaceous to gray greenish, concentrically zonate, effuse mycelium, entire edge, reverse colony black in middle, grey olivaceous at the edge, without any diffusible pigments. Pycnidia globose to subglobose, without a distinct ostiole, glabrous, conidial matrix off whitish. Conidia sub cylindrical, aseptate.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Forlì-Via Pietro Nenni, on dead aerial stem of Medicago sp. (Fabaceae), 9 March 2017, E. Camporesi, IT 3281 (MFLU 17-0826), living culture, MFLUCC 18-0095, KUMCC 17-0326

Known host and distribution: Medicago sativa (Canada Czech Republic, France, USA), Melilotus albus (Russia), Trichosanthes dioica (India) (Chen et al. 2015; Jayasiri et al. 2017; Farr and Rossman 2020).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN944408, LSU = MT020375.

Notes: We have collected the fungal isolate from dead aerial stem of Medicago sp. and it was identified as Ascochyta medicaginicola with the support from both morphology and phylogeny (Fig. 27). Our isolate clustered with A. medicaginicola (CBS 404.65, BRIP450.51, CBS 112.53) and another strain of A. medicaginicola var. medicaginicola Q. Chen & L. Cai (CBS 316.90) in the combined LSU, ITS, RPB2 and TUB2 sequence phylogeny with 98% ML and 0.98 BYPP statistical support. This is the first record of A. medicaginicola from Medicago sp. in Italy.


Ascochyta pisi Lib., Pl. crypt. Arduenna, fasc. (Liège) 1(nos 1-100): no. 59 (1830)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 06808; Fig. 19

Fig. 19
figure 19

Ascochyta pisi (MFLU 18-0904). a Ascomata on dead host surface of Dioscorea communis. b Longitudinal section of ascoma. c Longitudinal section of ostiole. d Longitudinal section of peridial wall. e Pseudoparaphyses. fh Immature to mature asci. i Arrangement of the ascospores. jl Ascospores. m Germinating ascospore. n, o Colonies on PDA (n = above part, o = lower part). Scale bars: ac = 100 μm, d, fi, n = 50 μm, e, jm = 20 μm

Septoria leguminum var. pisorum (Lib.) Desm., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 19: 344. 1843.

= Didymella pisi Chilvers et al., Mycol. Res. 113: 396. 2009.

Epitype: NETHERLANDS, Venlo, from Pisum sativum, M.M.J. Dorenbosch, HMAS 246705, MBT202502, ex-epitype culture CBS 122785 = PD 78/517; isotype: BELGIUM, from pods of Pisum sativum, BR 5020059493320.

Saprobic on dead stem of Dioscorea communis. Sexual morphAscomata 100–150 × 300–350 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 120 × 250 µm, n = 5), semi-immersed, solitary, globose to subglobose with long neck, uni-loculate, conspicuous and appear as black dots on host surface, shiny. Ostiole central. Ostiolar neck 100–130 µm long, 90–95 µm wide, papillate, filled with dark brown to hyaline cells. Peridium 45–60 µm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 54 µm, n = 5) at the upper-most region of vertical wall, comprising of 3–5 cell layers, outermost layer composed dark brown cells of textura globulosa, inner layer composed light brown to hyaline cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising numerous, 2.7–4.4 µm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 3.35 µm, n = 20), filamentous, septate, pseudoparaphyses, branching and anastomosing between and above the asci. Asci 120–240 × 17–24 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 149.7 × 21.4 µm, n = 15), 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindric-clavate, short pedicellate, rounded at the apex, with a conspicuous ocular chamber. Ascospores 21–49 × 8–12 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 29.8 × 9.4 µm, n = 20) 1-seriate, hyaline, fusiform, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, acute at the apices, smooth, thin-walled, guttulate, lower cell is slightly wider than the upper cell. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Ascospores germinating on PDA within 24 h from single spore isolation. Colonies on PDA reaching 25–30 mm diam. after one week at 16 °C, circular, entire edge, white, with dense, convex with papillate surface, brown in reverse.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Pianetto-Galeata, on a dead hanging stem of Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin (Dioscoreaceae), 10 March 2018, E. Camporesi, IT3777 (MFLU 18- 0904), living culture MFLUCC 18-1351.

Known host and distribution: Pisum sativum (Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, USA, Washington), Dioscorea communis (Italy, Province of Forlì-Cesena), Juglans regia (Netherlands) as well as various hosts worldwide (Chilvers et al. 2009; Chen et al. 2015; Farr and Rossman 2020; this study).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN640976, LSU = MN640975, TUB2 = MN650642.

Notes: Ascochyta pisi is a species complex which causes ascochyta blight disease mainly on Pisum sativum (Chilvers et al. 2009). The sexual morph of Ascochyta has been referred to Didymella and Mycosphaerella (Corlett 1981; Peever et al. 2007; Tibpromma et al. 2017). The holotype (WSP 71448) and isotype (BPI 878440, K 157110) material of A. pisi are available (Chilvers et al. 2009). The phylogeny based on a combined LSU, ITS, RPB2 and TUB2 sequence dataset (Fig. 27) showed that our strain is sister to the strain CBS 122750 and clusters with other representative strains (CBS 122751, CBS 126.54, CBS 108.49) and the ex-type strain of A. pisi (CBS 122785). These isolates were collected from Pisum sativum in different localities, except the strain CBS 108.49 which was isolated from Juglans regia in Netherlands. Our isolate shares similar morphological characters to the type of A. pisi (Chen et al. 2015). Both isolates are characterised by scattered groups or individually scattered ascomata, 8-spored, cylindrical asci and hyaline, fusiform, 1-septate ascospores. However, the ascospores of our new collection are longer and slightly wider than the type (HMAS 246705) (Chen et al. 2015). This could be due to environmental factors. In addition, the hamathecium of our collection comprises numerous filamentous, septate, pseudoparaphyses, ostiole is conspicuous with a long neck and asci show a deep ocular chamber (Fig. 19) while in HMAS 246705, the hamathecial elements are lacking, the ostiole is inconspicuous and the ocular chamber in the asci is shallow (Chen et al. 2015). As per the guidelines of Jeewon and Hyde (2016) we have analyzed nucleotide differences within the rRNA gene region for further clarification. In comparison of ITS regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) from 422 nucleotides there is 1 bp (0.23%) difference between MFLUCC 18-1351 and CBS 122750 strains. LSU rDNA region has 2 bp (0.24%) differences from 832 bp. In considering morpho-molecular data analysis, we conclude that our new collection is another record of Ascochyta pisi and also a new host record on Dioscorea communis (Dioscoreaceae) in Italy.


Didymella Sacc. ex Sacc.

Notes: Didymella was emended by Chen et al. (2015) to accommodate Peyronellaea and several other associated phoma-like species. They are pathogenic and saprobic on many crops and plants (Chen et al. 2015). We introduce a new species belonging to genus Didymella and a new host record.


Didymella camporesii Manawasinghe & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556895; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06802; Fig. 20

Fig. 20
figure 20

Didymella camporesii (JZB380040, holotype). a, b Appearance of conidiomata on the host surface. ce Cross section through conidiomata on host. f, g Conidia from natural substrate. h Conidioma on PDA. i Pycnidial wall. j Conidia sporulated on PDA. k Upper view of colony on PDA. l Reverse view of colony on PDA. Scale bars: a, b = 100 µm, cj = 10 μm

Etymology: Name reflects the collector of the specimens, Mr Erio Camporesi

Holotype: JZBH380040

Saprobic or necrotrophic on Amorpha fruticosa. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphConidiomata 125–149 μm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 74.5 μm, n = 20) on host submerged, pycnidial, solitary or confluent, pycnidial solitary or confluent, subglobose, glabrous or with some hyphal outgrows, produced on the agar surface or immersed. Pycnidial walls 11–16.8 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 13.4 μm, n = 10) textura angularis, 5–8 layered, thick, outer walls pigmented. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells phialidic, hyaline, smooth, ampulliform. Conidia 8–4 × 1.5–2.6 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 1.9 × 5.2 μm, n = 40), on host cylindrical, smooth- and thin-walled, hyaline, aseptate. On culture allantoid to fabiform, smooth- and thin-walled, hyaline, aseptate.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA, reach 40 mm diam. after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C, margin regular, densely covered by floccose, and yellowish-green mycelia, immersed to submersed thin mycelial mat. Reverse initially yellowish, with age it becomes black, yellowish at margins.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena, Fiumana di Predappio, on the dead aerial branch of Amorpha fruticosa L. (Fabaceae), 15 December 2015, E. Camporesi, IT 2743 (ZB380040, holotype), ex-type living culture, JZB380040.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN648211, LSU = MN640406, RPB2 = MN984253, TUB2 = MN537432.

Notes: Didymella camporesii was isolated from dead and dying twigs and branches of Amorpha fruticosa in Forlì- Cesena, Italy. The characters of conidia and colony (Fig. 20) match the species concept of Didymella (Chen et al. 2015). The species identified in the present study is sister to Didymella macrophylla Qian Chen, Crous & L. Cai (CGMCC 318357) with 99% ML and 1.00 BYPP (Fig. 27). Didymella macrophylla has larger conidia (3.5–5.5 × 1.5–2.5 μm) than the current taxon (Chen et al. 2017). In pairwise nucleotide comparisons of type species of Didymella macrophylla and current taxon (JZB380040), there are 1.25% nucleotide differences in LSU (882 nucleotides) and 1.64% nucleotide difference in ITS (486 nucleotides). However, in the protein-coding genes, 2.12% nucleotide difference was observed for TUB2 across 330 nucleotides and 2.34% nucleotide difference was observed in RPB2 across 597 nucleotides. This is the first report of Didymella on Amorpha fruticosa (Farr and Rossman 2020).


Didymella macrostoma (Mont.) Qian Chen & L. Cai, in Chen et al., Stud. Mycol. 82: 177 (2015)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 02502; Fig. 21

Fig. 21
figure 21

Didymella macrostoma (JZB380045). a Appearance of conidiomata on the host. b Section through the conidiomata. c Pycnidial wall and immature conidia attached to conidiogenous cell. d, e Mature conidia. Scale bars: a = 100 μm, d, e = 10 μm

Phoma macrostoma Mont., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 11: 52 (1849)

Saprobic on dead aerial stem of Origanum vulgare. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morph Coelomycetous. Conidiomata 120–160 μm diam., black initially immersed, becoming erumpent through the host epidermis. Pycnidial walls composed of dark 3– 4 layers, thick-walled cells of textura angularis, outer 1–2 layers dark brown to black, inner 1–2 layers hyaline. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells 4–10 μm long × 3–8 μm wide, hyaline, phialidic, ampulliform to cylindrical, smooth. Conidia 5–8 × 3.5–5 μm wide, aseptate, ellipsoidal, with several small, scattered guttules.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], San Savino di Predappio, on dead aerial stem of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), 22 April 2018, E. Camporesi, IT 3845 (JZB380045).

Known host and distribution: Acer pseudoplatanus (Switzerland), Ailanthus altissima (Italy), Larix decidua (Germany), Malus sylvestris (Netherlands) (Farr and Rossman 2020).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN944409, LSU = MT020376.

Notes: The isolate obtained from dead aerial stem of Origanum vulgare was identified as Didymella macrostoma with support from both morphology and phylogeny. Our strain clusters with the reference strain of D. macrostoma (CBS 223.69), in the combined LSU, ITS, RPB2 and TUB2 sequence phylogeny with 100% ML and 1.00 BYPP statistical support (Fig. 27). This is the first record of Didymella macrostoma from Origanum vulgare in Italy.


Neodidymelliopsis Qian Chen & L. Cai

Notes: Neodidymelliopsis belongs to the family Didymellaceae (de Gruyter et al. 2009) and was introduced by Chen et al. (2015) to accommodate a small number of species formerly included in Ascochyta, Didymella and Phoma (Chen et al. 2015). The type species is Neodidymelliopsis cannabis (G. Winter) Qian Chen & L. Cai which was found on dead stem tip of Urtica dioica L. in the Netherlands. The genus is characterised by pycnidial, solitary conidiomata, hyaline, smooth conidiogenous cells, oblong to cylindrical hyaline conidia, sometimes with guttules. The sexual morph is undetermined. Ten species are accommodated in Neodidymelliopsis: N. achlydis L.W. Hou, Crous & L. Cai, N. cannabis (G. Winter) Q. Chen & L. Cai, N. farokhinejadii Ahmadp. & Mehr.-Koushk., N. longicolla L.W. Hou, Crous & L. Cai, N. moricola Chethana, Bulgakov & K.D. Hyde, N. negundinis Manawasinghe, Camporesi & K.D. Hyde, N. polemonii (Cooke) Q. Chen & L. Cai, N. ranunculi W.J. Li, Camporesi & K.D. Hyde N. sambuci Manawas., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde and N. xanthina (Sacc.) Q. Chen & L. Cai (Index Fungorum 2020).


Neodidymelliopsis camporesii D. Pem, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556798; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06468; Fig. 22

Fig. 22
figure 22

Neodidymelliopsis camporesii (MFLU 18-0929, holotype). a, b Appearance of conidiomata on host surface. c Vertical section through the conidioma. d Pycnidial wall. e Conidiogenesis. fj Conidia. k Germinating conidia. l, m Culture characteristics on MEA (l = above view, m = reverse view). Scale bars: a = 500 μm, b = 100 μm, c = 50 μm, d, k = 15 μm, e, f = 10 μm, gj = 5 μm

Etymology: Name reflects the collector of the specimens, Mr Erio Camporesi.

Holotype: MFLU 18-0929

Saprobic or pathogenic on dead aerial stem of Galium sp. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphConidiomata 93–117 × 68–227 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 100 × 150.8 µm, n = 20) pycnidial, globose to subglobose, ellipsoidal, or irregular, superficial to immersed solitary or confluent, ostiolate with an elongated neck. Pycnidial walls 11–15 μm, pseudoparenchymatous, comprising 1–2-layer of cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores indistinct. Conidiogenous cells 1–3 × 1.2–3.1 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 2.4 × 2.1 µm, n = 20), annelidic, hyaline, smooth, flask-shaped, ampulliform to short cylindrical. Conidia 8–12 × 2–4 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 10.8 × 3.5 µm, n = 20), smooth- and thin-walled, oblong, with rounded ends, sometime base obtuse, hyaline 1-septate, slightly constricted at the septum, slightly guttulate.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA, 30–35 mm diam. after 7 days at 16 °C, margin regular, aerial mycelia white and woolly, greenish olivaceous, floccose; reverse dark brown, saffron near the margin.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Borgo Paglia- Cesena, on dead aerial stem of Galium sp. (Rubiaceae), 26 March 2018, E. Camporesi, IT3786 (MFLU 18-0929, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 18-1136.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN244199, LSU = MN244169, SSU = MN244175, TUB2 = MN879321.

Notes: Isolate MFLU 18-0929 obtained from dead aerial stem of Galium sp. was identified as a new species of Neodidymelliopsis, with support from both morphology and phylogeny (Figs. 22, 27). This species forms an independent lineage, clustered with the type strain of N. longicolla (CBS 382.96), N. farokhinejadii (SCUA4, SCUA6EZ) and N. ranunculi (JZB380046, MFLUCC 13-0490, MFLU 16-1870) in the combined LSU, ITS, RPB2 and TUB2 phylogeny (100% ML, 1.00BYPP; Fig. 27). Neodidymelliopsis camporesii differs from the closely related species, N. longicolla, in having larger conidiomata (200–490 × 150–360 μm versus 93–117 × 68–227 μm), narrower conidiophores (1–3 × 1.2–3.1 μm versus 4.5–6.5 × 4.5–6 μm) and shorter, hyaline ascospores (8–12 × 2–4 μm versus 12–15 × 4–7 μm) compared to pale brown ascospores of N. longicolla. We, therefore, introduce N. camporesii as a new species in Neodidymelliopsis.


Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi W.J. Li & K.D. Hyde, in Hyde et al., Fungal Diversity: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-016-0373-x, [41] (2016)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 02349; Fig. 23

Fig. 23
figure 23

Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi (MFLU 17-0980) a, b Appearance of conidiomata on the host. c Section through the conidioma. d Pycnidial wall. e Immature conidia attached to conidiogenous cell. fh Mature conidia. Scale bars: a = 200 μm, b = 100 μm, fh = 10 μm

Holotype: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Castrocaro Terme e Terra del Sole, near Converselle, on dead stem of Ranunculus sp. (Ranunculaceae), 2 December 2012, E.Camporesi, IT-936 (MFLU 16-1870), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 13-0490.

Saprobic on dead aerial branches of Bougainvillea spectabilis. Conidiomata visible as round to oval small black dots on the host surface. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morph Coelomycetous. Conidiomata 120–180 μm high, 30–80 μm diam., pycnidial, solitary, scattered or gregarious, globose to subglobose, semi-immersed to immersed, sometimes erumpent, unilocular, thin-walled, with a single papillate, centrally located ostiole. Pycnidial walls composed 3–4 layers, similarly dense at the apex and base, with ostiole thicker than other parts, outer 1–2 layers dark brown to black, inner 1–2 layers hyaline, with thin-walled cells of textura angularis. Conidiogenous cells 2–4 μm long × 1–2 μm wide, hyaline, phialidic, globose. Conidia 7–9 × 1–3 μm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 8 × 2.5 µm, n = 20), ellipsoidal to cylindrical, rounded at both ends, hyaline, straight or slightly bent at the middle, aseptate, thin- and smooth-walled, sometimes guttulate.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA reaching 30 mm diam. after 7 days at 25 °C, circular colony, white, concentrically zonate, effuse mycelium, entire edge, reverse colony color black, without any diffusible pigments. Pycnidia globose to subglobose, without a distinct ostiole, glabrous, conidial matrix off whitish. Conidia subcylindrical, aseptate.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Forli-Via Pietro Nenni, on dead aerial branches of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae), 9 March 2017, E. Camporesii, IT 3329 (MFLU 17-0980), living culture, JZB 380046.

Known host and distribution: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Ranunculus sp. (Italy) (Hyde et al. 2016; this study).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN944410, LSU = MT020377.

Notes: The isolate JZB 380046 obtained from dead aerial branches of Bougainvillea spectabilis was identified as Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi with support from both morphology and phylogeny. This isolate clustered with the other type and reference isolates of N. ranunculi (MFLUCC 13-0490 and MFLU 16-1870), in the combined LSU, ITS, RPB2 and TUB2 phylogeny (Fig. 27). Further our isolate has 0.98% and 0.93% base pair differences with Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi (MFLUCC 13-0490) in ITS and LSU gene regions. Neodidymelliopsis species have been reported in many economically important host plants like Citrus, Acer, Pinus worldwide (Farr and Rossman 2020). This is the first record of Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi on Bougainvillea spectabilis from Italy.


Nothophoma Qian Chen & L. Cai

Notes: Nothophoma was introduced by Chen et al. (2015) with N. infossa (Ellis & Everh.) Qian Chen & L. Cai as the type species. The genus has been studied phylogenetically using ITS, LSU and TUB2 sequence data. Species belonging to this genus are characterised by large multi-loculate pycnidia, that are globose to elongated, or irregular, superficial on or immersed into the agar, solitary or confluent, ostiolate and sometimes with a short neck.


Nothophoma quercina (Syd. & P. Syd.) Qian Chen & L. Cai, Stud. Mycol. 82: 213 (2015)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 04918; Fig. 24

Fig. 24
figure 24

Nothophoma quercina (MFLU 17-2128). a, b Appearance of conidiomata on host surface. c, d Section of conidiomata. e Section through pycnidial wall (stained with congo red). fh Conidiogenous cells (h = stained with congo red). il Conidia stained in congo red. Scale bars: d = 100 µm, e = 30 µm, c, fl = 10 µm

≡ Cicinobolus quercinus Syd. & P. Syd. [as ‘Cicinnobolus’], Annls mycol. 13(1): 42 (1915)

Saprobic or weak pathogenic on Prunus mahaleb. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphConidiomata 220–265 μm high × 260–380 μm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 245 × 340 μm, n = 10), pycnidial, stromatic, solitary or clustered, semi-immersed, erumpent at maturity, dark brown to black, globose, without an ostiole. Pycnidial walls 25–35 μm wide, composed of two layers of hyaline to dark brown pseudoparenchymatous cells of textura angularis. Conidiogenous cells 10–22 μm high × 4–6 μm wide, hyaline, thin-walled, holoblastic, smooth, cylindrical, swollen at the base, discrete, producing a single conidium at the apex. Conidia 11–16 × 6–10 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 14 × 9 μm, n = 50), aseptate, globose to subglobose, widest in the centre, with rounded apex, initially hyaline, becoming dark brown before release from the pycnidia, wall moderately thick, externally smooth, internally roughened. Spermatia 3–5 × 1.5–2 μm, rod-shaped with obtuse ends, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on water agar and germ tubes produced from conidia within 12 h from lower end. Colonies growing on PDA, circular, with flat surface, edge entire, reaching 28 mm in 3 weeks at 25 °C, white to pale brown in PDA medium on top. Mycelium superficial and partially immersed, branched, septate, hyaline grey to black, smooth.

Material examined: RUSSIA, Rostov region, Shakhty City, artificial ravine forest belt, on dead and dying branches of Prunus mahaleb L. (Rosaceae), 11 May 2017, T.S. Bulgakov, T-1826 (MFLU 17-2128), living culture, MFLUCC 18-0455.

Known host and distribution: Saprobic and pathogenic on various hosts from temperate regions (Aveskamp et al. 2010; Chen et al. 2015; Bai et al. 2016; Jiao et al. 2017; Liu et al. 2018b; Moral et al. 2018; Chethana et al. 2019; Farr and Rossman 2020).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN909056, LSU = MN909057.

Notes: The culture on PDA of our isolate is similar to Nothophoma variabilis Valenz.-Lopez, Cano, Guarro & Stchigel strain CBS 142457 (Valenzuela-Lopez et al. 2018). However, based on phylogenetic analyses our strain clusters with N. quercina (CBS 633.92, UTHSC DI16-270) and morphologically, it is most similar to N. quercina (CBS 633.92) (Chen et al. 2015). This is the first report of N. quercina on Prunus mahaleb in Russia.


Xenodidymella Qian Chen & L. Cai.

Notes: Xenodidymella was introduced by Chen et al. (2015) to accommodate didymella-like taxa with X. applanata (Niessl) Q. Chen & L. Cai (≡ Didymella applanata (Niessl) Sacc.) as the type species. Xenodidymella is characterised by the pseudoparenchymatous wall comprising isodiametric cells and broadly fusiform hyaline ascospores (Chen et al. 2015). Species are mostly endophytes, pathogens and saprobes associated with a number of hosts from European countries (Farr and Rossman 2020). The asexual morph of Xenodidymella is coelomycetous having pycnidial, globose to subglobose conidiomata, phialidic, hyaline, globose to ampulliform conidiogenous cells and hyaline, smooth- and thin-walled conidia which are variable in shape (Chen et al. 2015). There are five epithets reported for the genus (Index Fungorum 2020). We introduce a new species, X. camporesii which was isolated from the stem of Dipsacus sp. in Italy.


Xenodidymella camporesii D. Pem, Doilom & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557076; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06467; Fig. 25

Fig. 25
figure 25

Xenodidymella camporesii (MFLU 17-1082, holotype). a, b Appearance of ascomata on host surface. c Vertical section through the ascoma. d Peridium. e Hamathecium. fh Asci. ik Ascospores. l Germinating ascospores. m, n Culture characteristics on MEA (m = above view, n = reverse view). Scale bars: a = 500 μm, b = 1000 μm, c = 100 μm, d, f = 30 μm, g, h = 50 μm, e, ik = 10 μm, l = 20 μm

Etymology: The epithet honours Mr Erio Camporesi who collected this fungus.

Holotype: MFLU 17-1082

Saprobic on dead aerial stem of Dipsacus sp. Sexual morphAscomata 185–308 μm high, 185–330 μm wide, pseudothecial, separate or gregarious, or scattered, immersed to semi-immersed, dark brown to black, with central ostiole. Peridium 25–33 μm wide, comprising 1–2 layers of cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium lacking pseudoparaphyses. Asci 55–85 × 9–13 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 66.6 × 12.7 µm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindric-clavate to clavate, short-pedicellate or apedicellate, apically rounded, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores 15–18 × 5–6 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 14.5 × 5.6 µm, n = 20), overlapping 1–2-seriate, hyaline, ovoid to ellipsoidal, asymmetrical, upper cells wider than lower cells, 1-septate, slightly constricted at the septum, conical at both ends, smooth-walled. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA, 35–45 mm diam. after 7 days at 16 °C, margin regular, aerial mycelia white and woolly, greenish olivaceous, floccose; reverse dark brown, saffron near the margin.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], near Verghereto, on dead aerial stem of Dipsacus sp. (Scrophulariaceae), 5 June 2017, E. Camporesi, IT3374 (MFLU 17-1082, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 17-2309.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN244198, LSU = MN244168, SSU = MN244174, TUB2 = MN871955.

Notes: Our strain MFLUCC 17-2309 has a close phylogenetic affinity to Xenodidymella applanata (CBS 205.63) in our phylogeny analyses (Fig. 26). Morphologically, X. camporesii differs from X. applanata in having longer asci (55–85 × 9–13 μm versus 50–60 × 10.5–14.5 μm) and longer ascospores (15–18 × 5–6 μm versus 11.5–15.5 × 5.5–7.5 μm). Comparison of TUB2 nucleotides of X. applanata and X. camporesii reveals 24 (10.43%) nucleotide differences. We, therefore, introduce X. camporesii as a new species (Fig. 27).

Fig. 26
figure 26

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, ITS, and TUB2 sequence data. Twenty-seven strains are included in the combined gene analyses comprising 1577 characters after alignment (854 characters for LSU, 491 characters for ITS, 232 characters for TUB2). Microsphaeropsis olivacea (CBS 432.71, CBS 233.71) is used as the outgroup taxon. The tree topology of the Bayesian analysis was similar to the maximum likelihood analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 3643.265848 is presented. The matrix had 147 distinct alignment patterns, with 1.22% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.240330, C = 0.233630, G = 0.275019, T = 0.251022; substitution rates AC = 4.369019, AG = 9.812360, AT = 6.383275, CG = 0.483743, CT = 25.398844, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.618184. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood equal to or greater than 50% and Bayesian posterior probabilities equal or greater than 0.90 BYPP are placed above or below the branches. Ex-type strains are in bold and black. The newly generated sequence is indicated in blue

Fig. 27
figure 27figure 27

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, ITS, RPB2 and TUB2 sequence data representing genus Ascochyta, Didymella, Neodidymelliopsis, Nothophoma and Phomatodes in the family Didymellaceae. Reference sequences were downloaded from GenBank based on published data (Chen et al. 2015; Chethana et al. 2019). One hundred and twenty-eight strains are included in the combined gene analyses and Phoma herbarum (CBS 377.92 and CBS 502. 91) is used as the outgroup taxon. The tree topology of the Bayesian analysis was similar to the maximum likelihood analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 15328.506166 is presented. The matrix had 533 distinct alignment patterns, with 10.44% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.237260, C = 0.240627, G = 0.279223, T = 0.242890; substitution rates AC = 1.196224, AG = 5.897645, AT = 1.950521, CG = 0.765245, CT = 13.348334, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.813932. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood equal to or greater than 60% and Bayesian posterior probabilities equal or greater than 0.90 BYPP are placed near the branches as ML/BYPP. Ex-type strains indicated in T. The newly generated sequences are indicated in red


Didymosphaeriaceae Munk

Notes: We follow the treatment and classification of Didymosphaeriaceae in Ariyawansa et al. (2014) and Phookamsak et al. (2019). Twenty-seven genera were accepted in Didymosphaeriaceae (Wijayawardene et al. 2018a; Phookamsak et al. 2019). We provide an updated phylogenetic tree for Didymosphaeriaceae (Fig. 34).


Kalmusia Niessl

Notes: Kalmusia was introduced by Niessl (1872) and is typified by K. ebuli Niessl. The genus is characterised by septate pseudoparaphyses, narrowly ovoid to clavate asci, 3-septate ascospores in their sexual morph and coniothyrium-like asexual morphs (Ariyawansa et al. 2014; Zhang et al. 2014). Ariyawansa et al. (2014) revisited the genus and provided multi-gene phylogeny while synonymizing Dendrothyrium under Kalmusia and two new combinations. There are 44 Kalmusia species recorded in Index Fungorum (2020). However, only two new species have been introduced to the genus during the last few years viz. K. italica Thambugala et al. and K. spartii Wanasinghe et al. collected from Italy (Liu et al. 2015). We introduce a new Kalmusia species collected from northern Thailand based on morphological traits and multi-gene phylogeny.


Kalmusia erioi Samarak., Thambugala & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556802; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06462; Fig. 28

Fig. 28
figure 28

Kalmusia erioi (MFLU 18-0832, holotype). a, b Appearance of ascomata on the substrate. c Peridium. d Vertical section of ascoma. e Pseudoparaphyses. fi Asci. jo Ascospores. Scale bars: a = 1000 µm, b = 200 µm, c, d = 50 µm, fi = 20 µm, jo = 10 µm, e = 5 µm

Etymology: In honour of Mr. Erio Camporesi, for his immense contribution to mycology.

Holotype: MFLU 18-0832

Saprobic on dead branches of unidentified dicotyledonous tree. Sexual morphAscomata 140–170 µm high, 145–240 µm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 157 × 182 µm, n = 10), immersed, slightly erumpent through the host tissue, scattered or gregarious, dark brown to black, uni- to bi-loculate, globose to subglobose, with a flattened base. Ostiole blackish-brown, smooth, ostiolar canal filled with hyaline cells. Peridium 10–18 µm wide, 4–5 layers, comprising 4.4–13.4 × 2–4.5 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 8.5 × 3.2 µm, n = 20), brown to lightly pigmented, slightly flattened cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising numerous, 2–3.5 µm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 2.7 µm, n = 20), cellular, branched, septate pseudoparaphyses. Asci 76–113 µm × 13–18 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 89.7 × 15 µm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate fissitunicate, clavate, short-pedicellate, thick-walled at the apex, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores 15.5–20 × 7.7–8.5 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 17.6 × 7.5 µm, n = 30), overlapping 1–2-seriate, mostly ellipsoidal, muriform, 3-transversely septate, with 1–2 vertical septa, deeply constricted at the middle septum, slightly constricted at the remaining septa, initially hyaline to pale yellow, becoming brown at maturity, rounded and pointed at ends remain in light brown, guttulate and smooth-walled. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Material examined: THAILAND, Chiang Rai Province, Mae Fah Luang University, on dead branch of a dicotyledonous tree, 9 July 2017, M.C. Samarakoon, SAMC075 (MFLU 18-0832, holotype); ibid., KUN-HKAS 102374 (isotype).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN473058, LSU = MN473052, SSU = MN473046, TEF1-α = MN481599, TUB2 = MN481603.

Notes: The morphological characters of Kalmusia erioi fit into the generic concept of Kalmusia in having immersed to erumpent ascomata, filiform, delicate, septate pseudoparaphyses, bitunicate, clavate asci with narrowly ovoid to clavate, pale brown, 3-septate ascospores. Ascospores of Kalmusia erioi are characterised with 1–2 vertical septa, deeply constricted at the middle septum and rounded and pointed at ends remaining in light brown which are different from other Kalmusia species. The combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α phylogenetic analyses show that our strain (MFLU 18-0832) clusters as basal to Kalmusia clade (97% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 34). BLASTn search of LSU is similar to Kalmusia variispora (Verkley, Göker & Stielow) Ariyaw. & K.D. Hyde strain M5 (MK138781, 99.5% similarity). Based on clear morphological differences and available molecular data, here we introduce Kalmusia erioi as a new species following guidelines by Jeewon and Hyde (2016). This is the first Kalmusia species reported from Thailand.


Montagnula Berl.

Montagnula was introduced by Berlese (1896) for saprobic taxa that occurred on dead wood and leaves in terrestrial habitats. Montagnula is characterised by its cylindric-clavate to clavate asci with long pedicel and brown ascospores. The genus was placed in the family Didymosphaeriaceae by Ariyawansa et al. (2014) with peculiar phragmosporous and didymosporous characters. There are 36 epithets of Montagnula listed in Species Fungurum (2020), however, only 11 species were confirmed by molecular data. We introduce a new species Montagnula camporesii which was collected from Italy.


Montagnula camporesii Phukhams. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556760; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06343; Fig. 29

Fig. 29
figure 29

Montagnula camporesii (MFLU 16-2290, holotype). a Appearance of ascomata on Dipsacus sp. b Vertical section through ascoma. c Ostiolar canal. d Section of partial peridium layer. e Pseudoparaphyses. fh Developmental state of asci. il Developmental state of ascospores. m Culture characteristic on MEA. Scale bars: b = 200 µm, c, d, fh = 50 µm, e = 20 µm, il = 10 µm

Etymology: The species epithet is honouring Erio Camporesi.

Holotype: MFLU 16-2290

Saprobic on dead stems of Dipsacus L. Sexual morphAscomata 200–250 × 300–350 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 220 × 330 μm, n = 5), covered by host peridium, superficial on the cortex of host, superficial, solitary, scattered, uni-loculate, subglobose to depressed globose, flatten base, ligth brown to brown, smooth-walled, papillate. Ostiole central, 60 × 150 μm, brown to light brown, papillate, opened pore, ostiolate filled with periphyses. Peridium 13–40 μm wide, thin, uniform, comprising of 4–6 layers of light brown to brown cells of textura angularis, inner layers comprising thin, hyaline cells. Hamathecium of dense, 1.5–3.0 μm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 2.5 μm, n = 50), filiform branches, anastomosing above asci, reaching the ostiole part, transverse septate, cellular pseudoparaphyses. Asci 80–120 × 10–15 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 95 × 15 μm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate, fisitunicate, thick-walled, clavate, apically rounded, with long, furcated pedicel, ocular chamber clearly visible when immature. Ascospores 18–25 × 5–8 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 20 × 6.5 μm, n = 50), 2-seriate, partial overlapping, hyaline when immature, reddish brown to brown at maturity, cell above median septum slightly wider than below, tapering towards the ends, slightly acute at both ends, with (1–)3 transversely septa, constricted at the septa, indentation present, without mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA, reaching 30 mm diam. after 4 weeks of incubation at 16 °C. Culture above cream with orange brown at the edge, medium dense mycelium, colonies circular, flat, umbonate, dull, covered with white aerial mycelium; reverse dark brown, dense, irregular, fimbriate margin.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Riofreddo-Bagno di Romagna, on dead aerial stem of Dipsacus sp. (Caprifoliaceae), 5 August 2016, E. Camporesi, IT 3059 (MFLU 16-2290, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 16-1369.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN401746, LSU = MN401742, SSU = MN401744, RPB2 = MN397909, TEF1-α = MN397908.

Notes: In the phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 34), Montagnula camporesii (strain MFLUCC 16-1369) forms a close relationship with M. bellevaliae Wanas., Camporesi, E.B.G. Jones & K.D. Hyde (strain MFLUCC 14-0924), M. cirsii Qing Tian, Camporesi & K.D. Hyde (strain MFLUCC 13-0680) and M. scabiosae (strain MFLUCC 14-0954) with strong statistical support (87% ML, 0.99 BYPP; Fig. 34). The Montagnula species in this clade are morphologically similar in having uniform peridium walls, reddish brown, broad fusiform ascospores, with (1–)3 transverse septa (Hongsanan et al. 2015; Hyde et al. 2016). Montagnula camporesii is reported from Dipsacus sp. and can be distinguished by its superficial ascomata located on the host surface and different sizes of asci. Montagnula camporesii has depressed globose ascomata with rather short pedicellate (Fig. 29).


Neokalmusia Ariyaw. & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Neokalmusia was introduced to accommodate N. brevispora (Nagas. & Y. Otani) Kaz. Tanaka, Ariyaw. & K.D. Hyde and N. scabrispora (Teng) Kaz. Tanaka, Ariyaw. & K.D. Hyde based on phylogeny and morphology (Ariyawansa et al. 2014). Later three other Neokalmusia species were discovered viz. N. didymospora D.Q. Dai & K.D. Hyde (Dai et al. 2016a), N. arundinis Thambugala & K.D. Hyde and N. thailandica Phukhams. & K.D. Hyde (Thambugala et al. 2017). The genus is characterised with subglobose to oblong ascostromata including several perithecia in a row, a clypeus-like structure composed of thin-walled cells and verrucose ascospores. In this study, another new species in the genus is introduced from China. Until now, the species of the genus are known from Italy, Japan and Thailand (Ariyawansa et al. 2014; Dai et al. 2016a; Thambugala et al. 2017).


Neokalmusia kunmingensis H.B. Jiang, Phookamsak & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF555422; Facesoffungi number: FoF 05081; Fig. 30

Fig. 30
figure 30

Neokalmusia kunmingensis (KUN-HKAS 101765, holotype). ac Ascostromata on dead bamboo surface (immersed within epidermis). d Vertical section of ascostroma. e Peridium. fi Asci. j Pseudoparaphyses. k Germinating ascospore. l, n Ascospores. m Ascospore stained by Indian ink. o Culture frontage and back. Scale bars: d = 150 μm, e = 30 μm, j = 20 μm, fi = 15 μm, kn = 10 μm

Etymology: The epithet “kunmingensis” refers to the city where the taxon was collected.

Holotype: KUN-HKAS 101765

Saprobic on dead bamboo culms in terrestrial habitats. Sexual morphAscostromata 0.5–5 mm diam., 170–300 μm high, scattered or in groups, immersed under a black clypeus-like structure, dark brown to black, multi-loculate. Locules 280–370 μm diam., 175–290 μm high, immersed within ascostromata, dark brown to black, subglobose to ampulliform, ostiolate. Peridium 13–23 μm broad, comprising several layers; outer layers dark brown to brown, compressed cells of textura angularis; inner layers hyaline compressed pseudoparenchymatous cells, arranged in textura angularis. Hamathecium composed of 1.2–2 μm broad, septate, branched, anastomosing, filiform, hyaline, pseudoparaphyses. Asci 63–77 × 9.6–11.4 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 70 × 10.5 μm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, curved, short pedicel with slightly furcate ends, apically rounded. Ascospores 13–15 × 4–5 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 14 × 4.5 μm, n = 20), 1–2-seriate, partially overlapping, fusiform, dark brown to brown, 3-septate, constricted at the septa, straight to slightly curved, smooth-walled, guttulate, without sheath. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Ascospores germinating on PDA within 24 h. Colonies on PDA fast growing, 30–35 mm diam. after 4 weeks at 20–25 °C, colonies circulate, slightly raised to umbonate in the centre, floccose to woolly, slightly radiating, pale black at the middle, pale white at the margin from the above, pale black at the middle part, white at the margin from the below, not produced pigment in agar.

Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Kunming, Golden Temple, on dead bamboo culms, 5 December 2017, H.B. Jiang & R. Phookamsak, GT002 (KUN-HKAS 101765, holotype), ex-type living culture KUMCC 18-0120.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MK079886, LSU = MK079889, SSU = MK079887, TEF1-α = MK070172.

Notes: Neokalmusia kunmingensis is morphologically similar to N. brevispora in having multi-loculate, subglobose to ampulliform, immersed ascostromata under clypeus-like structure with several perithecia in a row, 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, short-pedicellate asci and 3-septate, brown to dark brown, fusiform ascospores (Ariyawansa et al. 2014). However, N. kunmingensis differs from N. brevispora in having longer ascostromata (0.5–5 mm long versus 1–3.5 mm long), smaller asci (63–77 × 9.6–11.4 μm versus 80–118 × 10.5–15 μm), and having 4-guttulate, smaller ascospores without a mucilagenous sheath (13–15 × 4–5 μm versus 18–24 × 4–7 μm). Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 34) show that N. kunmingensis forms a sister clade to N. brevispora with high support (100% ML, 1.00 BYPP). A comparison of the ITS and TEF1-α nucleotides of N. kunmingensis and the type strain of N. brevispora (KT 2313) reveals nucleotide differences ≥ 1.5%, which indicates that N. kunmingensis is a new species in Neokalmusia.


Pseudocamarosporium Wijayaw. & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Pseudocamarosporium was introduced by Wijayawardene et al. (2014), and is typified by P. propinquum (Sacc.) Wijayaw., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde on Salix vitellina. The genus is closely related to Paracamarosporium phylogenetically, but it can easily be distinguished. We follow the latest treatment and updated accounts of Pseudocamarosporium in Wanasinghe et al. (2018). Thirteen species are known in this genus (Index Fungorum 2020). Pseudocamarosporium species are asexual morphs with brown, oblong to ellipsoidal, septate or muriform conidia and there is no sexual morph reported (Wijayawardene et al. 2014, 2016b; Crous et al. 2015b; Liu et al. 2015; Li et al. 2016a; Wanasinghe et al. 2018). We introduce a new species P. camporesii based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis.


Pseudocamarosporium camporesii Q. Tian & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556933; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06858; Fig. 31

Fig. 31
figure 31

Pseudocamarosporium camporesii (MFLU 16-2134, holotype). a Herbarium material, stem of Quercus cerris. bd Appearance of black conidiomata semi-immersed to erumpent through the host. e, f Vertical section through conidioma. g Papillate ostiole. h Vertical section of conidioma wall. i, j Conidiogenous cells and developing conidia. kp Conidia. Scale bars: b = 1000 µm, c = 500 µm, d = 200 µm, e, f = 50 µm, g, h = 25 µm, i, j = 10 µm, kp = 5 µm

Etymology: Named in honor of Mr. Erio Camporesi who made an immense contribution to fungal investigation and collection.

Holotype: MFLU 16-2134

Saprobic on a dead stem of Quercus cerris. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morph Coelomycetous. Conidiomata 300–400 μm diam., 180–250 μm high, pycnidial, solitary to gregarious, immersed to semi-immersed, erumpent to superficial at maturity, unilocular, globose to subglobose, sometimes depressed, ostiolate. Ostiole single, centrally located, papillate. Pycnidial walls 18–30 μm, multi-layered, with 3–5 outer layers of brown-walled cells of textura angularis, with innermost layer thin, hyaline. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells blastic, phialidic, hyaline, cylindrical, smooth, from the innermost layer of conidioma wall. Conidia 15–20(–30) × 8–12(–14) μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 18.5 × 10.3 μm, n = 20), oblong to ellipsoidal, initially hyaline, brown to dark brown at maturity, muriform, with 1–3 transverse septa, with 1–3 longitudinal septa, constricted at the septa, straight or infrequently slightly curved, narrowly rounded at both ends, smooth-walled, without mucilaginous sheath. Conidial secession schizolytic.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Arezzo [AR], Montemezzano-Stia, on dead aerial branch of Quercus cerris L. (Fagaceae), 7 July 2016, E. Camporesi, IT 3028 (MFLU 16-2134, holotype).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN653128, LSU = MN653129, SSU = MN653127.

Notes: A new camarosporium-like taxon, Pseudocamarosporium camporesii was collected from Italy on a dead stem of Quercus cerris during an investigation on the diversity of fungi in Italy. It is characterised by pycnidial, ostiolate conidiomata, blastic, phialidic conidiogenous cells and brown, muriform conidia that fit well within the species concept of Pseudocamarosporium in Didymosphaeriaceae. Based on a megablast search using the ITS sequence, the closest matches in NCBI’s GenBank nucleotide database was P. brabeji (Marinc., M.J. Wingf. & Crous) Crous (GenBank MG098280; Identities 596/596 (100%), no gap). The highest similarity using the LSU sequence was P. propinquum (GenBank MG8112621; Identities 808/808 (100%), no gaps). The highest similarities using the SSU sequence were P. propinquum (GenBank KJ819949; Identities 986/986 (100%), no gaps), P. corni Wijayaw., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde (GenBank NG_062183; Identities 984/986 (99%), no gaps), P. corni (GenBank KJ819946; Identities 984/986 (99%), no gaps). We analysed combined ITS, LSU, SSU and TEF1-α sequence data for Didymosphaeriaceae, but Pseudocamarosporium species do not have available protein (TEF1-α) sequence data in GenBank. Based on ITS, LSU and SSU sequences analyses from the ribosomal genes for Pseudocamarosporium our new taxon belongs to Pseudocamarosporium and shares close phylogenetic affinities to P. quercinum (Fig. 34). However, our new collection differs from P. quercinum in having larger conidia (\( \bar{x} \) = 18.5 × 10.3 μm versus \( \bar{x} \) = 16.4 × 6.8 μm) with 1–3 longitudinal septa and without a centrally located ostiole, while P. quercinum has smaller conidia with 1–2 longitudinal septa, and with a papillate ostiole. Pseudocamarosporium quercinum was discovered on dead branches of Quercus pubescens while our new collection occurred on a dead stem of Q. cerris (Wijayawardene et al. 2016b). Thus, Pseudocamarosporium camporesii is proposed as a new species.


Tremateia Kohlm., Volkm.-Kohlm. & O.E. Erikss.

Notes: Tremateia Kohlm. et al. was introduced by Kohlmeyer et al. (1995) to accommodate T. halophile Kohlm. et al. as a facultative marine genus which is characterised by depressed globose, immersed ascomata, numerous cellular pseudoparaphyses, fissitunicate and clavate asci, ellipsoid muriform ascospores, and a phoma-like asexual morph. Based on morphology and phylogeny, Ariyawansa et al. (2014) confirmed the familial status of Tremateia in Didymosphaeriaceae. The terrestrial distribution of Tremateia species was confirmed by Hyde et al. (2016) and Feng et al. (2019) while providing three novel taxa as T. arundicola Wanasinghe et al., T. guiyangensis J.F. Zhang et al. and T. murispora Y. Feng et al. from UK and China. We introduce two novel Tremateia species based on morphology and multi-gene phylogeny of a combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α.


Tremateia camporesii Samarak. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556787; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06464; Fig. 32

Fig. 32
figure 32

Tremateia camporesii (MFLU 19-2109, holotype). ac Appearance of ascomata on the substrate. d Vertical section of ascoma. e Peridium. f Pseudoparaphyses. gj Asci. kq Ascospores (q in Indian Ink showing mucilaginous sheath). Scale bars: a = 1 cm, b = 500 µm, c, d = 200 µm, e, gj = 20 µm, kq = 10 µm, f = 5 µm

Etymology: In honour of Mr. Erio Camporesi, for his immense contribution to mycology.

Holotype: MFLU 19-2109

Saprobic on dead branch. Sexual morphAscomata 310–400 µm high, 230–320 µm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 282 × 155.7 µm, n = 5), immersed to erumpent, globose or subglobose, scattered, rarely gregarious, dark brown to black, coriaceous. Peridium 13–25 µm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 19.6 µm, n = 10), comprising outer dark brown and inner hyaline cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising numerous, 2–3.5 µm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 2.8 µm, n = 20), filamentous, branched, septate, hyaline pseudoparaphyses. Asci 85–120 × 9–13.5 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 101 × 11.5 µm, n = 20), 4–(2–6)-spored, bitunicate fissitunicate, clavate, pedicellate, thick-walled at the apex, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores 16–20 × 5–7 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 17.4 × 6.3 µm, n = 30), overlapping 1–2-seriate, mostly ellipsoidal, muriform, 3–4-transversely septate, with 1–2 vertical septa, deeply constricted at the middle septum, slightly constricted at the remaining septa, initially hyaline to pale yellow, becoming brown at maturity, rounded at both ends, surrounded by a thick mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Material examined: CHINA, Guizhou Province, Guiyang, Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, on dead branch, 22 July 2018, M.C. Samarakoon, SAMC170 (MFLU 19-2109, holotype); ibid., KUN-HKAS 102398 (isotype).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN473061, LSU = MN473056, SSU = MN473050, TEF1-α = MN481602, TUB2 = MN481606.

Notes: Tremateia camporesii is similar to Tremateia species by immersed to erumpent, globose ascomata, numerous cellular pseudoparaphyses, fissitunicate and clavate asci and ellipsoid muriform ascospores. Tremateia camporesii, T. halophila Kohlm., Volkm.-Kohlm. & O.E. Erikss., T. lamiacearum Samarak. & K.D. Hyde and T. murispora Y. Feng, S.N. Zhang & Z.Y. Liu share mucilaginous ascospores. However, among all other Tremateia species, T. camporesii differs from all other Tremateia species by (2–)4(–6)-spored asci. Tremateia camporesii, T. guiyangensis and T. murispora have been collected from the same geographical region. Among them, T. camporesii and T. murispora cluster together in phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 34). However, T. murispora possesses ascospores with 3–7 transverse septa and 8-spored asci and is clearly distinguished from T. camporesii. In a BLASTn search of LSU the new species is similar to T. arunicola Wanas., E.B.G. Jones & K.D. Hyde (MFLUCC 16-1275; KX274248, 98% similarity), Bimuria novae-zelandiae D. Hawksw., Chea & Sheridan (CBS 107.79; MH872950, 97% similarity) and T. guiyangensis Jin F. Zhang et al. (GZAAS01; KX274247, 98% similarity). Phylogenetically, T. camporesii is sister to T. murispora with moderate statistical support (89% ML, 0.92 BYPP; Fig. 34). Based on clear morphological differences and available molecular data, we introduce Tremateia camporesii as a new species following the guidelines by Jeewon and Hyde (2016).


Tremateia lamiacearum Samarak. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556786; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06463; Fig. 33

Fig. 33
figure 33

Tremateia lamiacearum (MFLU 18-0826, holotype). ac Appearance of ascomata on the substrate. d Vertical section of ascoma. eh Asci. i Peridium. j Pseudoparaphyses. ko Ascospores (o in Indian ink showing mucilaginous sheath. Scale bars: b = 1000 µm, c = 200 µm, d = 100 µm, ei = 20 µm, jo = 10 µm

Etymology: Name reflects the host family Lamiaceae

Holotype: MFLU 18-0826

Saprobic on dead branch of Lamiaceae. Sexual morphAscomata 140–240 µm high, 110–190 µm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 200.5 × 155.7 µm, n = 5), immersed to erumpent, globose or subglobose, dark brown to black. Peridium 6–11.5 µm wide, comprising 3–4 layers, of dark brown cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising 2–3 µm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 2.6 µm, n = 20), numerous, cellular, branched, septate, hyaline pseudoparaphyses. Asci 82–105 × 13–17 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 93.7 × 14.4 µm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate fissitunicate, clavate, pedicellate, thick-walled at the apex, with ocular chamber. Ascospores 15–20 × 7–9 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 17.2 × 7.3 µm, n = 30), overlapping 1–2-seriate, mostly ellipsoidal, muriform, 3–5-transversely septate, with 1–2 vertical septa, deeply constricted at the middle septum, slightly constricted at the remaining septa, initially hyaline to pale yellow, becoming brown at maturity, rounded at both ends, surrounded by a thick mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Material examined: THAILAND, Phayao Province, Phachang Noi, Pong, 19.32 N 100.46E, 545 m, on dead branch of Lamiaceae sp., 11 September 2017, M.C. Samarakoon, SAMC012 (MFLU 18-0826, holotype); ibid., KUN-HKAS 102315 (isotype).

GenBank numbers: LSU = MN473055, SSU = MN473049, TEF1-α = MN481601, TUB2 = MN481605.

Notes: Tremateia lamiacearum has close affinity to Tremateia species by immersed to erumpent, globose ascomata, numerous cellular pseudoparaphyses, fissitunicate and clavate asci and ellipsoid muriform ascospores. Tremateia guiyangensis and T. lamiacearum share immersed to semi-immersed or erumpent, subglobose ascomata and muriform, normally overlapping 1–2-seriate, ellipsoid, with 3–5-transversely septate ascospores. However, T. lamiacearum differs from other Tremateia species in having comparatively small asci (93.7 × 14.4 µm) and ascospores (17.2 × 7.3 µm) with large mucilaginous sheath (Hyde et al. 2016). A BLASTn search of LSU in GenBank shows our new species is similar to T. arunicola (MFLUCC 16-1275; KX274248, 99% similarity) and T. guiyangensis (GZAAS01; KX274247, 99% similarity). Phylogenetically, T. lamiacearum shares a sister relationship to T. arunicola and T. guiyangensis with significant statistical support in the ML analysis (75% ML; Fig. 34). Based on clear morphological differences and available molecular data, we introduce T. lamiacearum as a new species following the guidelines by Jeewon and Hyde (2016).

Fig. 34
figure 34

Phylogenetic tree generated from maximum likelihood analysis (RAxML) based on a combined ITS, LSU, SSU and TEF1-α sequence dataset of genera in Didymosphaeriaceae. Eighty-nine strains are included in the combined analyses which comprise 4437 characters (1163 characters for ITS, 892 characters for LSU, 1459 characters for SSU, 923 characters for TEF1-α) after alignment. Pleospora herbarum (CBS 191.86) is used as the outgroup taxon. Single gene analyses were also performed to compare the topology and clade stability with combined gene analyses. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian inference analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood values of − 25621.093114 is presented. The matrix had 1584 distinct alignment patterns, with 47.43% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.240096, C = 0.245090, G = 0.274017, T = 0.240797; substitution rates AC = 1.286291, AG = 2.381701, AT = 1.260781, CG = 1.047135, CT = 6.097921, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.421449. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood (ML) equal to or greater than 70% and clade credibility values greater than 0.90 (the rounding of values to 2 decimal proportions) from Bayesian inference analysis are labeled on the nodes. Ex-type strains are in bold. The new isolate is in blue


Fuscostagonosporaceae Jayasiri, Camporesi & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Fuscostagonosporaceae was introduced by Hyde et al. (2017) to accommodate a monophyletic genus Fuscostagonospora Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray. This family is characterised by immersed, globose to subglobose ascomata, branched trabeculate pseudoparaphyses (sensu Liew et al. 2000) and narrowly fusiform, hyaline ascospores with a sheath (Hyde et al. 2017). We introduce a new species with support from both morphology (ellipsoid to obovoid, brown ascospores without a mucilaginous sheath) and multi-gene phylogeny.


Fuscostagonospora Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray.

Notes: Fuscostagonospora was introduced by Tanaka et al. (2015), to accommodate a bambusicolous taxon, F. sasae Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray. Subsequently, Hyde et al. (2017) accommodated Fuscostagonospora sasae in Fuscostagonosporaceae with another species, F. cytisi Jayasiri, Camporesi & K.D. Hyde (MFLU 15-3607). Fuscostagonospora comprises only three species, viz. F. banksiae Crous & Carnegie, F. cytisi and F. sasae (Tanaka et al. 2015; Hyde et al. 2017; Crous et al. 2019b).


Fuscostagonospora camporesii Tennakoon & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557123; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06333; Fig. 35

Fig. 35
figure 35

Fuscostagonospora camporesii (MFLU 16-1362, holotype). a Ascomata visible as black dots on host surface. b, c Vertical sections of ascomata. d Section through peridium. e Pseudoparaphyses. fi Asci. jn Ascospores. o Germinated ascospore. p Colony from above. q Colony from below. Scale bars: b, c = 50 µm, di = 20 µm, jn = 5 µm, o = 10 µm

Etymology: In honour of Mr. Erio Camporesi for his immense contribution to mycology

Holotype: MFLU 16-1362

Saprobic on dead branches of Cornus sanguinea. Sexual morphAscomata 100–130 μm high, 160–220 μm diam., solitary, scattered to clustered, immersed, visible as raised, black spots on host surface globose to subglobose, glabrous, uni-loculate, ostiole central with minute papilla. Peridium 22–33 μm wide, thin to thick-walled with equal thickness, composed of two type layers of pseudoparenchymatous cells, inner layer comprising 3–5 cell layers of flattened, hyaline cells, arranged in a textura prismatica, outer layer comprising several layers of dark brown to black cells, arranged in a textura angularis. Hamathecium composed of dense, broad, 1.8–2.5 μm wide, filamentous, cellular pseudoparaphyses, with indistinct septa, not constricted at the septa, anastomosing at the apex, embedded in a hyaline gelatinous matrix. Asci (69–)80–90(–110) × (7–)8–9(–9.5) μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 86 × 8.5 μm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindric-clavate, short pedicellate, with furcate to obtuse end, apically rounded with well-developed ocular chamber. Ascospores (11.8–)13–15(–15.7) × (5.5–)6–6.5(–7.3) μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 13.9 × 6.3 μm, n = 40), overlapping, 1-seriate, ellipsoid to obovoid, initially hyaline to slightly brown, becoming brown at maturity, aseptate when young, becoming 1-septate, straight to slightly curved, smooth-walled. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA reaching 35–40 mm diam. after 5 weeks at 20–25 °C, colonies medium sparse, circular, convex, slightly rough surface with edge entire, well defined margin, cottony to fairly fluffy with sparse aspects, colony from above, white to cream at the margin, white to yellowish at the centre; from below, yellow to yellowish brown at the margin, light brown at the centre, mycelium white to cream with tufting, not producing pigmentation in PDA media agar.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Monte Maggiore-Predappio, on dead branches of Cornus sanguinea L. (Cornaceae), 9 March 2015, E. Camporesi, IT 2409 (MFLU 16-1362, holotype); ibid., KUN-HKAS 9370 (isotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 16-0787, KUMCC 15-0554.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN750611, LSU = MN750590, SSU = MN750605.

Notes: The morphological characteristics of Fuscostagonospora camporesii fit with F. cytisi Jayasiri, Camporesi & K.D. Hyde (MFLU 15-3607) in having immersed, subglobose to globose ascomata, cylindric-clavate, short pedicellate asci and 1-septate, ellipsoid to obovoid ascospores and trabeculate pseudoparaphyses (Hyde et al. 2017). But, F. camporesii differs from F. cytisi in having brown and smaller ascospores (13.9 × 6.3 µm versus 16 × 7.4 µm), whereas, F. cytisi has hyaline ascospores with a mucilaginous sheath (Hyde et al. 2017). We also compared the sequences of our newly-described taxon with F. cytisi.

According to the multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of a combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence dataset, Fuscostagonospora camporesii is closely related to other Fuscostagonospora species, in particularly with F. banksiae (CBS 144621) with significant support (89% ML, 79% MP; Fig. 36). The asexual morph of F. banksiae was isolated from Banksia sp. (Proteaceae) and introduced by Crous et al. (2019b). A comparison of the 665 nucleotides across the ITS (+5.8S) gene region of F. camporesii and F. banksiae shows 30 base pair differences (4.51%) which justifies the new species following the guidelines of Jeewon and Hyde (2016).

Fig. 36
figure 36

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined ITS, LSU, SSU and TEF1-α sequence dataset for Fuscostagonospora species and several closely related genera in Didymosphaeriaceae, Lentitheciaceae and Massarinaceae. Related sequences were taken from Hyde et al. (2017) and Crous et al. (2019b). Fifty-six strains are included in the combined analyses which comprise 3482 characters (543 characters for ITS, 933 characters for LSU, 1077 characters for SSU, 929 characters for TEF1-α) after alignment. Periconia byssoides (C292) and P. submersa (MFLUCC 16-1098) (Periconiaceae, Pleosporales) are used as the outgroup taxa. Single gene analyses are carried out and the topology of each tree had clade stability. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the maximum parsimony analysis and the Bayesian inference analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 18830.051624 is presented. The matrix had 1195 distinct alignment patterns, with 37.67% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.242753, C = 0.239241, G = 0.274146, T = 0.243860; substitution rates AC = 1.751566, AG = 2.491358, AT = 1.693843, CG = 1.162505, CT = 6.992228, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.578052. Maximum parsimony analysis of 2543 constant characters and 591 informative characters (CI = 0.488, RI = 0.638, RC = 0.312, HI = 0.512). Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) equal to or greater than 60% and Bayesian posterior probabilities (BYPP) equal to or greater than 0.90 are placed above the branches. Newly generated sequences are indicated in blue


Halotthiaceae Y. Zhang, J. Fourn. & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Halotthiaceae was introduced by Zhang et al. (2013) and is typified by Halotthia Kohlm. with H. posidoniae (Durieu & Mont.) Kohlm. as the type species. The family was first introduced to accommodate freshwater and maritime Dothideomycetes genera Halotthia, Mauritiana Poonyth, Phaeoseptum Ying Zhang, J. Fourn. & K.D. Hyde and Pontoporeia Kohlm. (Hyde et al. 2013; Zhang et al. 2013). Subsequently, Ariyawansa et al. (2015a) introduced three new genera to Halotthiaceae viz. Brunneoclavispora Phook. & K.D. Hyde, Neolophiostoma Boonmee & K.D. Hyde and Sulcosporium Phook. & K.D. Hyde. Hyde et al. (2018b) introduced a new family Phaeoseptaceae Boonmee, Thambugala & K.D. Hyde to accommodate the genera Phaeoseptum, Lignosphaeria Boonmee et al. and Neolophiostoma Boonmee & K.D. Hyde based on phylogenetic analysis of LSU, SSU, RPB2 and TEF1-α sequence data. Based on present phylogenetic analyses in this study (Fig. 39), Neolophiostoma formed a basal lineage in Halotthiaceae. Hence, the phylogenetic status of this genus needs to be clarified with more taxon sampling. Currently, six genera are accepted in Halotthiaceae viz. Brunneoclavispora, Halotthia, Mauritiana, Neolophiostoma, Pontoporeia and Sulcosporium.


Brunneoclavispora Phookamsak & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Brunneoclavispora was introduced as a monotypic genus by Ariyawansa et al. (2015a) and is typified by B. bambusae Phookamsak & K.D. Hyde, which was collected from bamboo in Thailand in a terrestial habitat. Ariyawansa et al. (2015a) treated the genus in Halotthiaceae, while the genus formed an independent lineage basal to Sporormiaceae in Hyde et al. (2018b). Phukhamsakda et al. (2019) treated the genus in Pleosporales genera incertae sedis together with Neolophiostoma. The phylogenetic status of Brunneoclavispora is unresovled and it clusters in Halotthiaceae in this study. Thus, we tentatively accommodate Brunneoclavispora in Halotthiaceae until phylogenetic affinity of the genus is clarified with more taxon sampling. In this study, the second new species, B. camporesii, isolated from decaying wood in Thailand in terrestial environment is introduced.


Brunneoclavispora camporesii Boonmee & Phookamsak, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557029; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06507; Figs. 37, 38

Fig. 37
figure 37

Brunneoclavispora camporesii (MFLU 11-0001, holotype). a Material and habit on wood. b Appearance of ascomata immersed in wood tissues (arrows). c Cross section of ascoma. d Peridium. e Pseudoparaphyses. fi Asci. jl Close up of apical asci with fissitunicate dehiscence. mp Ascospores. Scale bars: b = 500 µm, c, mp = 10 µm, d, fi = 50 µm, e = 5 µm, jl = 20 µm

Fig. 38
figure 38

Brunneoclavispora camporesii (MFLUCC 11-0001, ex-type culture). a Germinating spores. b Colony on MEA from surface. c Growth of the induced asexual morph on plant tissues. d Squash mount of vegetative hyphae. Scale bars: a = 10 µm, c, e = 5 µm

Etymology: The specific epithet “camporesii” named after Mr. Erio Camporesi for his immense contribution to mycology

Holotype: MFLU 11-0001

Saprobic on decaying wood. Sexual morphAscomata 230–380 µm high, 210–290 µm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 310 × 252 µm, n = 5), present as dark spots on host surface, immersed, uni-loculate, scattered, subglobose, dark brown, with ostiole. Peridium 23–38.5 µm thick, composed of 4–5 layers of textura angularis, with dark brown cells. Hamathecium 2 µm wide, anatomosed, branched, septate, hyaline, pseudoparaphyses. Asci 109–193 × 21.5–28 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 140 × 24.5 µm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindric-clavate to clavate, thickened at the apex, with 2–2.5 µm wide ocular chamber, short pedicellate (ca. 18–29.5 µm long), sometimes expanding up to 59 µm long. Ascospores 21–26.5 × 11–15 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 25 × 12 µm, n = 20), overlapping 1–2-seriate, muriform, suboblong-ellipsoidal to clavate, transversely 6–7-septate, with longitudinally 1-septate in each cell, brown to dark brown, slightly curved, constricted at the septa, septa thickened, smooth-walled. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Ascospores germinating on MEA within 12 h. Colonies on MEA reaching 9 mm diam. in 7 days at 28 °C, colonies compressed, slightly umbonate, undulate edge, colour of colonies at initially white to yellowish and white at the margin with orange-brown pigmented in medium after 45 days. Mycelium superficial, slightly effuse, radially striate with lobate edge, septate, hyaline, smooth-walled.

Material examined: THAILAND, Chiang Mai Province, Chom Thong, N 18° 31′ E 98° 29′, on decaying wood, 16 November 2010, R. Phookamsak, ITN-03 (MFLU 11-0001, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 11-0001.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN809329, LSU = MN809328.

Notes: Brunneoclavispora camporesii is morphologically similar to B. bambusae in having brown, muriform ascospores and was collected from a terrestial environment. However, the species can be distinguished from B. bambusae in having subglobose ascomata, cylindric-clavate to clavate, short pedicellate asci and suboblong-ellipsoidal to clavate, transversely 6–7-septate, and longitudinally 1-septate in each cell of the ascospores. Whereas, B. bambusae has elongate conical ascomata with a flattened base, with slit-like openings ostiole. Asci of B. bambusae are clavate, with short to long pedicels and its ascospores are clavate to fusiform, 7–8 transverse septa, with 1–4 longitudinal septa, with a tail-like appendage at the basal cell (Ariyawansa et al. 2015a). Phylogenetic analyses of a combined LSU, SSU and ITS sequence dataset showed that B. camporesii forms a sister lineage with B. bambusae with high support (98% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 39). Therefore, we introduce B. camporesii as a second species in Brunneoclavispora with both species in this genus being saprobes collected from dead and decaying wood in Thailand.

Fig. 39
figure 39

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, SSU and ITS sequence dataset representing Halotthiaceae and related families. Related sequences are taken from Phukhamsakda et al. (2019). Thirty-nine strains are included in the combined analyses which comprise 2444 characters 858 characters for LSU, 1021 characters for SSU and 565 characters for ITS) after alignement. Aigialus grandis (BCC 20000) and Neoastrosphaeriella krabiensis (MFLUCC 11-0025) in Aigialaceae (Pleosporales) are used as the outgroup taxa. Single gene analyses were also performed to compare the topology and clade stability with combined gene analyses. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood values of − 15614.164113 is presented. The matrix had 1062 distinct alignment patterns, with 29.90% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.249630, C = 0.230631, G = 0.282717, T = 0.237022; substitution rates AC = 1.426187, AG = 2.223185, AT = 1.439924, CG = 1.247317, CT = 6.150653, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.266758. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood (ML) equal to or greater than 50% and clade credibility values greater than 0.95 BYPP (the rounding of values to 2 decimal proportions) from Bayesian-inference analysis labeled on the nodes. The ex-type strains are indicated in bold and the newly generated sequence is indicated in bold and blue


Lentitheciaceae Y. Zhang ter et al.

Notes: Lentitheciaceae was introduced by Zhang et al. (2009) with L. fluviatile (Aptroot & Van Ryck.) K.D. Hyde, J. Fourn. & Y. Zhang as the type species. We follow the latest treatment and updated accounts of Lentitheciaceae in Phookamsak et al. (2019). In this study, two new Keissleriella species and a new genus, Pseudomurilentithecium are introduced, based on morphology and molecular data, together with description and illustrations. A phylogenetic tree based on combined LSU, ITS, SSU, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data is presented in Fig. 43.


Keissleriella Höhn.

Notes: Keissleriella was introduced by von Höhnel (1919) for wood associated fungal species. Keissleriella aesculi (Höhn.) Höhn. is the type species of the genus. Keisseleriella has unique characters of black setae on the papilla, hyaline, uni- to multi-septate ascospores with a mucilaginous sheath (Zhang et al. 2012; Liu et al. 2015; Tippromma et al. 2017; Wanasinghe et al. 2018). There are 41 epithets of Keissleriella species listed in Species Fungorum (2020). We introduce two additional species of Keissleriella camporesiana and K. camporesii which were collected from Italy (Figs. 40, 41).

Fig. 40
figure 40

Keissleriella camporesiana (MFLU 15-3288, holotype). a Ascomata on Centaurea. b Close up of ascomata. c Vertical section of ascoma. d Ostiolar canal contain of brown setae. e Peridium. f Pseudoparaphyses. gi Developing state of asci. jn Developing state of ascospores. o Ascospore stained with India ink showed mucilaginous sheath. Scale bar: b = 500 µm, c = 100 µm, d = 20 µm, ei = 50 µm, jo = 10 µm

Fig. 41
figure 41

Keissleriella camporesii (MFLU 15-1068, holotype). a, b Conidiomata on the host. c Vertical section of conidioma. d, e conidiogenous cell. fm Conidia. n, o Conidial germination. Scale bars: ce, no = 20 μm, f = 10 μm, gm = 5 μm


Keissleriella camporesiana Phukhams. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556759; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06344; Fig. 40

Etymology: The species epithet was honouring Erio Camporesi.

Holotype: MFLU 15-3288

Saprobic on dead stems of Centaurea L. Sexual morphAscomata 170–240 × 270–320 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 165 × 240 μm, n = 5), on surface of the host, covered by a pseudoclypeus, immersed to superficial, solitary, scattered, uni-loculate, obpyriform to compressed globose, flatten base, brown to dark brown, rough-walled, papillate. Ostiole central, 55 × 49 μm, brown to dark brown, papillate, opened pore, easily open, ostiolate with black setae on the papilla. Peridium 16–40 μm wide, thick, multi-layer, comprising of 7–9 layers of dark brown to brown cells of textura angularis, inner layers comprising thin, hyaline cells. Hamathecium of dense, 1.15–2.3 μm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 1.5 μm, n = 50), filiform branches, anastomosing above asci, reaching the ostiole part, transverse septate, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses. Asci 68–120 × 15–20 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 95 × 20 μm, n = 40), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, thick-walled, cylindric-clavate to clavate, apically rounded, with furcated pedicel, ocular chamber clearly visible when immature. Ascospores 20–30 × 7–8 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 26 × 7.5 μm, n = 50), bi-seriate, partial overlapping, hyaline, broad fusiform, cell above median septum slightly wider than below, lower part longer than the upper part, tapering towards the ends, slightly acute at both ends, with (1–)4–5 transverse septa, constricted at the septa, large guttules each cell, deeply constricted at the median septum, smooth-walled, with mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA, reaching 30 mm diam. after 4 weeks of incubation at 16 °C. Culture grey brown, with orange brown mixed in the mycelium after 4 weeks, dense mycelia, colonies circular, flat, umbonate, dull, covered with aerial mycelium, white mycelium at the edges; reverse dark brown, dense, irregular, fimbriate margin.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Strada San Zeno-Galeata, on dead stems of Centaurea L. (Asteraceae), 22 December 2012, N. Camporesi, IT 971 (MFLU 15-3288, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 15-0029.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN401745, LSU = MN40174, SSU = MN401743, TEF1-α = MN397907.

Notes: Keissleriella is characterised by ascomata with black setae on the papilla (Zhang et al. 2012) and trabeculate pseudoparaphyses (sensu Liew et al. 2000). In the phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 43), K. camporesiana (strain MFLUCC 15-0029) and K. dactylis Singtr., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde (strain MFLUCC 13-0751) form a separate subclade with moderate support (75% ML, 0.94 BYPP). Keissleriella camporesiana is morphologically distinguished from K. dactylis by the second cell of ascospores being enlarged and being 4–5-septate (Singtripop et al. 2015). Keissleriella dactylis was described from the host family Poaceae while K. camporesiana occurs on Asteraceae.


Keissleriella camporesii C.G. Lin & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557105, Facesoffungi number: FoF 06182; Fig. 41

Etymology: The specific is named in honour of the prolific fungus collector, Erio Camporesi.

Holotype: MFLU 15-1068

Saprobic on dried aerial spines of Rosa canina. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphConidiomata up to 140 μm diam., immersed, pycnidial, scattered, brown to dark brown, globlose to subglobose, uni-loculate, indistinct ostiolate. Pycnidial walls thin-walled of brown to dark brown pseudoparenchymatous cells, of textura angularis. Conidiophores 9–25 × 2.4–3.4 μm, hyaline, unbranched or branched, smooth, flexuous, formed from the inner cells of the pycnidial wall. Conidiogenous cells monophialidic, cylindrical, hyaline. Conidia 5–10 × 1.5–5 μm, solitary, dry, acropleurogenous, simple, hyaline to pale brown, ellipsoidal, fusiform.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on PDA within 24 h. Colonies on PDA effuse, greyish white from above, reaching 0.7–1.5 cm diam. in 7 days at 25 °C.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forli-Cesena Province, on dried aerial spines of Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae), 2014, Erio Camporesi, IT 2246 (MFLU 15-1068, holotype), ex-type living culture MFLUCC 15-0117.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN252879, LSU = MN252886, SSU = MN252907.

Notes: The asexual morph of Keissleriella was reported as Dendrophoma Sacc. (Sivanesan 1984). Keissleriella camporesii shares morphological characters with Dendrophoma species, such as branched, hyaline conidiophores, phialidic conidiogenous cells and hyaline to brown, aseptate or septate conidia. Keissleriella camporesii grouped with K. cladophila (Niessl) Corbaz (CBS 104.55), K. rosacearum Phukhams., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde (MFLUCC 15-0089) and K. spartiicola (MFLUCC 14-0196) as a monophyletic clade (Fig. 43). However, the asexual morph of K. rosacearum and K. spartiicola are undetermined (Liu et al. 2015; Wanasinghe et al. 2018), and thus we cannot compare the morphology. The asexual morph of K. cladophila was described as pycnidia up to 150 μm broad, globose, ostiolate, branched, with 10–40 × 2–2.5 μm conidiogenous cells and hyaline, one-celled, oblong, 5–7 × 2–2.5 μm conidia (Sivanesan 1984). Keissleriella camporesii differs from K. cladophila by its hyaline to brown, 0–1-septate conidia.


Pseudomurilentithecium Mapook & K.D. Hyde, gen.nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556904; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06791

Etymology: Referring to its similarity with Murilentithecium.

Saprobic on dead aerial stem. Sexual morphAscomata immersed, solitary or scattered, coriaceous, subglobose to globose, dark brown to black, ostiolar neck protruding. Peridium 2–3 layers, comprising dark brown cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium with cylindrical, septate, branching pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindric-clavate, straight or slightly curved, apically rounded, pedicellate. Ascospores overlapping, 1–2-seriate, initially hyaline to pale yellow, 1-septate when immature, becoming golden-brown to brown at maturity, ellipsoid to broadly fusiform, muriform, 3–7-transversely septate, with 1–2-longitudinal septate, slightly constricted at the central septum, straight or slightly curved, surrounded by hyaline gelatinous sheath observed clearly when mounted in Indian ink. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Type species: Pseudomurilentithecium camporesii Mapook & K.D. Hyde

Notes: A phylogenetic analysis based on combined dataset of LSU, ITS, SSU, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data show that Pseudomurilentithecium clusters with Poaceascoma and Setoseptoria (Fig. 43). However, Pseudomurilentithecium differs from Poaceascoma in having ellipsoid to broadly fusiform, muriform ascospores with 3–7 transverse septa, and 1–2 longitudinal septa, while Poaceascoma has hyaline, filiform, multi-septate ascospores with spirally arranged within the ascus (Phookamsak et al. 2015). Therefore, Pseudomurilentithecium is described as a new genus based on phylogeny and morphological comparison.


Pseudomurilentithecium camporesii Mapook & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF556903; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06792; Fig. 42

Fig. 42
figure 42

Pseudomurilentithecium camporesii (MFLU 20-0047, holotype). a, b Appearance of ascomata on substrate. c Section through ascoma. d Peridium. e Pseudoparaphyses. f, g asci. hj Ascospores. k Ascospores with gelatinous sheath in Indian ink. Scale bars: a, b = 200 µm, c, f, g = 50 µm, d = 20 µm, e, hk = 10 µm

Etymology: Named in honour of the collector, Erio Camporesi.

Holotype: MFLU 20-0047

Saprobic on dead aerial stem of Vicia sp. Sexual morphAscomata (90–)130–145 µm high, 140–160 µm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 123 × 154 µm, n = 5), immersed, solitary or scattered, coriaceous, subglobose to globose, dark brown to black, ostiolar neck protruding. Peridium 14–20 µm wide, 2–3 layers, comprising dark brown cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising 2.5–5(–7) µm wide, cylindrical, septate, branching pseudoparaphyses. Asci 90–115 × 16–22 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 104 × 19 µm, n = 10), 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindric-clavate, straight or slightly curved, apically rounded, pedicellate. Ascospores (20–)27–32 × 8–12 µm (\( \bar{x} \) = 28.5 × 10 µm, n = 40), overlapping, 1–2 seriate, initially hyaline to pale yellow, 1-septate when immature, becoming golden-brown to brown at maturity, ellipsoid to broadly fusiform, muriform, 3–7-transversely septate, with 1–2 longitudinal septa, slightly constricted at the central septum, straight or slightly curved, surrounded by hyaline gelatinous sheath clearly observed when mounted in Indian ink. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena [FC], Monte Coronaro-Verghereto, on dead aerial stem of Vicia sp. (Fabaceae), 26 July 2014, E. Camporesi, IT 2018 (MFLU 20-0047, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 14-1118.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN638861, LSU = MN638846, SSU = MN638850, TEF1-α = MN648730.

Notes: In a BLASTn search of NCBI GenBank, the closest matches of the ITS sequence of Pseudomurilentithecium camporesii (MFLUCC 14-1118, ex-holotype) with 90.38% similarity, was to Keissleriella cladophila (strain CBS 104.55, MH857391). The closest matches of the LSU sequence with 94.57% similarity, was to Parathyridaria ramulicola Jaklitsch, Fourn. & Voglmayr (strain MF4, KX650564), 94.65% similarity, was to Bimuria novae-zelandiae D. Hawksw., Chea & Sheridan (strain CBS 107.79, NG_058623), and 94.45% similarity, was to Keissleriella cladophila (strain CBS 104.55, GU205221). The closest matches with the SSU sequences with 90.98% similarity, was to Darksidea alpha D.G. Knapp et al. (strain CBS 135628, KP184054). The closest matches of the TEF1-α sequences with 91.35% similarity, was with Misturatosphaeria sp. (strain MFLUCC 10-0126, KR075170), while the closest matches of the RPB2 sequences with 78.79% similarity, was to Murilentithecium clematidis Wanas. et al. (strain MFLUCC 14-0562, KM454447). In the phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 43), P. camporesii forms a basal clade to Poaceascoma.

Fig. 43
figure 43

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined dataset of LSU, ITS, SSU, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data. Seventy-seven strains are included in the combined sequence analysis, which comprise 4008 characters with gaps. Tree topology of the ML analysis was similar to the BI. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 18684.534541 is presented. The matrix had 1199 distinct alignment patterns, with 37% of undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.241414, C = 0.246131, G = 0.273783, T = 0.238671; substitution rates: AC = 1.203261, AG = 1.960685, AT = 1.267413, CG = 1.440469, CT = 7.447474, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.166789. Bootstrap support values for ML equal to or greater than 60% and BYPP equal to or greater than 0.90 are given above the nodes. Newly generated sequences are in blue bold and type strains are in black bold. Bambusicola bambusae (MFLUCC 11-0614) and B. irregulispora (MFLUCC 11-0437) are used as outgroup taxa


Leptosphaeriaceae M.E. Barr

Notes: We follow the latest treatment and updated accounts of Leptosphaeriaceae in Ariyawansa et al. (2015b), Hyde et al. (2016, 2017), Tennakoon et al. (2017), Tibpromma et al. (2017) and Phookamsak et al. (2019). Eleven genera are accepted in this family viz. Acicuseptoria Quaedvl. et al., Alloleptosphaeria Ariyaw. et al., Alternariaster E.G. Simmons, Chaetoplea (Sacc.) Clem., Heterosporicola Crous, Leptosphaeria Ces. & De Not., Paraleptosphaeria Gruyter et al., Plenodomus Preuss, Querciphoma Crous, Subplenodomus Gruyter et al. and Sphaerellopsis Cooke.


Plenodomus Preuss

Notes: Plenodomus introduced by Preuss (1851) was typified by P. rabenhorstii Preuss. Species of Plenodomus are saprobic or parasitic on plants in terrestrial habitats (Ariyawansa et al. 2015b). We follow the latest treatment and updated accounts of Plenodomus in Phookamsak et al. (2019). A novel species P. triseptatus is introduced from Russia.


Plenodomus triseptatus S.N.Wijesinghe, Bulgakov & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum: IF556925; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06807; Fig. 44

Fig. 44
figure 44

Plenodomus triseptatus (MFLU 17-0789, holotype). a, b Ascomata on host. c Vertical section of ascoma. d Section of peridium. e Pseudoparaphyses. fi Immature to mature asci. jo Immature to mature ascospores. p, q Colony on PDA (p = from above, q = from below). Scale bars: a = 500 μm, b = 100 μm, c = 100 μm, di = 20 μm, jo = 5 μm

Etymology: The specific epithet “triseptatus” refers to the number of septa in ascospores.

Holotype: MFLU 17-0789

Saprobic on decaying wood. Sexual morphAscomata 276–324 μm high, 217–250 μm diam., (\( \bar{x} \) = 298 × 228 μm, n = 15), solitary, scattered or small group, raised, erumpent on host, uni-loculate, black, globose to subglobose. Peridium 26–51 μm wide, thin-walled, composed of several layers of small, brown to dark brown cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising numerous, 2–3 μm wide, septate, branched, cellular pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 58–112 × 7–13 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 85 × 9.5 μm, n = 30), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, short pedicel, with furcate ends, apically rounded, with well-developed ocular chamber. Ascospores 19–25 × 5.7–7.2 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 22 × 6.5 μm, n = 30), overlapping 1-seriate, hyaline to pale brown, fusiform, with pointed ends, 3-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, guttulate, thick and smooth-walled. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Ascospores germinating on PDA within 24 h. Germ tubes produced both sides of ascospore. Colonies on PDA reaching 0.5–1 cm diam. after 5 days in day light at 16 °C, colonies circular, medium dense, flat or effuse, from above, white in middle and dark brown at the margin, dark brown in reverse side.

Material examined: RUSSIA, Republic of Crimea, Bakhchisaraisky District, near Nauchny settlement, Selbukhra mountain, stony steppe on the slope, on dead stem of Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae), 4 July 2016, T.S. Bulgakov, CR-089 (MFLU 17-0789, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 17-1345.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN648452, LSU = MN648451, SSU = MN648453.

Notes: Plenodomus triseptatus (MFLUCC 17-1345) is similar to P. libanotidis (Fuckel) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley (CBS 113795) in having a peridium with brown to dark brown cells of textura angularis, 8-spored asci with a well-developed ocular chamber and guttulate, 3-septate, hyaline to pale brown ascospores constricted at each septum. However, P. triseptatus differs from P. libanotidis by its smaller ascospores (17–21 μm versus 19–25 μm; de Gruyter et al. 2013). Phylogenetically, P. triseptatus shares a sister relationship to P. libanotidis with high support (96% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 45). Also, the phylogeny supports that they are distinct species. Therefore, P. triseptatus is introduced as a novel species in family Leptosphaeriaceae.

Fig. 45
figure 45

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on a combined LSU, SSU and ITS sequence dataset. Paraphoma radicinia (CBS 111.79), Phaeosphaeria oryzae (CBS 110110) and Phaeosphaeriopsis glaucopunctata (MFLUCC 13-0265) were selected as the outgroup taxa under Pleosporales. Related sequences are taken from Phookamsak et al. (2019) and GenBank. Seventy-five strains are included in the multy-gene phylogenetic analyses which comprise 2477 characters (882 characters for LSU, 998 characters for SSU and 597 characters for ITS) after alignment. Single gene analyses were also compared for the topology and clade stability with the combined gene analyses. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood values of − 12964.530032 is presented. The matrix had 577 distinct alignment patterns, with 26.62% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.244203, C = 0.220508, G = 0.272622, T = 0.262667; substitution rates AC = 1.857458, AG = 3.628940, AT = 2.129510, CG = 0.931715, CT = 7.125511, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.109630. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood (ML) equal to or greater than 70% and clade credibility values greater than 0.95 BYPP (the rounding of values to 2 decimal proportions) from Bayesian-inference analysis demarcated above the nodes. The newly generated sequences are indicated in bold and blue and ex-type strains are in bold


Lophiostomataceae Sacc.

Notes: Lophiostomataceae was introduced by Saccardo (1883) with Lophiostoma macrostomum (Tode) Ces. & De Not. as the type species (Hashimoto et al. 2018). It is characterised by carbonaceous ascomata with a slit-like ostiolar neck, clavate asci and hyaline to dark brown ascospores with mucilaginous sheaths and/or appendages at each end (Thambugala et al. 2015; Hyde et al. 2016, 2019a; Hashimoto et al. 2018; Tennakoon et al. 2018b). Members of Lophiostomataceae are usually saprobic on herbaceous and woody plants in terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats (Chesters and Bell 1970; Thambugala et al. 2015; Hyde et al. 2016, 2019a; Hashimoto et al. 2018).


Neovaginatispora A. Hashim., K. Hiray. & Kaz. Tanaka

Notes: The monotypic genus Neovaginatispora is typified by N. fuckelii (Sacc.) A. Hashim., K. Hiray. & Kaz. Tanaka. The genus was introduced by Hashimoto et al. (2018) based on phylogenetic distinction and its typical characters of a thinner peridium than Vaginatispora. In this study, N. fuckelii is reported from Prunus in Yunnan, China.


Neovaginatispora fuckelii (Sacc.) A. Hashim., K. Hiray. & Kaz. Tanaka, Stud Mycol 90: 188 (2018)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 06527; Fig. 46

Fig. 46
figure 46

Neovaginatispora fuckelii (KUN-HKAS 99593). a Material. b Appearance of ascomata on the host. c Crest-like ostiole of ascoma. d Section through ascoma. e, f Peridium. gi Asci with pseudoparaphyses. jm Ascospores. n Germinating ascospore. Notes: l, m stained in black ink reagent. Scale bars: c = 500 μm, d = 200 μm, e = 100 μm, fi, n = 50 μm, jm = 10 μm

Saprobic on decaying wood. Sexual morphAscomata 250–580 × 190–230 × 210–250 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 400 × 220 × 235 μm, n = 5), perithecial, solitary and scattered, immersed to semi-immersed, unilocular, subglobose to ellipsoid, black, ostiolate. Ostiole rounded or crest-like, periphysate. Peridium 10–40 μm wide, outer layer composed of brown to dark brown, thick-walled cells of textura angularis; inner layer composed of hyaline to lightly pigmented cells of textura prismatica. Hamathecium comprising 1.5–2.5 μm wide, numerous, filiform, septate, branched, anastomosed pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 45–75 × 6–10 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 60 × 8 μm, n = 40), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, short-pedicellate, rounded at the apex, with a distinct ocular chamber. Ascospores 10–15 × 4–6 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 14 × 5 μm, n = 50), 1–2-seriate, partially overlapping, hyaline, broadly fusiform with obtuse ends, 1-septate at median, constricted, slightly inflated of the cell nearby septum, straight or slightly curved, smooth-walled, guttulate, with cap-shaped, globose appendages at each end. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Ascospores germinating on PDA within one week at 23 °C. Colony 1.5 cm diam. after 30 days. Mycelium superficial to semi-immersed, filamentous, branched, septate, hyaline to brown. Colonies on PDA, initially, pale brown, becoming dark brown, rough surface and raised elevation with concentric zonations, uneven margins; reverse pale brown to dark brown at the zonations.

Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Kunming, Songhuaba Lake, on decaying wood of Prunus sp. (Rosaceae), 3 September 2017, S.K. Huang, SHB04 (KUN-HKAS 99593), living culture (KUMCC 17-0319).

Known host and distribution: This species has been recorded from various dead herbaceous plants and leaves of Mangifera in Europe, Japan and China (Wang and Lin 2004; Thambugala et al. 2015; Hyde et al. 2016, 2019a; Tennakoon et al. 2018b).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN473470, LSU = MN473513, RPB2 = MN482130.

Notes: Hashimoto et al. (2018) found that Vaginatispora fuckelii is phylogenetically distinct from other species of Vaginatispora based on their multi-gene phylogenetic analysis. They proposed a monotypic genus Neovaginatispora typified by N. fuckelii (Hashimoto et al. 2018). In this study, our new strain clusters with other N. fuckelii strains in the phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 47). The present collection shares similar morphological features with previously reported collections, but the ascomata and ascospore dimensions are slightly different (Thambugala et al. 2015; Hyde et al. 2016; Tennakoon et al. 2018b). Some morphological characters may be slightly different on different host species and locality (Thambugala et al. 2015; Hyde et al. 2016; Tennakoon et al. 2018b). In Tennakoon et al. (2018b), N. fuckelii was found on Mangifera indica and its ascospores have a thin mucilaginous sheath. This is the first record of Neovaginatispora species on dead branches of Prunus species.

Fig. 47
figure 47

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined ITS, LSU, SSU, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data in Lophiostomataceae. Related sequences are taken from Hyde et al. (2019a). Thirty-two strains are included in the combined analyses which comprise 4177 characters (505 characters for ITS, 822 characters for LSU, 937 characters for SSU, 893 characters for TEF1-α, 1020 characters for RPB2) after alignment. Angustimassarina populi (MFLUCC 13-0034) and A. acerina (MFLUCC 14-0505) in Amorosiaceae were used as outgroup taxa. Single gene analyses were also performed to compare the topology and clade stability with combined gene analyses. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood values of − 17538.189018 is presented. The matrix had 1073 distinct alignment patterns, with 22.77% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.2484248, C = 0.2519696, G = 0.2665036, T = 0.2331016; substitution rates AC = 1.4621358, AG = 22.4568366, AT = 1.1916542, CG = 1.3290588, CT = 17.2712454, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 1.003752. Bootstrap values for maximum likelihood (ML) equal to or greater than 70% and clade credibility values greater than 0.90 BYPP (the rounding of values to 2 decimal proportions) from Bayesian-inference analysis labeled on the nodes. Ex-type strains are in bold and black, the new isolate is indicated in blue


Macrodiplodiopsidaceae Voglmayr, Jaklitsch & Crous

Notes: Macrodiplodiopsidaceae was introduced by Crous et al. (2015a) to accommodate Macrodiplodiopsis Petr. and Pseudochaetosphaeronema Punith based on molecular phylogeny. Tanaka et al. (2015) accepted the asexual genera Camarographium Bubák, Macrodiplodiopsis and Pseudochaetosphaeronema in Macrodiplodiopsidaceae and treated the family in suborder Massarineae. Ariyawansa et al. (2015a) introduced the genus Pseudomonodictys Doilom et al. to this family. Wijayawardene et al. (2018a) accepted only two genera in Macrodiplodiopsidaceae viz. Macrodiplodiopsis and Pseudomonodictys. While, Pseudochaetosphaeronema and Camarographium were treated in Pleosporales genera incertae sedis (Wijayawardene et al. 2018a). In this study, Pseudochaetosphaeronema forms a clade with Macrodiplodiopsis and Pseudomonodictys in Macrodiplodiopsidaceae (Fig. 49). Therefore, we reinstate the genus in Macrodiplodiopsidaceae.


Pseudochaetosphaeronema Punith.

Notes: Pseudochaetosphaeronema was proposed by Punithalingam (1979) based on Pseudochaetosphaeronema larense (Borelli & R. Zamora) Punith. Later, four species P. martinelli S.A. Ahmed, Desbois, Miossec, Atoche, Bonifaz & de Hoog (Ahmed et al. 2015), P. ginkgonis X.Y. Deng, T. Yuan Zhang & Yi X. Zhang (Zhang et al. 2016), P. pandanicola Tibpromma & K.D. Hyde (Tibpromma et al. 2018) and P. siamensis Jayasiri, E.B.G. Jones & K.D. Hyde (Jayasiri et al. 2019) were added to this genus. Species of Pseudochaetosphaeronema can be human pathogens, endophytes and saprobes. The asexual morphs are characterised by dark brown to black, nearly globose, scattered or gregarious, surficial conidiomata, monophialidic, cylindrical conidiogenous cells, hyaline, subglobose to oval, aseptate conidia and grey colonies on PDA (Jayasiri et al. 2019). The sexual morphs are undetermined. The LSU, SSU, ITS, TEF1-α and RPB2 loci are commonly considered to be reliable phylogenetic markers in the classification of Macrodiplodiopsidaceae (Ahmed et al. 2015; Zhang et al. 2016; Tibpromma et al. 2018; Jayasiri et al. 2019).


Pseudochaetosphaeronema kunmingense D.P. Wei, Wanas. & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557019; Facesoffungi number: FoF 07078; Fig. 48

Fig. 48
figure 48

Pseudochaetosphaeronema kunmingense (KUN-HKAS 102564, holotype). a Substrate (twig). b, c Conidiomata on substrate. d Vertical section of conidioma. e Pycnidial wall. fi Conidiogenous cells bearing conidia. j, k Colony on PDA from above and below. lo Conidia. p Germinating conidium. Scale bars: b = 500 µm, c = 200 µm, d = 50 µm, e, f, p = 20 µm, lo = 10 µm, gi = 5 µm

Etymology: The specific epithet “kunmingense” refers to the collecting site, Kunming City, Yunnan, China.

Holotype: KUN-HKAS 102564

Saprobic on decaying twig. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morph Coelomycetous. Conidiomata 180–250 μm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 221 μm, n = 5), pycnidial, erumpent to superficial, globose to subglobose scattered, black, glabrous, solitary, uni-loculate, without papilla. Pycnidial walls 15–50 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 30 μm, n = 30), outer layers comprised of thick-walled, brown cells of textura angularis, inner layers comprised of hyaline, thin-walled cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells 3–9 × 1–2.5 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 6 × 1.3 μm, n = 20), produced from inner stromatic tissue, monophialidic, cylindrical or ampulliform, integrated, hyaline, smooth-walled. Conidia 10–15 × 4–6 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 13 × 5 μm, n = 50), hyaline when immature, becoming brown at maturity, typically fusiform with round ends, occasionally oval, smooth-walled, 3-septate, slightly constricted at the septa.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on WA and germ tubes produced from conidium within 24 h. Colonies growing on PDA, circular, with flat surface, edge entire, cotton, reaching 20 mm diam. in 10 days at 25 °C, gray upper and reverse view with pale gray margin on PDA medium.

Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Kunming City, Kunming Institute of Botany, on decaying twig of Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) Loudon (Rosaceae), 19 August 2018, D.P. Wei, KIB1902 (KUN-HKAS 102564, holotype), ex-type living culture, KUMCC 19-0215.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN792812, LSU = MN792815, SSU = MN792814, TEF1-α = MN794017.

Notes: In the concatenated gene analyses, Pseudochaetosphaeronema kunmingense shows a close phylogenetic affinity to P. siamensis Jayasiri, E.B.G. Jones & K.D. Hyde (MFULCC 17-2287) with strong support (100% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 49). Morphologically, P. kunmingense is similar to P. siamensis in having dark brown, uni-loculate, globose to subglobose, glabrous perithecia, monophialidic, cylindrical conidiogenous cells and gray to brown colonies. But it differs from P. siamensis in conidial morphology with P. kunmingense having septate, fusiform, yellow-brown, conidia and P. siamensis in having hyaline to subhyaline, subglobose to oval, aseptate conidia (Jayasiri et al. 2019). The comparison of ITS sequences between P. kunmingense (KUN-HKAS 102564) and P. siamensis (MFULCC 17-2287) shows 37 bp differences (6%) within 510 bp. Thus, we introduce our isolates as a new species according to the guidelines of Jeewon and Hyde (2016).

Fig. 49
figure 49

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence data representing suborder Massarineae in Pleosporales. Related sequences are taken from Phukhamsakda et al. (2016). Sixty-four strains are included in the combined analyses which comprised 3085 characters (808 characters for LSU, 963 characters for SSU, 471 characters for ITS, 843 characters for TEF1-α) after alignment. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of − 17310.739106 is presented. The matrix had 992 distinct alignment patterns, with 34.19% of undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.241498, C = 0.240612, G = 0.272871, T = 0.245019; substitution rates: AC = 1.471176, AG = 2.947321, AT = 1.799343, CG = 1.117933, CT = 8.219803, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.486274. Bootstrap support values for ML equal to or greater than 70% and BYPP equal to or greater than 0.95 are given above the nodes. Newly generated sequences are in blue bold and type species are in black bold. Alternaria alternata (CBS 916.96) and Leptosphaeria doliolum (CBS 505.75) in Pleosporineae (Pleosporales) were used as the outgroup taxa


Melanommataceae G. Winter

Notes: The family Melanommataceae was introduced by Winter (1885) with Melanomma Nitschke ex Fuckel as the type genus. The family is characterised by globose or depressed perithecial ascomata, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, bitunicate and fissitunicate asci, pigmented and phragmosporous ascospores (Hyde et al. 2013; Tian et al. 2015; Li et al. 2016b, 2017a; Tennakoon et al. 2018a). Most species of this family are saprobic or hyperparasitic and occur mainly on twigs or bark of various woody plants from terrestrial, marine or freshwater habitats, and are widespread in temperate and subtropical regions (Zhang et al. 2012; Hyde et al. 2013; Tian et al. 2015). Tian et al. (2015) accepted 20 genera and provided the most detailed of morphological and multi-gene (LSU, SSU, TEF1-α and RPB2) phylogenetic data for this family. Many new species and genera have been added to this family (Li et al. 2016b, 2017a; Hyde et al. 2016; Almeida et al. 2017; Jaklitsch and Voglmayr 2017; Tibpromma et al. 2017; Tennakoon et al. 2018a; Pem et al. 2019c). The family includes 33 genera (Hongsanan et al. in prep.).


Camposporium Harkn.

Notes: Camposporium was introduced by Harkness (1884) with a single species Camposporium antennatum Harkn. The genus is characterised by dematiaceous, simple conidiophores, terminal, integrated, denticulate conidiogenous cells, and the conidia are typically cylindrical and elongate, multi-septate, rounded at one or both ends, often the cells at each end are paler in pigmentation than the central cells, the apex is either simple or has one or more cylindrical appendages, the base typically has a persistent portion of the denticle attached (Hughes 1951; Ellis 1971; Ichinoe 1971; Whitton et al. 2002). Species of this genus have been reported in many countries (Argentina, Australia, Brunei, India, Canada, Hawaii, Hungary and Japan) from freshwater and terrestrial habitats. (Rao and Rao 1964; Dudka 1966; Ichinoe 1971; Matsushima 1971, 1983; Shearer 1974; Ellis 1976; Abdullah 1980; Castañeda 1985; Mercado et al. 1995; Whitton et al. 2002).

Hughes (1951) reviewed this genus and accepted four species. Subsequently, 16 additional species have been described in this genus (Rao and Rao 1964; Dudka 1966; Ichinoe 1971; Matsushima 1971, 1983; Shearer 1974; Ellis 1976; Abdullah 1980; Castañeda 1985; Mercado et al. 1995; Whitton et al. 2002; Thakur et al. 2014; Adamčík et al. 2015), and 20 species are now accepted in this genus. Crous et al. (2018b) found that Camposporium antennatum and Fusiconidium mackenziei clustered together within Melanommataceae in their phylogenetic analyses. However, the placement of Camposporium is still doubtful. In this study, we added all the strains of Camposporium in our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of Melanommataceae and the result showed that Camposporium and Fusiconidium grouped together within Melanommataceae. However, these two genera are morphological different in the conidiogenesis cells and conidial shape. We, therefore, treat these two genera as distinct until phylogenetic affinities between these two genera are well-resolved. We place Camposporium in Melanommataceae based on phylogeny. We added three new species in Camposporium and introduced a new record of C. pellucidum based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses. In addition, a new combination C. lycopodiellae is introduced for Fusiconidium lycopodiellae.


Camposporium appendiculatum D.F. Bao, Z.L. Luo, K.D. Hyde & H.Y. Su, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557026; Facesoffungi number: FoF 07064; Fig. 50

Fig. 50
figure 50

Camposporium appendiculatum (DLU 1234, holotype). a Appearance of the fungus on wood. bk Conidia. l Conidiophores. m Germinating conidium. Scale bars: b = 50 μm, cm = 30 μm

Etymology: Referring to the apendages of this fungus.

Holotype: DLU 1234

Saprobic on submerged decaying wood in freshwater. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphColonies on substratum effuse, superficial, black. Mycelium immersed, composed of brown, branched, smooth hyphae. Conidiophores micronematous, mononematous, very short, simple, unbranched, flexuous, pale brown to subhyaline, smooth. Conidiogenous cells mono- or polyblastic, terminal, integrated, denticulate, subhyaline. Conidia 107–119 μm long (\( \bar{x} \) = 113.2 μm, SD = 6.1, n = 30), 9.5–11.5 μm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 10.4 μm, SD = 1, n = 30), solitary, cylindrical, elongate, 10–13-septate, pale brown at middle cells, hyaline at both the end cells, truncate at both of ends, the apex with a filiform, septate, hyaline apical appendage, 72–114 μm long (\( \bar{x} \) = 107.8 μm, SD = 35.9, n = 25), 3.5–4.8 μm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 4.2 μm, SD = 0.6, n = 25), smooth.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on PDA within 24 h. Colonies on PDA at room temperature reaching 2.5 cm diam. in 3 weeks, mycelium pale brown to greyish brown after 3 weeks, composed of pale brown to brown, septate, smooth hyphae.

Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, saprobic on submerged decaying wood in Lancang River, December 2016, Z.L. Luo, 2L H 6–3–2, S-1234 (DLU 1234, holotype), ex-type living culture, DLUCC 1234.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN758890, LSU = MN759021, SSU = MN758956, TEF1-α = MN784094.

Notes: Morphologically, Camposporium appendiculatum is similar to C. cambrense S. Hughes in having short, simple, unbranched conidiophores, mono- or polyblastic, terminal, integrated conidiogenous cells and cylindrical, elongate, septate conidia with a single appendage at apex. However, C. appendiculatum has 10–13-septate conidia with truncate at both ends, whereas, C. cambrense has 3–15-septate conidia, rounded at apex and truncate base. Phylogenetically, C. appendiculatum is not close to C. cambrense, rather it clusters with C. multiseptatum and is sister to C. lycopodiellae (≡ Fusiconidium lycopodiellae) with a strong statistical support (99% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 55).


Camposporium lycopodiellae (Crous & R.K. Schumach.) Tibpromma & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557244; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06524

Fusiconidium lycopodiellae Crous & R.K. Schumach., Fungal Systematics and Evolution 1: 188 (2018)


Description and illustration: See Crous et al. (2018b)


Notes: Fusiconidium lycopodiellae was introduced by Crous et al. (2018b) and was collected from Germany on stems of Lycopodiella inundata. Crous et al. (2018b) mentioned that this species is reminiscent of Clasterosporium but it lacks hyphopodia. Based on LSU sequence data F. lycopodiellae allied with Fusiconidium, but it also lacks percurrent proliferation of the conidiogenous cells and fusoid to ellipsoid conidia. Therefore Crous et al. (2018b) tentatively named their collection as Fusiconidium.

In our phylogenetic analysis based on combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence, Fusiconidium lycopodiellae clustered with Camposporium with high support (99% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 55). Therefore, the description of the new combined Camposporium lycopodiellae (≡ Fusiconidium lycopodiellae) follows Crous et al. (2018b). Thus, we propose the transfer of Fusiconidium lycopodiellae under the new combination Camposporium lycopodiellae, based on morphological similarities and phylogenetic analysis.


Camposporium multiseptatum D.F. Bao, Z.L. Luo, K.D. Hyde & H.Y. Su, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557025; Facesoffungi number: FoF 07063; Fig. 51

Fig. 51
figure 51

Camposporium multiseptatum (DLU 792, holotype). a Appearance of the fungus on wood. bh Conidiophores with conidiogenous cells and conidia. i Surface view of culture on PDA. j Reverse view of culture on PDA. Scale bars: bh = 30 μm

Etymology: Referring to multi-septate conidia of this species.

Holotype: DLU 792

Saprobic on submerged decaying wood in freshwater. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphColonies on substratum effuse, superficial, black. Mycelium immersed, composed of hyaline, branched, smooth hyphae. Conidiophores micronematous, mononematous, short, simple, unbranched, flexuous, pale brown to subhyaline, smooth. Conidiogenous cells mono- or polyblastic, terminal, determinate, subhyaline. Conidia 97–111 μm long (\( \bar{x} \) = 103.8 μm, SD = 7.2, n = 30), 9–11 μm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 9.8 μm, SD = 0.8, n = 30), fusiform to cylindrical, truncate at both of the ends, 10–13-septate, dark brown at central cells, paler both of end cells, with a short, septate, subhyaline, single appendage at apex, 11–17 μm long (\( \bar{x} \) = 13.8 μm, SD = 3, n = 15), 3.5–4.7 μm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 4.1 μm, SD = 0.6, n = 15), smooth.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on PDA within 24 h. Colonies on MEA at room temperature reaching 3.3 cm diam. in 3 weeks, mycelium grayish brown to dark brown after 4 weeks, composed brown to dark brown, septate, smooth hyphae.

Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, saprobic on submerged decaying wood in Dulong River, October 2016, Z.L. Lou, 2D H 1–4–2, S-792 (DLU 792, holotype), ex-type living culture, DLUCC 792.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN758889, LSU = MN759020, SSU = MN758955, TEF1-α = MN784093.

Notes: Camposporium multiseptatum is phylogenetically close to C. appendiculatum (Fig. 55). Morphologically, C. multiseptatum is similar to C. appendiculatum in having short, simple conidiophores, mono- or polyblastic, terminal, determinate conidiogenous cells and cylindrical, septate conidia, truncate at both ends, with a single appendage at apex. However, C. multiseptatum differs from C. appendiculatum in having shorter appendage (11–17 μm versus 72–114 μm). Moreover, we compared the base pairs of TEF1-α gene regions, and there are 17 base pairs that were different in 875 nucleotides of the TEF1-α region. These results strongly support our isolate to be a new species.


Camposporium pellucidum (Grove) S. Hughes, Mycological Papers 36: 9 (1951)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 07065, Fig. 52

Fig. 52
figure 52

Camposporium pellucidum (DLU 1239). a Colonies on wood. b, c Conidiophores with conidia. dh Conidia. i Germinating conidium. j, k Culture on PDA from surface and reverse. Scale bars: bi = 30 μm

Bactrodesmium caulincola var. pellucidum Grove, J. Bot., Lond. 24: 200 (1886)

Saprobic on submerged decaying wood in freshwater. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphColonies on substratum effuse, superficial, black. Mycelium mostly immersed, composed of hyaline, branched, smooth hyphae. Conidiophores micronematous, mononematous, solitary, short, unbranched, flexuous, septate, pale brown to subhyaline, smooth. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, terminal, integrated into the apical region of the conidiophores, subhyaline, smooth. Conidia 112–157 μm long (\( \bar{x} \) = 134.5 μm, SD = 22.3, n = 30), 8.8–12.3 μm wide (\( \bar{x} \) = 10.6 μm, SD = 1.7, n = 30), solitary, cylindrical to elongate, rounded at apex, truncate at the ends, 10–16-septate, the middle cells are brown, both of end cells are pale brown to subhyaline, without appendage.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on PDA within 24 h. Colonies on PDA at room temperature reaching 2 cm diam. in 2 weeks, mycelium pale brown to grayish brown after 3 weeks, composed pale brown to brown, septate, smooth hyphae.

Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, saprobic on submerged decaying wood in Lancang River, December 2016, Z.L. Luo, 2L H 4–36–3, S-1239 (DLU 1239), living culture, DLUCC 1239.

Known host and distribution: Occurring on wood, bark, fruit of various trees, shrubs and dead herbaceous stems (Finland, Britain and Netherlands; Gönczöl and Révay 2004).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN758891, LSU = MN759022, SSU = MN758957, TEF1-α = MN784095.

Notes: Camposporium pellucidum S. Hughes was introduced by Hughes (1951) based on the variety Bactrodesmium caulincola var. pellucidum Grove. It is characterized by macronematous, mononematous, unbranched conidiophores, cylindrical or more usually cylindric-fusoid conidia, up to 16-septate, truncated at base, rounded at apex or subulate elongated into a long filiform septate appendage. Morphologically, our new isolate fits well with the characters of C. pellucidum in having macronematous, mononematous, unbranched conidiophores and similar size (112–157 × 8.8–12.3 versus 80–140 × 7.5–12 μm), septation (10–17 versus 7–16) and shape of conidia (cylindrical to elongate, rounded at apex, truncate at the ends). However, in our specimen we did not observe the appendage. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that our isolate clustered with C. pellucidum with high statistical support (97% ML, 0.99 BYPP; Fig. 55). Therefore, we identified our isolate as C. pellucidum and it is a new record for China.


Camposporium septatum N.G. Liu, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557182; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06711; Fig. 53

Fig. 53
figure 53

Camposporium septatum (MFLU 19-2851, holotype). a, b Colonies on natural substrate. c, d Conidiophores and conidia. eh Conidia. i Germinated conidium. Scale bars: ci = 20 μm

Etymology: Name reflects the septate conidia.

Holotype: MFLU 19-2851

Saprobic on submerged decaying wood in a freshwater. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morph Hyphomycetous. Colonies on natural substrate, effuse, golden brown, velvety. Mycelium mostly immersed, composed of white, septate, branched and guttulate hyphae. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, often procumbent on substrate, pale brown to median brown, unbranched, irregularly cylindrical, flexuous, septate, thick-walled. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, terminal, integrated, subcylindrical, pale brown. Conidia 98–125 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 110 μm, n = 30) long, 7–11.5 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 9 μm, n = 30) wide at middle, 3.5–6 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 4.5 μm, n = 30) wide at base, solitary, dry, cylindrical, elongate, median brown, paler at base, finely verrucose, (8–)9(–11)-septate, not constricted or slightly constricted at the septa, apex rounded, basal cell truncate, the apical cell gives rise to (2–)3 simple appendages; appendage hyaline, aseptate, smooth, tapering from the base to the apex.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on water agar within 24 h. Germ tubes produced from the basal cell of conidia. Mycelia superficial, irregularly circular, with entire edge, from above yellowish gray in the centre, gray at the edge.

Material examined: THAILAND, Chiang Rai Province, Muang, Ban Nang Lae Nai, on decaying wood submerged in a freshwater stream, 6 March 2018, N.G. Liu, CR089 (MFLU 19-2851, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 19-0483.

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN758892, LSU = MN759023, SSU = MN758958, TEF1-α = MN784096.

Notes: Camposporium septatum resembles C. fusisporum Whitton, McKenzie & K.D. Hyde in conidial length (98–125 versus 86–115 μm) and number of septa ((8–)9(–11) versus 8–11). Moreover, these two species have 2–3 apical appendages. However, the conidia of C. fusisporum are much wider than those of C. septatum (13.5–19 versus 7–11.5 μm) (Whitton et al. 2002). Phylogenetic analyses of a combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence dataset showed that C. septatum forms a distinct lineage basal to Fusiconidium with high support (91% ML, 1.00 BYPP; Fig. 55). However, Camposporium septatum is morphologically different from Fusiconidium in conidiogenesis and conidial shape (Li et al. 2017a), but fits well to Camposporium. Therefore, we introduce our new species as C. septatum.


Uzbekistanica Wanas., Gafforov & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Uzbekistanica was introduced by Wanasinghe et al. (2018) with U. rosae-hissaricae Wanas., Gafforov & K.D. Hyde as the type species. The genus was introduced to accommodate taxa having dictyosporous ascospores with a coelomycetous asexual morph which was collected from Rosa in Uzbekistan. Two species are accommodated in this genus viz. U. rosae-hissaricae and U. yakutkhanika Wanas., Gafforov & K.D. Hyde (Wanasinghe et al. 2018; Index Fungorum 2020). We follow the latest treatment and updated account of Uzbekistanica in Wanasinghe et al. (2018). We introduce a new Uzbekistanica pruni based on phylogenetic and morphological evidence.


Uzbekistanica pruni Chaiwan, Wanas., Bulgakov & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557062; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02777; Fig. 54

Fig. 54
figure 54

Uzbekistanica pruni (MFLU 17-2136, holotype). a, b Appearance of conidiomata on host. c Section of conidioma. d Ostiole. e Pycnidial wall. fh Conidiogenous cells (g, h = stained with congo red). im Conidia (j, l = stained with congo red). Scale bars: c = 200 µm, d = 50 µm, e = 20 µm, fh = 15 µm, im = 10 µm

Etymology: The specific epithet “pruni” refers to the host genus, Prunus, from which the holotype was collected.

Holotype: MFLU 17-2136

Saprobic or weak pathogenic on dead twigs of Prunus armeniaca. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morphConidiomata 220–265 μm high, 260–380 μm diam. (\( \bar{x} \) = 245 × 340 μm, n = 10), pycnidial, solitary, scattered, semi-immersed in the host, subglobose to ampulliform, indistinct ostiolate. Pycnidial walls 25–35 μm wide, outer and inner layers composed of dark brown cells, 3–4 layers and thick-walled, hyaline cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells 10–22 μm × 4–6 μm, holoblastic, ampulliform, hyaline, smooth, swollen at the base, discrete, producing a single conidium at the apex. Conidia 11–16 × 6–10 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 14 × 9 μm, n = 50), oblong to ellipsoidal, with rounded ends, occassionally truncate base, initially hyaline, unicellular, becoming dark brown before release from the pycnidia, 3–4-septate, not constricted at the septa, with thickenned, septal bands, slightly thick-walled.

Material examined: RUSSIA, Rostov region, Shakhty City, private garden, on dead and dying branches of Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae), 11 May 2017, T.S. Bulgakov, T-1834 (MFLU 17-2136, holotype).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN758893, LSU = MN759024, TEF1-α = MN784097.

Notes: Uzbekistanica pruni has brown, oblong to ellipsoidal, 3–4-septate conidia whereas U. yakutkhanika has dark brown, oval to ovoid and 1-septate conidia (Wanasinghe et al. 2018). Phylogenetically this species forms a distinct lineage basal to Uzbekistanica (0.98 BYPP; Fig. 55). Therefore, U. pruni is introduced as a novel species from Prunus armeniaca in Russia.

Fig. 55
figure 55

Phylogenetic tree generated from maximum likelihood (ML) analysis based on combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence dataset for the species from Melanommataceae. Cyclothyriella rubronotata (CBS 121892 and CBS 141486) were used as the outgroup taxon. The dataset comprised 3216 characters including gaps (LSU: 1–840; SSU: 841–1850; ITS: 1851–2341 and TEF1-α: 2342–3216). The RAxML analysis of the combined dataset yielded a best scoring tree with a final ML optimization likelihood value of − 15146.729361. The matrix had 882 distinct alignment patterns, with 26.56% undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.246328, C = 0.238141, G = 0.275690, T = 0.239841; substitution rates AC = 2.336359, AG = 4.382849, AT = 2.267052, CG = 1.191360, CT = 17.215273, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.180969. Support values for maximum likelihood (ML) higher than 75% and Bayesian posterior probabilities (BYPP) greater than 0.95 are given at the nodes


Occultibambusaceae D.Q. Dai & K.D. Hyde

Notes: We follow the latest treatment and updated account of Occultibambusaceae in Phookamsak et al. (2019).


Occultibambusa D.Q. Dai & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Occultibambusa was introduced to accommodate O. bambusae D.Q. Dai & K.D. Hyde. Dai et al. (2017) and Zhang et al. (2017) provided updated accounts for this genus.


Occultibambusa bambusae D.Q. Dai & K.D. Hyde, in Dai et al., Fungal Divers.: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-016-0367-8, [26] (2016)

Facesoffungi number: FoF 01975; Fig. 56

Fig. 56
figure 56

Occultibambusa bambusae (MFLU 19-2696) a, b Appearance of ascomata on the host. c Section through ascoma. d Section through peridium. e Mycelial structures on the ascomatal wall. f Pseudoparaphyses. gi Different developing stages of the asci. jm Ascospores. n Ascospore stained in Indian ink. o Germinating ascospore. Scale bars: c = 100 μm, d, gi, o = 20 μm, e, f, jn = 10 μm

Holotype: THAILAND, Chiang Rai Province, Mae Fah Luang Unversity, on dead culms of bamboo, 9 July 2013, D.Q. Dai, DDQ00262 (MFLU 15-1212), ex-type living cultures, MFLUCC 13-0855 = CBS 139960 = MUCL 55882.

Saprobic on dead culms of Miscanthus gigantius, forming dark, round spots on host surface, with ascostromata on raised areas, erumpent. Sexual morphAscostromata 151–196 μm high, 368–518 μm diam., solitary, scattered, immersed, subglobose, slightly conical in section, uni-loculate, black at the ostiolar regions, coriaceous, with a central, rounded, papillate ostiole, lined internally with periphyses. Peridium comprising host and fungal tissues, 26–42 μm thick, composed of brown to hyaline, thick- to thin-walled cells of textura angularis, intermingled with host cells, wedge of palisade-like cells at the periphery: 46–63 μm thick, composed of large, brown cells. Hamathecium composed of septate, cellular pseudoparaphyses branching above the asci. Asci 60–84 × 11–18 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 72 × 14.5 μm, n = 20), 8-spored, bitunicate, broadly cylindrical, with a short furcate pedicel, with a shallow ocular apical chamber. Ascospores 20–28 × 3.8–7 μm (\( \bar{x} \) = 24 × 5.4 μm, n = 20), 1-seriate, slightly broad and fusiform, 1-septate, occasionally with larger upper cell, narrowly acute at both ends, dark brown, straight to curved, surrounded by a gelatinous sheath, each cell with 2–3 guttules. Asexual morph Undetermined.

Culture characteristics: Ascospores germinating on PDA within 24 h with germ tubes produced from both cells. Colonies growing slowly on PDA circular, entire, floccose, with even margin, dark green to brown above and below.

Material examined: TAIWAN, Chia Yi Province, Kwang Hwa, Miscanthus gigantius (Poaceae), 27 April 2018, A. Karunarathna, AKTW 65 (MFLU 19-2696), living culture, NCYUCC 19-0370.

Known host and distribution: On dead culms of bamboo (Thailand; Dai et al. 2017), on Miscanthus gigantius (Taiwan; this study).

GenBank numbers: ITS = MN937238, LSU = MN937220.

Notes: Our strain NCYUCC 19-0370 isolated from the collection MFLU 19-2696, shows many similarities with Occultibambusa bambusae in having broadly cylindrical asci, with a short furcate pedicel and a shallow ocular apical chamber, and brown, fusiform, 1-septate ascospores. Our collection also shares the size range of ascomata, asci and ascospores with O. bambusae (Dai et al. 2017). However, our collection shows some variations from O. bambusae in having setae on the upper surface of the ascomata. In the phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 57), our strain NCYUCC 19-0370 has a close relationship with O. chiangraiensis Phukhams. & K.D. Hyde (MFLUCC 16-0380) and O. bambusae (MFLUCC 11-0394, MFLUCC 13-0855) with high support (98% ML, 1.00 BYPP). However, our collection differs from O. chiangraiensis in having frequently 1-septate ascospores, whereas O. chiangraiensis has 3-septate ascospores (Hyde et al.