Plant-microbe-animal interactions - Original research


, Volume 175, Issue 4, pp 1257-1266

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Plants respond to leaf vibrations caused by insect herbivore chewing

  • H. M. AppelAffiliated withBond Life Sciences Center and Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri Email author 
  • , R. B. CocroftAffiliated withDivision of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri


Plant germination and growth can be influenced by sound, but the ecological significance of these responses is unclear. We asked whether acoustic energy generated by the feeding of insect herbivores was detected by plants. We report that the vibrations caused by insect feeding can elicit chemical defenses. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) rosettes pre-treated with the vibrations caused by caterpillar feeding had higher levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin defenses when subsequently fed upon by Pieris rapae (L.) caterpillars than did untreated plants. The plants also discriminated between the vibrations caused by chewing and those caused by wind or insect song. Plants thus respond to herbivore-generated vibrations in a selective and ecologically meaningful way. A vibration signaling pathway would complement the known signaling pathways that rely on volatile, electrical, or phloem-borne signals. We suggest that vibration may represent a new long distance signaling mechanism in plant–insect interactions that contributes to systemic induction of chemical defenses.


Vibrational signaling Insect herbivore Plant–insect interactions Chemical defenses Glucosinolates Anthocyanins Arabidopsis thaliana Pieris rapae