Analysis of internal and external energy flows associated with projected process improvements in biomass ethanol production

  • Kevin Stone
  • Lee R. Lynd
Session 4 Process Economics and Commercialization

DOI: 10.1007/BF02933459

Cite this article as:
Stone, K. & Lynd, L.R. Appl Biochem Biotechnol (1995) 51: 569. doi:10.1007/BF02933459


Possible improvements in biomass ethanol production are decribed involving heat-pumped distillation, steam-cycle heat integration, elimination of seed fermenters, pretreatment heat integration, advanced pretreatment, thermophilic DMC, and incrased carbohydrate yield to 90% of theoretical. Although speculative, a futuristic process incorporating these improvements may be useful for anticipating some features of a technologically mature biomass ethanol process, as well as for comparing ethanol production to more technologically mature energy-conversion processes. Relative to the current state-of-the-art National Renewable Energy Laboratory process design, the futuristic process has 101% higher electricity revenue, 31% hgiher ethanol revenue, and 35–39% higher overall revenue depending on the assumed ethanol value. The overall first-law thermodynamic efficiency is 43% for the current NREL design and 59% for the futuristic process. A general consideration of the costs associated with the process improvements examined indicates that:
  1. 1.

    Elimination of seed reactors, advanced pretreatment, and thermophilic DMC all have large potential cost reductions independent of their benefits with respect to increased surplus electricity;

  2. 2.

    Steam cycle improvements and pretreatment heat integration are expected to have modest cost benefits that are dependent on increased electricity revenues; and

  3. 3.

    The relative cost of heat-pumped distillation depends on scale, capital recovery, and electricity value, but is generally similar to the already low cost of conventional distillation provided that the fermentation broth has a reasonably high ethanol concentration.


A comparison of utilizing biomass for ethanol-electricity coproduction and utilizing biomass for dedicated electricity production indicates that these two alternatives have approximately equal economic benefits. At the electricity yields associated with the futuristic process, every 1% displacement of US transportation demand is accompanied by a 0.29% displacement of electricity demand, underscoring the potential significance of electricity coproduced with ethanol in meeting energy needs.

Index Entries

Biomass ethanol electricity efficiency cogeneration 

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Stone
    • 1
  • Lee R. Lynd
    • 2
  1. 1.General Electric CompanyIndustrial and Power SystemsSchenectady
  2. 2.Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Program, Thayer School of EngineeringDartmouth CollegeHanover

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