Viruses and Immunosuppression

General Comments
  • Steven Specter
  • Herman Friedman
  • Mauro Bendinelli
Part of the Infectious agents and pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Abstract

The recognition that viruses are able to compromise immunity dates back to the observation by von Pirquet in 1908 that measles infection resulted in a reduced delayed hypersensitivity response in patients who would normally respond to tubercle bacillus antigens. Thus, von Pirquet was the first to suggest an immunologic explanation for the increased susceptibility to superinfection observed in patients with viral diseases. This was followed a decade later by a report in 1919 that influenza virus could also suppress tuberculin reactivity. The investigation of viruses and their effects on immunity then went unre-ported for 40 years. Beginning about 1960, oncogenic viruses were given serious consideration as immunosuppressive agents. This was first alluded to by Old and colleagues, and a few years later, Good and co-workers presented the first systematic evaluation of suppression of antibody responses by murine leukemia viruses.(1,2) During the late 1960s and early 1970s, there was a flurry of activity in this field. Numerous reports supported the concept that oncogenic viruses suppress immunity. Both humoral and cellular immunity were shown to be depressed. Concomitant to studies with oncogenic viruses, similar studies with many nononcogenic viruses also resulted in findings of immunosuppressive activity(3,4) Many investigators considered virus-induced immunosuppression important to the establishment of persistent infections that lead to chronic diseases or tumor formation. However, during the mid-1970s, the emphasis in virus biology moved away from this field and the number of studies in this area decreased.

Keywords

Hepatitis Depression Lymphoma Leukemia Corticosteroid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Old, L., B. Benacerraf, D. A. Clark, and H. Goldsmith, The reticuloendothelial system and the neoplastic process, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 88:264–280 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Peterson, R. D. A., R. Hendrickson, and R. A. Good, Reduced antibody forming capacity during the incubation period of passage A leukemia in C3H mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 114:517–520 (1960).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Specter, S., and H. Friedman, Viruses and the immune response, Pharmacol. Ther. A 2:595–622 (1978).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Szentivanyi, A. and H. Friedman (eds.), Viruses, Immunity and Immunodeficiency ,Plenum, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Editor, What to call the AIDS virus, Nature (Lond.) 321:10 (1986).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Popovic, M., M. G. Sarngadharan, E. Read, and R. C. Gallo, Detection, isolation and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre AIDS, Science 224:497–500 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rose, N. R., H. Friedman, and J. L. Fahey (eds.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology ,3rd ed., American Society of Microbiology, Washington, D. C. (1986).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Specter, S., and G. J. Lancz (eds.), Clinical Virology Manual ,Elsevier, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Escobar, M. R., and P. D. Swenson, Mechanisms of viral immunopathology, in: The Reticuloendothelial System: A Comprehensive Treatise ,Vol. 4: Immunopathology (N. R. Rose and B. V. Siegel, eds.), pp. 201–254, Plenum, New York (1983).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sissons, J. G. P., and M. B. A. Oldstone, Host response to viral infections, in: Fundamental Virology (B. N. Fields and D. M. Knipe, eds.), pp. 265–279, Raven, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mogensen, S. C., Macrophages and genetically determined natural resistance to virus infections, in: Viruses, Immunity and Immunodeficiency (A. Szentivanyi and H. Friedman, eds.), pp. 13–24, Plenum, New York (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dinarello, C. A., Interleukin-1, Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:52–57 (1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Varesio, L., Suppressor cells and cancer: Inhibition of immune functions of macrophages, in: The Reticuloendothelial System: A Comprehensive Treatise ,Vol. 5: Cancer (R. B. Herberman and H. Friedman, eds.), pp. 217–252, Plenum, New York (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Herberman, R. B., M. E. Nunn, H. T. Holden, and D. H. Lavrin, Natural cytotoxic reactivity of mouse lymphoid cells against syngeneic and allogeneic tumors. II. Characterization of effector cells, Int. J. Cancer 16:230–239 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lopez, C., Natural resistance mechanisms in herpes virus infections, in: Viruses, Immunity and Immunodeficiency (A. Szentivanyi and H. Friedman, eds.), pp. 3–11, Plenum, New York (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Herberman, R. B., Natural killer cell activity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, in: Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology ,3rd ed. (N. R. Rose, H. Friedman, and J. L. Fahey, eds.), pp. 308–314, American Society of Microbiology, Washington, D. C. (1986).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hirsch, R. L., The complement system: Its importance in the host response to viral infection, Microbiol. Rev. 46:71–85 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dulbecco, R., and H. S. Ginsberg, Virology ,Harper &Row, Hagerstown, Maryland (1985).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Watson, J. D., R. L. Prestridge, D. Y. Mochizuki, and S. Gillis, Interleukin 2, in: Recognition and Regulation in Cell-Mediated Immunity (J. D. Watson and J. Marbrook, eds.), pp. 265–290, Dekker, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ihle, J. N. and Y. Weinstein, Interleukin 3: Regulation of a lineage of lymphocytes characterized by the expression of 20 SDH, in: Recognition and Regulation in Cell-Mediated Immunity (J. D. Watson and J. Marbrook, eds.), pp. 291–324, Dekker, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ceredig, R., J. W. Lowenthal, M. Nahholz, and H. R. MacDonald, Expression of interleukin 2 receptors as a differentiation marker on intrathymic stem cells, Nature (Lond.) 314:101–103 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hadden, J. W., S. Specter, and E. Hadden, Effects of T cell growth factor/interleukin 2 on prothymocytes, Lymphokine Res. 5:549–554 (1986).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Matis, L. A., S. Shu, E. S. Groves, S. Zinn, T. Chou, A. M. Kruisbeek, M. Rosenstein, and S. A. Rosenberg, Adoptive immunotherapy of a syngeneic murine leukemia with a tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell clone and recombinant human interleukin 2: Correlation with clonal IL-2 receptor expression, J. Immunol. 136:3496–3501 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Conlon, P. J., T. L. Washkewicz, D. Y. Mochizuki, K. L. Urdal, S. Gillis, and C. S. Henney, The treatment of induced immunodeficiency with interleukin 2, Immunol. Lett. 10:307–314(1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sehgal, P. B., L. M. Pfeffer, and I. Tamm, Interferon and its inducers, in: Chemotherapy of Viral Infections (P. E. Came and L. A. Caliguiri, eds.), pp. 205–312, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nash, A. A., Tolerance and suppression in virus diseases, Br. Med. Bull. 41:41–45 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Specter
    • 1
  • Herman Friedman
    • 1
  • Mauro Bendinelli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of MedicineUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiomedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations