Advertisement

Toxicology of Cadmium and Its Damage to Mammalian Organs

  • Frank ThévenodEmail author
  • Wing-Kee Lee
Part of the Metal Ions in Life Sciences book series (MILS, volume 11)

Abstract

The detrimental health effects of cadmium (Cd) were first described in the mid 19th century. As part of industrial developments, increasing usage of Cd has led to widespread contamination of the environment that threatens human health, particularly today. Rather than acute, lethal exposures, the real challenge in the 21st century in a global setting seems to be chronic low Cd exposure (CLCE), mainly from dietary sources. Ubiquity of Cd makes it a serious environmental health problem that needs to be thoroughly assessed because it already affects or will affect large proportions of the world’s population. CLCE is a health problem that affects increasingly organ toxicity, especially nephrotoxicity, without a known threshold, implying that there is currently no safe limit for CLCE. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the sources of Cd in the environment, describe the entry pathways for Cd into mammalian organisms, sum up the major organs targeted by acute or chronic Cd exposure and review the impact of Cd on organ function and human health. We also aim to put early pioneering studies on Cd poisoning into perspective in the context of recent ground-breaking prospective long-term population studies, which link CLCE to leading causes of diseases in modern societies – cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, and of state-of-the-art studies detailing cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic Cd toxicity.

Keywords

biomarkers cancer signaling toxicity transition metal transport 

Abbreviations and Definitions

ABCB1

multidrug resistance protein 1

ABCC2

multidrug resistance-associated protein 2

ABCC7

cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

ABCG2

ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2; breast cancer resistance protein

AIF

apoptosis-inducing factor

Akt

protein kinase B

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

ANT

adenine nucleotide translocase

ARFY

Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in Female Youngsters

ATF6

activating transcription factor 6

ATP

adenosine 5'-triphosphate

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry

b.w.

body weight

Bak

Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer

BAPTA

1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

BAPTA-AM

BAPTA acetoxymethyl ester

Bax

Bcl-2–associated X protein

BBB

blood-brain barrier

Bcl-2

B-cell lymphoma 2

BCRP

breast cancer resistance protein

CaMKII

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

cAMP

cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate

CAT

catalase

CC-16

Clara-cell protein

CFTR

cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

cGMP

cyclic 3'-5'-guanosine monophosphate

CHO

Chinese hamster ovary

CHOP

CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein

CLCE

chronic low cadmium exposure

cMOAT

canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter; multidrug resistance-associated protein 2

Cox-2

cyclooxygenase-2

CREB

cAMP response element-binding

CsA

cyclosporin A

CTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

Cu-ZnSOD

copper-zinc superoxide dismutase

Cys

cysteine

DCT1

divalent cation transporter 1

DMSA

dimercaptosuccinic acid

DMT1

divalent metal transporter 1

DNMT

DNA methyltransferase

DTPA

diethylenetriaminepentaacetate

EDTA

ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate

EF-hand

helix-loop-helix structural domain in calcium-binding proteins

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

EGTA

ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid

eIF2α

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A

EMT

epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

EPO

erythropoietin

ER

endoplasmic reticulum

ERAD

ER-associated degradation

ERK

extracellular signal-regulated kinases

ESR

electron spin resonance

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

EU

European Union

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

Fas

pro-apoptotic type-II transmembrane protein; CD95L

FPN1

ferroportin 1

G1

post-mitotic Gap 1 cell cycle phase

G2/M

post-mitotic Gap 2 / mitosis cell cycle phases

GCLC

glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

GH

growth hormone

GI

gastrointestinal

G-protein

guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein

GPx

glutathione peroxidase

GRP78

glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa

GRP94

glucose-regulated protein, 94kDa

GSH

glutathione

GSK3β

glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta

α-GST

α-glutathione-S-transferase

His

histidine

HMW

high molecular weight

i.v.

intravenous

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IC50

half maximal inhibitory concentration

ICAM-1

intercellular adhesion molecule 1

ICdA

International Cadmium Association

IKK

IκB kinase

IL

interleukin

IMM

inner mitochondrial membrane

IP3

inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

IRE1

inositol-requiring enzyme 1

IREG1

iron-regulated transporter 1; ferroportin 1

IκB

inhibitor of NF-κB

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinases

Keap1

Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1

Kim-1

kidney injury molecule-1

Km

Michaelis constant

LC3

microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3

LD50

median (50%) lethal dose

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

LEF

lymphoid enhancer factor-1 transcription factor

LMW

low molecular weight

Lrp

low-density-lipoprotein-related protein

MAPK

mitogen activated protein kinase

MCU

mitochondrial calcium uniporter

MDC

monodansylcadaverine

MDCK

Madin-Darby canine kidney (cells)

Mdm2

murine double minute 2

MDR1

multidrug resistance protein 1

MMP

mitochondrial membrane potential

MnSOD

manganese superoxide dismutase

MRL

minimal risk level

MRP2

multidrug resistance-associated protein 2

MT

metallothionein

mTOR

mammalian target of rapamycin

MTP1

metal-transporter protein 1; ferroportin 1

MW

molecular weight

NADPH

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced)

NAG

N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamidase

NF-κB

nuclear factor-κB

NGAL

neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

NHANES III

Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NO

nitric oxide

NOS

nitric oxide synthase

NRAMP2

natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-2

Nrf2

NF-E2-related factor 2

O\( _2^{\bullet - } \)

superoxide anion

OMM

outer mitochondrial membrane

ONOO

peroxinitrite anion

OSHA

Occupational Safety & Health Administration from the US Dept. of Labor

p38

p38 mitogen activated protein kinase

p53

tumor suppressor protein 53

PARP

poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

PC

phytochelatin

PERK

protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase

PGF

placental growth factor

PI3K

phosphoinositide 3 kinase

PIP2

phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

PIP3

phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate

PKA

protein kinase A

PKC

protein kinase C

PT

proximal tubule

PTP

permeability transition pore

Px

peroxidase

Ras

rat sarcoma proto-oncogene

RME

receptor-mediated endocytosis

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SERCA

sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase

SH

sulfhydryl

Shh

sonic Hedgehog

SOD

superoxide dismutase

Sp1

specificity protein 1 transcription factor

STAT3

signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 transcription factor

TCF

T-cell specific transcription factor 1

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor α

TRP

transient receptor potential (channel)

TRPM7

transient receptor potential malastatin 7 (channel)

TRPV5,6

transient receptor potential vanilloid 5,6 (channel)

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

uNGAL

urinary NGAL

UPR

unfolded protein response

VDAC

voltage-dependent anion channel

VE

vascular endothelial

WHO

World Health Organization

Wnt

wingless/Int-1 signaling protein

XBP1

X-box binding protein 1

ZIP

Zrt-/Irt-like protein

ΔΨm

mitochondrial membrane potential

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the scientific contributions of past and present coworkers, in particular Drs. M. Abouhamed, P. K. Chakraborty, J. M. Friedmann, C. Langelüddecke, and N. A. Wolff. Research in the laboratory is funded by The German Research Foundation (DFG) (grants FT345/8-1 to FT345/11-1) and the Centre for Biomedical Research and Training (ZBAF) at the University of Witten/Herdecke.

References

  1. 1.
    G. F. Nordberg, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Cadmium, Ed U. S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, Department of Health and Humans Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    CONTAM, The EFSA Journal 2009, 980, 1–139.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    CONTAM, The EFSA Journal 2011, 9, 1975.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    WHO, Cadmium, World Health Organization, 1992.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    OECD, Cadmium, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Environment Directorate, Paris, France, 1994.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    I. Meyer, J. Heinrich, U. Lippold, Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 234, 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    I. M. Olsson, I. Bensryd, T. Lundh, H. Ottosson, S. Skerfving, A. Oskarsson, Environ. Health Perspect. 2002, 110, 1185–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. J. Alloway, in Heavy Metals in Soils, Ed B. J. Alloway, Blackie Academic & Professional, London, 1995, pp. 122–151.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. E. Holm, H. Rootzen, O. K. Borggaard, J. P. Moberg, T. H. Christensen, J. Environ. Qual. 2003, 32, 138–145.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Kabata-Pendias, H. Pendias, Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2001.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Jarup, A. Akesson, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 201–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. H. Larsen, N. L. Andersen, A. Moller, A. Petersen, G. K. Mortensen, J. Petersen, Food Addit. Contam. 2002, 19, 33–46.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. K. Egan, P. M. Bolger, C. D. Carrington, J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 2007, 17, 573–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. L. MacIntosh, J. D. Spengler, H. Ozkaynak, L. Tsai, P. B. Ryan, Environ. Health Perspect. 1996, 104, 202–209.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. W. Thomas, E. D. Pellizzari, M. R. Berry, J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 1999, 9, 402–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Jarup, M. Berglund, C. G. Elinder, G. Nordberg, M. Vahter, Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 1998, 24 Suppl 1, 1–51.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. G. Elinder, T. Kjellstrom, B. Lind, L. Linnman, M. Piscator, K. Sundstedt, Environ. Res. 1983, 32, 220–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Satarug, M. R. Moore, Environ. Health Perspect. 2004, 112, 1099–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Willers, L. Gerhardsson, T. Lundh, Respir. Med. 2005, 99, 1521–1527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Bolte, D. Heitmann, M. Kiranoglu, R. Schierl, J. Diemer, W. Koerner, H. Fromme, J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 2008, 18, 262–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Oberdorster, IARC Sci. Publ. 1992, 189–204.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Bernard, R. Lauwerys, in Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Ed E. C. Foulkes, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1986, Vol. 80, pp. 135–177.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. G. Elinder, B. Lind, T. Kjellstrom, L. Linnman, L. Friberg, Arch. Environ. Health 1976, 31, 292–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. E. Cross, A. van der Vliet, C. A. O'Neill, S. Louie, B. Halliwell, Environ. Health Perspect. 1994, 102, Suppl. 10, 185–191.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. A. Hart, Q. Gong, J. D. Eneman, C. C. Durieux-Lu, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1995, 133, 82–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. M. Grasseschi, R. B. Ramaswamy, D. J. Levine, C. D. Klaassen, L. J. Wesselius, Chest 2003, 124, 1924–1928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Niitsuya, M. Watanabe, M. Okada, H. Shinji, T. Satoh, Y. Aizawa, Y. C. Cho, M. Kotani, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 2003, 66, 365–378.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Lag, D. Rodionov, J. Ovrevik, O. Bakke, P. E. Schwarze, M. Refsnes, Toxicol. Lett. 2010, 193, 252–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Jumarie, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2002, 1564, 487–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. A. Pearson, P. C. Lamar, W. C. Prozialeck, Life Sci. 2003, 72, 1303–1320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. P. Dalton, L. He, B. Wang, M. L. Miller, L. Jin, K. F. Stringer, X. Chang, C. S. Baxter, D. W. Nebert, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 3401–3406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. D. Fleming, C. C. Trenor, 3rd, M. A. Su, D. Foernzler, D. R. Beier, W. F. Dietrich, N. C. Andrews, Nat. Genet. 1997, 16, 383–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Gunshin, B. Mackenzie, U. V. Berger, Y. Gunshin, M. F. Romero, W. F. Boron, S. Nussberger, J. L. Gollan, M. A. Hediger, Nature 1997, 388, 482–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    K. Girijashanker, L. He, M. Soleimani, J. M. Reed, H. Li, Z. Liu, B. Wang, T. P. Dalton, D. W. Nebert, Mol. Pharmacol. 2008, 73, 1413–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Mantha, L. El Idrissi, T. Leclerc-Beaulieu, C. Jumarie, Toxicol. In Vitro 2011, 25, 1701–1711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. R. Napolitano, M. J. Liu, S. Bao, M. Crawford, P. Nana-Sinkam, E. Cormet-Boyaka, D. L. Knoell, Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2012, 302, L909–L918.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. J. Ghio, C. A. Piantadosi, X. Wang, L. A. Dailey, J. D. Stonehuerner, M. C. Madden, F. Yang, K. G. Dolan, M. D. Garrick, L. M. Garrick, Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physio.l 2005, 289, L460–L467.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    L. Friberg, M. Piscator, G. Nordberg, T. Kjellström, Cadmium in the Environment, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1974.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. E. Decker, R. U. Byerrum, C. F. Decker, C. A. Hoppert, R. F. Langham, AMA Arch. Ind. Health 1958, 18, 228–231.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. S. McLellan, P. R. Flanagan, M. J. Chamberlain, L. S. Valberg, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1978, 4, 131–138.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Suzuki, T. Taguchi, G. Yokohashi, Ind. Health 1969, 7, 155–162.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Kello, K. Kostial, Environ. Res. 1977, 14, 92–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. R. Flanagan, J. S. McLellan, J. Haist, G. Cherian, M. J. Chamberlain, L. S. Valberg, Gastroenterology 1978, 74, 841–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. A. Ragan, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1977, 90, 700–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Vahter, A. Akesson, C. Liden, S. Ceccatelli, M. Berglund, Environ. Res. 2007, 104, 85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Kippler, E. C. Ekstrom, B. Lonnerdal, W. Goessler, A. Akesson, S. El Arifeen, L. A. Persson, M. Vahter, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2007, 222, 221–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. Akesson, M. Berglund, A. Schutz, P. Bjellerup, K. Bremme, M. Vahter, Am. J. Public Health 2002, 92, 284–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. Berglund, A. Akesson, B. Nermell, M. Vahter, Environ. Health Perspect. 1994, 102, 1058–1066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. Zoller, R. O. Koch, I. Theurl, P. Obrist, A. Pietrangelo, G. Montosi, D. J. Haile, W. Vogel, G. Weiss, Gastroenterology 2001, 120, 1412–1419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    G. Kovacs, T. Danko, M. J. Bergeron, B. Balazs, Y. Suzuki, A. Zsembery, M. A. Hediger, Cell Calcium 2011, 49, 43–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. Abboud, D. J. Haile, J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275, 19906–19912.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. T. McKie, P. Marciani, A. Rolfs, K. Brennan, K. Wehr, D. Barrow, S. Miret, A. Bomford, T. J. Peters, F. Farzaneh, M. A. Hediger, M. W. Hentze, R. J. Simpson, Mol. Cell 2000, 5, 299–309.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    D. W. Kim, K. Y. Kim, B. S. Choi, P. Youn, D. Y. Ryu, C. D. Klaassen, J. D. Park, Arch. Toxicol. 2007, 81, 327–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    C. D. Klaassen, J. Liu, B. A. Diwan, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 215–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Y. Fujita, H. I. el Belbasi, K. S. Min, S. Onosaka, Y. Okada, Y. Matsumoto, N. Mutoh, K. Tanaka, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 1993, 82, 357–365.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    H. M. Crews, J. R. Dean, L. Ebdon, R. C. Massey, Analyst 1989, 114, 895–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    N. I. McNeil, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1984, 39, 338–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. G. Cherian, Environ. Health Perspect. 1979, 28, 127–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    C. Langelueddecke, E. Roussa, R. A. Fenton, N. A. Wolff, W. K. Lee, F. Thévenod, J. Biol. Chem. 2012, 287, 159–169.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    R. C. Wester, H. I. Maibach, L. Sedik, J. Melendres, S. DiZio, M. Wade, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1992, 19, 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    R. Thieme, P. Schramel, E. Kurz, Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1977, 37, 756–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    P. G. Bush, T. M. Mayhew, D. R. Abramovich, P. J. Aggett, M. D. Burke, K. R. Page, Placenta 2000, 21, 247–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    R. Lauwerys, J. P. Buchet, H. Roels, G. Hubermont, Environ. Res. 1978, 15, 278–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. Kippler, A. M. Hoque, R. Raqib, H. Ohrvik, E. C. Ekstrom, M. Vahter, Toxicol. Lett. 2010, 192, 162–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. M. Leazer, Y. Liu, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmaco.l 2002, 185, 18–24.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. K. Georgieff, J. K. Wobken, J. Welle, J. R. Burdo, J. R. Connor, Placenta 2000, 21, 799–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. B. Peng, X. Z. Chen, U. V. Berger, S. Weremowicz, C. C. Morton, P. M. Vassilev, E. M. Brown, M. A. Hediger, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000, 278, 326–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    J. J. Walsh, G. E. Burch, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1959, 54, 59–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    S. T. Trisak, P. Doumgdee, B. M. Rode, Int. J. Biochem. 1990, 22, 977–981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    W. Goumakos, J. P. Laussac, B. Sarkar, Biochem. Cell Biol. 1991, 69, 809–820.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    M. Nordberg, Environ. Res. 1978, 15, 381–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    B. J. Fuhr, D. L. Rabenstein, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 6944–6950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. H. Kägi, B. L. Vallee, J. Biol. Chem. 1961, 236, 2435–2442.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    D. D. Perrin, A. E. Watt, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1971, 230, 96–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. G. Cherian, Z. A. Shaikh, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1975, 65, 863–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Z. A. Shaikh, K. Hirayama, Environ. Health Perspect. 1979, 28, 267–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    H. Milnerowicz, A. Bizon, Acta. Biochim. Pol. 2010, 57, 99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    G. F. Nordberg, J. S. Garvey, C. C. Chang, Environ. Res. 1982, 28, 179–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    G. F. Nordberg, T. Kjellstrom, G. Nordberg, in Cadmium and Health: A Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal, Ed L. Friberg, C. G. Elinder, T. Kjellstrom, TG. F. Nordberg, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1986, pp. 103–178.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    M. Garty, K. L. Wong, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1981, 59, 548–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    L. A. Carlson, L. Friberg, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 1957, 9, 67–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    M. T. Rahman, A. Vandingenen, M. De Ley, Cell Physiol. Biochem. 2000, 10, 237–242.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    J. Lu, T. Jin, G. Nordberg, M. Nordberg, Toxicol. App.l Pharmacol. 2005, 206, 150–156.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    T. Sugiura, H. Nakamura, Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 1994, 103, 341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    J. Lu, T. Jin, G. F. Nordberg, M. Nordberg, Biometals 2004, 17, 569–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    X. Chang, T. Jin, L. Chen, M. Nordberg, L. Lei, Exp. Biol. Med. 2009, 234, 666–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    M. Nordberg, G. F. Nordberg, Environ. Health Perspect. 1975, 12, 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    K. S. Squibb, B. A. Fowler, Environ. Health Perspect. 1984, 54, 31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    R. E. Dudley, L. M. Gammal, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1985, 77, 414–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    C. Tohyama, Z. A. Shaikh, K. J. Ellis, S. H. Cohn, Toxicology 1981, 22, 181–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    K. Nomiyama, H. Nomiyama, N. Kameda, Toxicology 1998, 129, 157–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    L. Jarup, A. Rogenfelt, C. G. Elinder, K. Nogawa, T. Kjellstrom, Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 1983, 9, 327–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    S. Thijssen, J. Maringwa, C. Faes, I. Lambrichts, E. Van Kerkhove, Toxicology 2007, 229, 145–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    C. G. Elinder, L. Friberg, B. Lind, M. Jawaid, Environ. Res. 1983, 30, 233–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    T. Kjellstrom, Environ. Health Perspect. 1979, 28, 169–197.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    C. G. Elinder, T. Kjellstrom, L. Linnman, G. Pershagen, Environ. Res. 1978, 15, 473–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    K. Tsuchiya, M. Sugita, Y. Seki, Keio J. Med. 1976, 25, 73–82.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    N. E. Kowal, D. E. Johnson, D. F. Kraemer, H. R. Pahren, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1979, 5, 995–1014.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    R. R. Lauwerys, J. P. Buchet, H. A. Roels, J. Brouwers, D. Stanescu, Arch. Environ. Health 1974, 28, 145–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    H. A. Roels, R. R. Lauwerys, J. P. Buchet, A. Bernard, Environ. Res. 1981, 24, 117–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    S. Kojima, Y. Haga, T. Kurihara, T. Yamawaki, Environ. Res. 1977, 14, 436–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    C. Tohyama, Z. A. Shaikh, K. Nogawa, E. Kobayashi, R. Honda, Toxicology 1981, 20, 289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    H. Koyama, H. Satoh, S. Suzuki, C. Tohyama, Arch. Toxicol. 1992, 66, 598–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    H. Roels, R. Lauwerys, J. P. Buchet, A. Bernard, J. S. Garvey, H. J. Linton, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 1983, 52, 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Y. Suzuki, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1980, 6, 469–482.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Y. Suzuki, H. Yoshikawa, Ind. Health 1983, 21, 43–50.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    A. Bernard, R. Lauwerys, P. Gengoux, Toxicology 1981, 20, 345–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    G. F. Nordberg, M. Piscator, Environ. Physiol. Biochem. 1972, 2, 37–49.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    C. G. Elinder, M. Pannone, Environ. Health Perspect. 1979, 28, 123–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    M. Cikrt, M. Tichy, Br. J. Ind. Med. 1974, 31, 134–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    C. D. Klaassen, F. N. Kotsonis, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1977, 41, 101–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    M. G. Cherian, J. J. Vostal, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1977, 2, 945–954.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    G. Jedlitschky, I. Leier, U. Buchholz, K. Barnouin, G. Kurz, D. Keppler, Cancer Res. 1996, 56, 988–994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    N. Sugawara, Y. R. Lai, K. Arizono, T. Ariyoshi, Toxicology 1996, 112, 87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    N. Sugawara, Y. R. Lai, K. Arizono, T. Kitajima, H. Inoue, Arch. Toxicol. 1997, 71, 336–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    M. Dijkstra, R. Havinga, R. J. Vonk, F. Kuipers, Life Sci. 1996, 59, 1237–1246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    M. Buchler, J. Konig, M. Brom, J. Kartenbeck, H. Spring, T. Horie, D. Keppler, J. Biol. Chem. 1996, 271, 15091–15098.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    S. B. Gross, D. W. Yeager, M. S. Middendorf, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1976, 2, 153–167.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Z. A. Shaikh, L. M. Smith, Experientia Suppl. 1986, 50, 124–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    M. Kippler, B. Lonnerdal, W. Goessler, E. C. Ekstrom, S. E. Arifeen, M. Vahter, Toxicology 2009, 257, 64–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    M. Kippler, B. Nermell, J. Hamadani, F. Tofail, S. Moore, M. Vahter, Toxicol. Lett. 2010, 198, 20–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    N. Johri, G. Jacquillet, R. Unwin, Biometals 2010, 23, 783–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    D. H. Yates, K. P. Goldman, Br. J. Ind. Med .1990, 47, 429–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    M. J. Ellenhorn, D. G. Barceloux, Medical Toxicology – Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning, Elsevier, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    R. H. Strauss, K. C. Palmer, J. A. Hayes, Am. J. Pathol. 1976, 84, 561–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Y. M. Hung, H. M. Chung, Nephrol. Dial. Transplant 2004, 19, 1308–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    H. M. Buckler, W. D. Smith, W. D. Rees, Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.) 1986, 292, 1559–1560.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    H. J. Klimisch, Toxicology 1993, 84, 103–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    J. G. Hadley, A. W. Conklin, C. L. Sanders, Toxicol. Lett. 1979, 4, 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    L. Friberg, Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 1950, 240, 1–124.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    R. E. Dudley, D. J. Svoboda, C. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1982, 65, 302–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    E. O. Hoffmann, J. A. Cook, N. R. di Luzio, J. A. Coover, Lab. Invest. 1975, 32, 655–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    S. A. Gunn, T. C. Gould, in The Testis, Eds A. Johnson, W. Gomes, N. VanDeMark, Academic Press, New York, London, 1970, Vol. 3, pp. 377–481.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    S. M. Barlow, F. M. Sullivan, in Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals. An Evaluation of Animal and Human Data, Ed S. Barlow, Academic Press, New York, London, 1982, pp. 137–173.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    J. Parizek, J. Endocrinol. 1957, 15, 56–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    J. Parizek, Z. Zahor, Nature 1956, 177, 1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    A. Aoki, A. P. Hoffer, Biol. Reprod. 1978, 18, 579–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    A. B. Kar, R. P. Das, J. N. Karkun, Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 1959, 3, 372–399.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    J. Parizek, I. Ostadalova, I. Benes, J. Pitha, J. Reprod. Fertil. 1968, 17, 559–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    E. R. Siu, D. D. Mruk, C. S. Porto, C. Y. Cheng, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 240–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    A. Janecki, A. Jakubowiak, A. Steinberger, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1992, 112, 51–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    C. H. Wong, D. D. Mruk, W. Y. Lui, C. Y. Cheng, J. Cell Sci. 2004, 117, 783–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    R. Sen Gupta, E. Sen Gupta, B. K. Dhakal, A. R. Thakur, J. Ahnn, Mol. Cells 2004, 17, 132–139.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    J. Liu, M. B. Kadiiska, J. C. Corton, W. Qu, M. P. Waalkes, R. P. Mason, Y. Liu, C. D. Klaassen, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2002, 32, 525–535.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    J. Liu, S. Y. Qian, Q. Guo, J. Jiang, M. P. Waalkes, R. P. Mason, M. B. Kadiiska, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2008, 45, 475–481.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    K. Tsuchiya, Y. Seki, M. Sugita, Keio J. Med. 1976, 25, 83–90.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    S. S. Salmela, E. Vuori, A. Huunan-Seppala, J. O. Kilpio, H. Sumuvuori, Sci. Total Environ. 1983, 27, 89-95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    M. Sugita, K. Tsuchiya, Environ. Res. 1995, 68, 31-37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    L. Jarup, L. Hellstrom, T. Alfven, M. D. Carlsson, A. Grubb, B. Persson, C. Pettersson, G. Spang, A. Schutz, C. G. Elinder, Occup. Environ. Med. 2000, 57, 668–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    P. M. Ferraro, S. Costanzi, A. Naticchia, A. Sturniolo, G. Gambaro, BMC Public Health 2010, 10, 304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    L. Hellstrom, C. G. Elinder, B. Dahlberg, M. Lundberg, L. Jarup, B. Persson, O. Axelson, Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2001, 38, 1001–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    A. Menke, P. Muntner, E. K. Silbergeld, E. A. Platz, E. Guallar, Environ. Health Perspect. 2009, 117, 190–196.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    T. S. Nawrot, E. Van Hecke, L. Thijs, T. Richart, T. Kuznetsova, Y. Jin, J. Vangronsveld, H. A. Roels, J. A. Staessen, Environ. Health Perspect. 2008, 116, 1620–1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    G. Huel, C. Boudene, M. A. Ibrahim, Arch. Environ. Health 1981, 36, 221–227.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    B. R. Kuhnert, P. M. Kuhnert, T. J. Zarlingo, Obstet. Gynecol. 1988, 71, 67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    M. Marlowe, J. Errera, J. Jacobs, Am. J. Ment. Defic. 1983, 87, 477–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    V. H. Ferm, S. J. Carpenter, Nature 1967, 216, 1123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    N. Chernoff, Teratology 1973, 8, 29–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    B. P. Schmid, J. Kao, E. Goulding, Experientia 1985, 41, 271–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    M. Webb, D. Holt, N. Brown, G. C. Hard, Arch. Toxicol. 1988, 61, 457–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    N. G. Carmichael, B. L. Backhouse, C. Winder, P. D. Lewis, Hum. Toxicol. 1982, 1, 159–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    J. F. Robinson, X. Yu, E. G. Moreira, S. Hong, E. M. Faustman, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2011, 250, 117–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    C. M. Schreiner, S. M. Bell, W. J. Scott, Jr., Birth Defects Res. A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 2009, 85, 588–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    A. F. Elsaid, E. C. Delot, M. D. Collins, Mol. Genet. Metab. 2007, 92, 258–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    W. J. Scott, Jr., C. M. Schreiner, J. A. Goetz, D. Robbins, S. M. Bell, Reprod. Toxicol. 2005, 19, 479–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    T. S. Nawrot, J. A. Staessen, H. A. Roels, E. Munters, A. Cuypers, T. Richart, A. Ruttens, K. Smeets, H. Clijsters, J. Vangronsveld, Biometals 2010, 23, 769–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    IARC, “Beryllium, cadmium, mercury, and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry. Working Group views and expert opinions, Lyon, 9–16 February 1993”, Lyon, 1993.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    D. Il'yasova, G. G. Schwartz, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2005, 207, 179–186.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    DFG, Cadmium and Its compounds (in the form of inhalable dusts/aerosols), Ed Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2006.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    A. Akesson, B. Julin, A. Wolk, Cancer Res. 2008, 68, 6435–6441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    J. A. McElroy, M. M. Shafer, A. Trentham-Dietz, J. M. Hampton, P. A. Newcomb, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2006, 98, 869–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    T. Nawrot, M. Plusquin, J. Hogervorst, H. A. Roels, H. Celis, L. Thijs, J. Vangronsveld, E. Van Hecke, J. A. Staessen, Lancet Oncol. 2006, 7, 119–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    A. M. Kriegel, A. S. Soliman, Q. Zhang, N. El-Ghawalby, F. Ezzat, A. Soultan, M. Abdel-Wahab, O. Fathy, G. Ebidi, N. Bassiouni, S. R. Hamilton, J. L. Abbruzzese, M. R. Lacey, D. A. Blake, Environ. Health Perspect. 2006, 114, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    G. G. Schwartz, I. M. Reis, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2000, 9, 139–145.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    E. Kellen, M. P. Zeegers, E. D. Hond, F. Buntinx, Cancer Detect. Prev. 2007, 31, 77–82.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    V. Verougstraete, D. Lison, P. Hotz, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 2003, 6, 227–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    M. Vinceti, M. Venturelli, C. Sighinolfi, P. Trerotoli, F. Bonvicini, A. Ferrari, G. Bianchi, G. Serio, M. Bergomi, G. Vivoli, Sci. Total Environ. 2007, 373, 77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    M. P. Waalkes, Mutat. Res. 2003, 533, 107–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    R. A. Goyer, J. Liu, M. P. Waalkes, Biometals 2004, 17, 555–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    J. Huff, R. M. Lunn, M. P. Waalkes, L. Tomatis, P. F. Infante, Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 2007, 13, 202–212.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    M. Waisberg, P. Joseph, B. Hale, D. Beyersmann, Toxicology 2003, 192, 95–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    D. Beyersmann, A. Hartwig, Arch. Toxicol. 2008, 82, 493–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    P. Joseph, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 272–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    M. Filipic, T. K. Hei, Mutat. Res. 2004, 546, 81–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    M. Valko, C. J. Rhodes, J. Moncol, M. Izakovic, M. Mazur, Chem. Biol. Interact. 2006, 160, 1–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    J. Liu, W. Qu, M. B. Kadiiska, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    W. Qu, B. A. Diwan, J. M. Reece, C. D. Bortner, J. Pi, J. Liu, M. P. Waalkes, Int. J. Cancer 2005, 114, 346–355.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    W. Qu, R. Fuquay, T. Sakurai, M. P. Waalkes, Mol. Carcinog. 2006, 45, 561–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    W. C. Prozialeck, J. R. Edwards, Biometals 2010, 23, 793–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    J. Liu, R. A. Goyer, M. P. Waalkes, in Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, Ed C. D. Klaassen, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2008, pp. 931–979.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    C. D. Klaassen, J. Liu, S. Choudhuri, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1999, 39, 267–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    R. K. Zalups, S. Ahmad, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2003, 186, 163–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    H. M. Chan, Y. Tamura, M. G. Cherian, R. A. Goyer, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1993, 202, 420–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    K. Tanaka, Dev. Toxicol. Environ. Sci. 1982, 9, 237–249.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    S. A. Gunn, T. C. Gould, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1957, 96, 820–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    G. F. Nordberg, K. Nishiyama, Arch. Environ. Health 1972, 24, 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    H. M. Chan, L. F. Zhu, R. Zhong, D. Grant, R. A. Goyer, M. G. Cherian, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1993, 123, 89–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    F. Thévenod, Biometals 2010, 23, 857–875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    H. Birn, E. I. Christensen, Kidney Int. 2006, 69, 440–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    R. B. Klassen, K. Crenshaw, R. Kozyraki, P. J. Verroust, L. Tio, S. Atrian, P. L. Allen, T. G. Hammond, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2004, 287, F393–F403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    N. A. Wolff, M. Abouhamed, P. J. Verroust, F. Thévenod, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2006, 318, 782–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    W. C. Prozialeck, P. C. Lamar, Arch. Toxicol. 1993, 67, 113–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    F. Thévenod, G. Ciarimboli, N. A. Wolff, E. Schlatter, H. Koepsell, FASEB J. 2008, 22, 1202.1206.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    S. Soodvilai, J. Nantavishit, C. Muanprasat, V. Chatsudthipong, Toxicol. Lett. 2011, 204, 38–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    R. K. Zalups, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2000, 164, 15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    N. A. Wolff, W. K. Lee, M. Abouhamed, F. Thévenod, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2008, 230, 78–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    N. A. Wolff, W. K. Lee, F. Thévenod, Toxicol. Lett. 2011, 203, 210–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    M. Abouhamed, J. Gburek, W. Liu, B. Torchalski, A. Wilhelm, N. A. Wolff, E. I. Christensen, F. Thévenod, C. P. Smith, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2006, 290, F1525–F1533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    M. Abouhamed, N. A. Wolff, W. K. Lee, C. P. Smith, F. Thévenod, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2007, 293, F705–F712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    J. Liu, Y. Liu, S. S. Habeebu, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Sci. 1998, 46, 197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    W. C. Prozialeck, D. R. Wellington, P. C. Lamar, Life Sci. 1993, 53, PL337–342.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    J. Liu, Y. Liu, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1994, 128, 264–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    C. Erfurt, E. Roussa, F. Thévenod, Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 2003, 285, C1367–C1376.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    J. E. Levy, L. K. Montross, N. C. Andrews, J. Clin. Invest. 2000, 105, 1209–1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    K. Weyer, T. Storm, J. Shan, S. Vainio, R. Kozyraki, P. J. Verroust, E. I. Christensen, R. Nielsen, Nephrol. Dial. Transplant 2011, 26, 3446–3451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    H. Roels, A. Bernard, J. P. Buchet, A. Goret, R. Lauwerys, D. R. Chettle, T. C. Harvey, I. A. Haddad, Lancet 1979, 1, 221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    H. C. Gonick, Indian J. Med. Res. 2008, 128, 335–352.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    L. Jarup, Nephrol. Dial. Transplant 2002, 17 Suppl 2, 35–39.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    F. Thévenod, J. M. Friedmann, FASEB J. 1999, 13, 1751–1761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    S. Tsuruoka, K. Sugimoto, S. Muto, K. Nomiyama, A. Fujimura, M. Imai, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2000, 292, 769–777.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    A. Bernard, Biometals 2004, 17, 519–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    L. Jarup, B. Persson, C. G. Elinder, Occup. Environ. Med. 1995, 52, 818–822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    A. Akesson, T. Lundh, M. Vahter, P. Bjellerup, J. Lidfeldt, C. Nerbrand, G. Samsioe, U. Stromberg, S. Skerfving, Environ. Health Perspect. 2005, 113, 1627–1631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Y. Suwazono, S. Sand, M. Vahter, A. F. Filipsson, S. Skerfving, J. Lidfeldt, A. Akesson, Environ. Health Perspect. 2006, 114, 1072–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    A. G. Norden, M. Lapsley, P. J. Lee, C. D. Pusey, S. J. Scheinman, F. W. Tam, R. V. Thakker, R. J. Unwin, O. Wrong, Kidney Int. 2001, 60, 1885–1892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    C. G. Gunawardana, R. E. Martinez, W. Xiao, D. M. Templeton, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2006, 290, F1074–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Z. Wang, D. M. Templeton, J. Biol. Chem. 1998, 273, 73–79.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    J. P. Girolami, J. L. Bascands, C. Pecher, G. Cabos, J. P. Moatti, J. F. Mercier, J. M. Haguenoer, Y. Manuel, Toxicology 1989, 55, 117–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    R. Lauwerys, A. Bernard, Toxicol. Lett. 1989, 46, 13–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    T. H. Yen, J. L. Lin, D. T. Lin-Tan, C. W. Hsu, K. H. Chen, H. H. Hsu, Nephrol. Dial. Transplant 2011, 26, 998–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    J. P. Buchet, R. Lauwerys, H. Roels, A. Bernard, P. Bruaux, F. Claeys, G. Ducoffre, P. de Plaen, J. Staessen, A. Amery, P. Lijnen, L. Thijs, D. Rondia, F. Sartor, A. Saint Remy, L. Nick, Lancet 1990, 336, 699–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    T. N. Pham, J. A. Segui, C. Fortin, P. G. Campbell, F. Denizeau, C. Jumarie, J. Cell Physiol. 2004, 201, 320–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    H. Fujishiro, S. Okugaki, K. Kubota, T. Fujiyama, H. Miyataka, S. Himeno, J. Appl. Toxicol. 2009, 29, 367–373.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    B. P. Hughes, K. Both, L. Harland, J. Hunt, K. M. Hurst, M. Lewis, G. J. Barritt, Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 1993, 31, 193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Q. Hao, S. H. Hong, W. Maret, J. Cell Physiol. 2007, 210, 428–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    I. Sabolic, D. Breljak, M. Skarica, C. M. Herak-Kramberger, Biometals 2010, 23, 897–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    E. Vuori, A. Huunan-Seppala, J. O. Kilpio, S. S. Salmela, Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 1979, 5, 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    S. Satarug, J. R. Baker, P. E. Reilly, M. R. Moore, D. J. Williams, Arch. Environ. Health 2002, 57, 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    H. D. Stowe, M. Wilson, R. A. Goyer, Arch. Pathol. 1972, 94, 389–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    K. Nomiyama, H. Nomiyama, Y. Nomura, T. Taguchi, K. Matsui, M. Yotoriyama, F. Akahori, S. Iwao, N. Koizumi, T. Masaoka, S. Kitamura, K. Tsuchiya, T. Suzuki, K. Kobayashi, Environ. Health Perspect. 1979, 28, 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    N. Y. Tarasenko, R. S. Vorobeva, V. S. Spiridinova, L. P. Shabalina, J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 1974, 18, 144–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Z. A. Shaikh, T. T. Vu, K. Zaman, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1999, 154, 256–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    T. Kamiyama, H. Miyakawa, J. P. Li, T. Akiba, J. H. Liu, J. Liu, F. Marumo, C. Sato, Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. 1995, 88, 177–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    S. S. Habeebu, J. Liu, Y. Liu, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 55, 223–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    S. Thijssen, A. Cuypers, J. Maringwa, K. Smeets, N. Horemans, I. Lambrichts, E. Van Kerkhove, Toxicology 2007, 236, 29–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    D. Djukic-Cosic, M. Curcic Jovanovic, Z. Plamenac Bulat, M. Ninkovic, Z. Malicevic, V. Matovic, J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 2008, 22, 66–72.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    D. Bagchi, P. J. Vuchetich, M. Bagchi, E. A. Hassoun, M. X. Tran, L. Tang, S. J. Stohs, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1997, 22, 471–478.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    D. H. Lee, J. S. Lim, K. Song, Y. Boo, D. R. Jacobs, Jr., Environ. Health Perspect. 2006, 114, 350–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    H. Kollmeier, J. Seemann, P. Wittig, G. Rothe, K. M. Muller, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 1990, 62, 373–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    P. Paakko, P. Kokkonen, S. Anttila, P. L. Kalliomaki, Environ Res 1989, 49, 197–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    B. G. Armstrong, G. Kazantzis, Lancet 1983, 1, 1425–1427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    D. J. Hendrick, Thorax 1996, 51, 947–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    G. Kazantzis, T. H. Lam, K. R. Sullivan, Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 1988, 14, 220–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    C. Edling, C. G. Elinder, E. Randma, Br. J. Ind. Med. 1986, 43, 657–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    D. Stanescu, C. Veriter, A. Frans, L. Goncette, H. Roels, R. Lauwerys, L. Brasseur, Scand. J. Respir. Dis. 1977, 58, 289–303.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    G. L. Snider, J. A. Hayes, A. L. Korthy, G. P. Lewis, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1973, 108, 40–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    U. Heinrich, L. Peters, H. Ernst, S. Rittinghausen, C. Dasenbrock, H. Konig, Exp. Pathol. 1989, 37, 253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    K. U. Thiedemann, N. Luthe, I. Paulini, A. Kreft, U. Heinrich, U. Glaser, Exp. Pathol. 1989, 37, 264–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    E. Prigge, Arch. Toxicol. 1978, 40, 231–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    S. Kundu, S. Sengupta, S. Chatterjee, S. Mitra, A. Bhattacharyya, J. Inflamm. (Lond) 2009, 6, 19.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    N. Kirschvink, N. Martin, L. Fievez, N. Smith, D. Marlin, P. Gustin, Free Radic. Res. 2006, 40, 241–250.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    E. Cormet-Boyaka, K. Jolivette, A. Bonnegarde-Bernard, J. Rennolds, F. Hassan, P. Mehta, S. Tridandapani, J. Webster-Marketon, P. N. Boyaka, Toxicol. Sci. 2012, 125, 418–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    S. Kundu, S. Sengupta, A. Bhattacharyya, Inhal. Toxicol. 2011, 23, 339–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    B. Besecker, S. Bao, B. Bohacova, A. Papp, W. Sadee, D. L. Knoell, Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2008, 294, L1127–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    I. Aiba, A. Hossain, M. T. Kuo, Mol. Pharmacol. 2008, 74, 823–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    J. Rennolds, S. Butler, K. Maloney, P. N. Boyaka, I. C. Davis, D. L. Knoell, N. L. Parinandi, E. Cormet-Boyaka, Toxicol. Sci. 2010, 116, 349–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    M. Childers, G. Eckel, A. Himmel, J. Caldwell, Med. Hypotheses 2007, 68, 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    I. Kogan, M. Ramjeesingh, C. Li, J. F. Kidd, Y. Wang, E. M. Leslie, S. P. Cole, C. E. Bear, EMBO J. 2003, 22, 1981–1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    S. V. Adams, M. N. Passarelli, P. A. Newcomb, Occup. Environ. Med. 2012, 69, 153–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    A. t Mannetje, V. Bencko, P. Brennan, D. Zaridze, N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska, P. Rudnai, J. Lissowska, E. Fabianova, A. Cassidy, D. Mates, L. Foretova, V. Janout, J. Fevotte, T. Fletcher, P. Boffetta, Cancer Causes Control 2011, 22, 1669–1680.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    S. Takenaka, H. Oldiges, H. Konig, D. Hochrainer, G. Oberdorster, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1983, 70, 367–373.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    G. Oberdorster, M. G. Cherian, R. B. Baggs, Toxicol. Lett. 1994, 72, 339–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    I. M. McKenna, T. Gordon, L. C. Chen, M. R. Anver, M. P. Waalkes, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1998, 153, 169–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    K. Nogawa, A. Ishizaki, M. Fukushima, I. Shibata, N. Hagino, Environ. Res. 1975, 10, 280–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    T. Inaba, E. Kobayashi, Y. Suwazono, M. Uetani, M. Oishi, H. Nakagawa, K. Nogawa, Toxicol. Lett. 2005, 159, 192–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    E. Van Kerkhove, V. Pennemans, Q. Swennen, Biometals 2010, 23, 823–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    G. Kazantzis, Biometals 2004, 17, 493–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    T. Alfven, C. G. Elinder, L. Hellstrom, F. Lagarde, L. Jarup, J. Bone Miner. Res. 2004, 19, 900–905.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    R. Schutte, T. S. Nawrot, T. Richart, L. Thijs, D. Vanderschueren, T. Kuznetsova, E. Van Hecke, H. A. Roels, J. A. Staessen, Environ. Health Perspect. 2008, 116, 777–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    L. Jarup, T. Alfven, Biometals 2004, 17, 505–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    C. M. Gallagher, J. S. Kovach, J. R. Meliker, Environ. Health Perspect. 2008, 116, 1338–1343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    T. Nawrot, P. Geusens, T. S. Nulens, B. Nemery, J. Bone Miner. Res. 2010, 25, 1441–1445.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    M. Sughis, J. Penders, V. Haufroid, B. Nemery, T. S. Nawrot, Environ. Health 2011, 10, 104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    K. Ogoshi, T. Moriyama, Y. Nanzai, Arch. Toxicol. 1989, 63, 320–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    M. M. Brzoska, J. Appl. Toxicol. 2012, 32, 34–44.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    M. M. Brzoska, J. Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2005, 207, 195-211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    K. Ogoshi, Y. Nanzai, T. Moriyama, Arch. Toxicol. 1992, 66, 315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    A. K. Wilson, M. H. Bhattacharyya, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1997, 145, 68–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    M. Ando, Y. Sayato, T. Osawa, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1978, 46, 625–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    M. H. Bhattacharyya, B. D. Whelton, D. P. Peterson, B. A. Carnes, M. S. Guram, E. S. Moretti, Toxicology 1988, 50, 205–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    K. Iwami, T. Moriyama, Arch. Toxicol. 1993, 67, 352–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    T. Miyahara, T. Katoh, M. Watanabe, Y. Mikami, S. Uchida, M. Hosoe, T. Sakuma, N. Nemoto, K. Takayama, T. Komurasaki, Toxicology 2004, 200, 159–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    T. Miyahara, H. Tonoyama, M. Watanabe, A. Okajima, S. Miyajima, T. Sakuma, N. Nemoto, K. Takayama, Calcif. Tissue Int. 2001, 68, 185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    A. K. Wilson, E. A. Cerny, B. D. Smith, A. Wagh, M. H. Bhattacharyya, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1996, 140, 451–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    T. Miyahara, M. Takata, M. Miyata, M. Nagai, A. Sugure, H. Kozuka, S. Kuze, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1991, 47, 283–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    M. M. Brzoska, J. Rogalska, E. Kupraszewicz, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2010, 250, 327–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    M. H. Bhattacharyya, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 258–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    M. Levesque, C. Martineau, C. Jumarie, R. Moreau, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2008, 231, 308–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    C. Martineau, E. Abed, G. Medina, L. A. Jomphe, M. Mantha, C. Jumarie, R. Moreau, Toxicol. Lett. 2010, 199, 357–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    M. K. Monteilh-Zoller, M. C. Hermosura, M. J. Nadler, A. M. Scharenberg, R. Penner, A. Fleig, J. Gen. Physiol. 2003, 121, 49–60.Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    J. A. Staessen, T. Kuznetsova, H. A. Roels, D. Emelianov, R. Fagard, Am. J. Hypertens. 2000, 13, 146–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    H. Nakagawa, M. Nishijo, J. Cardiovasc. Risk 1996, 3, 11–17.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    I. Kurihara, E. Kobayashi, Y. Suwazono, M. Uetani, T. Inaba, M. Oishiz, T. Kido, H. Nakagawa, K. Nogawa, Arch. Environ. Health 2004, 59, 711–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    R. Schutte, T. Nawrot, T. Richart, L. Thijs, H. A. Roels, L. M. Van Bortel, H. Struijker-Boudier, J. A. Staessen, Occup. Environ. Med. 2008, 65, 412–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    M. J. Thun, A. M. Osorio, S. Schober, W. H. Hannon, B. Lewis, W. Halperin, Br. J. Ind. Med. 1989, 46, 689–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    A. Navas-Acien, E. Selvin, A. R. Sharrett, E. Calderon-Aranda, E. Silbergeld, E. Guallar, Circulation 2004, 109, 3196–3201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    A. Navas-Acien, E. K. Silbergeld, R. Sharrett, E. Calderon-Aranda, E. Selvin, E. Guallar, Environ. Health Perspect. 2005, 113, 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    S. Satarug, M. Nishijo, P. Ujjin, Y. Vanavanitkun, M. R. Moore, Toxicol. Lett. 2005, 157, 57–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    B. Messner, M. Knoflach, A. Seubert, A. Ritsch, K. Pfaller, B. Henderson, Y. H. Shen, I. Zeller, J. Willeit, G. Laufer, G. Wick, S. Kiechl, D. Bernhard, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2009, 29, 1392–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    S. Agarwal, T. Zaman, E. M. Tuzcu, S. R. Kapadia, Angiology 2011, 62, 422–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    C. J. Everett, I. L. Frithsen, Environ. Res. 2008, 106, 284–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    J. L. Peters, T. S. Perlstein, M. J. Perry, E. McNeely, J. Weuve, Environ. Res. 2010, 110, 199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    M. Tellez-Plaza, A. Navas-Acien, C. M. Crainiceanu, A. R. Sharrett, E. Guallar, Am. J. Epidemiol. 2010, 172, 671–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    H. M. Perry, Jr., S. J. Kopp, Sci. Total Environ. 1983, 26, 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    G. Oner, U. K. Senturk, V. N. Izgut-Uysal, Nephron 1996, 72, 257–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    A. M. Ronco, M. Montenegro, P. Castillo, M. Urrutia, D. Saez, S. Hirsch, R. Zepeda, M. N. Llanos, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2011, 251, 137–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    W. C. Prozialeck, J. R. Edwards, D. W. Nebert, J. M. Woods, A. Barchowsky, W. D. Atchison, Toxicol. Sci. 2008, 102, 207–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    B. Messner, D. Bernhard, Biometals 2010, 23, 811–822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    T. Kaji, A. Mishima, C. Yamamoto, M. Sakamoto, F. Koizumi, Toxicology 1992, 71, 267–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    S. Abu-Hayyeh, M. Sian, K. G. Jones, A. Manuel, J. T. Powell, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2001, 21, 863–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    J. R. Burdo, S. L. Menzies, I. A. Simpson, L. M. Garrick, M. D. Garrick, K. G. Dolan, D. J. Haile, J. L. Beard, J. R. Connor, J. Neurosci. Res. 2001, 66, 1198–1207.Google Scholar
  323. 323.
    M. Nanami, T. Ookawara, Y. Otaki, K. Ito, R. Moriguchi, K. Miyagawa, Y. Hasuike, M. Izumi, H. Eguchi, K. Suzuki, T. Nakanishi, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2005, 25, 2495–2501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    B. V. Zlokovic, C. L. Martel, E. Matsubara, J. G. McComb, G. Zheng, R. T. McCluskey, B. Frangione, J. Ghiso, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1996, 93, 4229–4234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    T. Kaji, A. Mishima, M. Machida, K. Yabusaki, M. Suzuki, C. Yamamoto, Y. Fujiwara, M. Sakamoto, H. Kozuka, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1995, 54, 501–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Y. S. Jung, E. M. Jeong, E. K. Park, Y. M. Kim, S. Sohn, S. H. Lee, E. J. Baik, C. H. Moon, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2008, 578, 11–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    H. Martynowicz, A. Skoczynska, A. Wojakowska, B. Turczyn, Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health 2004, 17, 479–485.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    K. Sompamit, U. Kukongviriyapan, W. Donpunha, S. Nakmareong, V. Kukongviriyapan, Toxicol. Lett. 2010, 198, 77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    M. B. Wolf, J. W. Baynes, Biometals 2007, 20, 73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    F. Liu, K. Y. Jan, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2000, 28, 55–63.Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Y. Fujiwara, S. Watanabe, T. Kaji, Toxicol. Lett. 1998, 94, 175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    C. Yamamoto, T. Kaji, M. Sakamoto, H. Kozuka, Toxicology 1996, 106, 179–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    A. Skoczynska, H. Martynowicz, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2005, 24, 353–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    S. Majumder, A. Muley, G. K. Kolluru, S. Saurabh, K. P. Tamilarasan, S. Chandrasekhar, H. B. Reddy, S. Purohit, S. Chatterjee, Biochem. Cell Biol. 2008, 86, 1–10.Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    N. Yoopan, P. Watcharasit, O. Wongsawatkul, P. Piyachaturawat, J. Satayavivad, Toxicol. Lett. 2008, 176, 157–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    A. Szuster-Ciesielska, I. Lokaj, M. Kandefer-Szerszen, Toxicology 2000, 145, 135–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    M. Hernandez, M. Macia, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1996, 30, 437–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    S. L. Park, Y. M. Kim, J. H. Ahn, S. H. Lee, E. J. Baik, C. H. Moon, Y. S. Jung, J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2009, 110, 405–409.Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    M. Knoflach, B. Messner, Y. H. Shen, S. Frotschnig, G. Liu, K. Pfaller, X. Wang, B. Matosevic, J. Willeit, S. Kiechl, G. Laufer, D. Bernhard, Circ. J. 2011, 75, 2491–2495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    G. M. Kisling, S. J. Kopp, D. J. Paulson, J. P. Tow, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1993, 118, 58–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    J. Kolakowski, B. Baranski, B. Opalska, Toxicol. Lett. 1983, 19, 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    I. M. Ozturk, B. Buyukakilli, E. Balli, B. Cimen, S. Gunes, S. Erdogan, Toxicol. Mech. Methods 2009, 19, 308–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    R. V. Zikic, A. S. Stajn, B. I. Ognjanovic, Z. S. Saicic, M. M. Kostic, S. Z. Pavlovic, V. M. Petrovic, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 1998, 17, 259–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Y. Wang, J. Fang, S. S. Leonard, K. M. Rao, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2004, 36, 1434–1443.Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    O. Teleman, T. Drakenberg, S. Forsen, E. Thulin, Eur. J. Biochem. 1983, 134, 453–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    S. V. Lepeshkevich, B. M. Dzhagarov, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2009, 1794, 103–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Y. Ke, Y. Y. Chen, Y. Z. Chang, X. L. Duan, K. P. Ho, D. H. Jiang, K. Wang, Z. M. Qian, J. Cell Physiol. 2003, 196, 124–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    A. Van Dijk, R. A. Vermond, P. A. Krijnen, L. J. Juffermans, N. E. Hahn, S. P. Makker, L. A. Aarden, E. Hack, M. Spreeuwenberg, B. C. van Rossum, C. Meischl, W. J. Paulus, F. J. Van Milligen, H. W. Niessen, Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 2010, 40, 893–902.Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    L. R. Devireddy, C. Gazin, X. Zhu, M. R. Green, Cell 2005, 123, 1293–1305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    D. DiFrancesco, A. Ferroni, S. Visentin, A. Zaza, Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 1985, 223, 475–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    C. H. Follmer, N. J. Lodge, C. A. Cullinan, T. J. Colatsky, Am. J. Physiol. 1992, 262, C75–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    R. C. Prentice, P. L. Hawley, T. Glonek, S. J. Kopp, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1984, 75, 198–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    R. S. Vorob'eva, Neuropatol. Psikkiatr. 1957, 57, 385–388.Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    K. Tsuchiya, Arch. Environ. Health 1967, 14, 876–880.Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    A. Minami, A. Takeda, D. Nishibaba, S. Takefuta, N. Oku, Brain Res. 2001, 894, 336–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    M. E. Figueiredo-Pereira, S. Yakushin, G. Cohen, J. Biol. Chem. 1998, 273, 12703–12709.Google Scholar
  357. 357.
    J. Y. Im, S. G. Paik, P. L. Han, J. Neurosci. Res. 2006, 83, 301–308.Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    S. Hossain, H. N. Liu, M. Nguyen, G. Shore, G. Almazan, Neurotoxicology 2009, 30, 544–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    E. Lopez, S. Figueroa, M. J. Oset-Gasque, M. P. Gonzalez, Br. J. Pharmacol. 2003, 138, 901–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    H. Andersson, K. Petersson-Grawe, E. Lindqvist, J. Luthman, A. Oskarsson, L. Olson, Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 1997, 19, 105–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    M. Ebadi, P. L. Iversen, R. Hao, D. R. Cerutis, P. Rojas, H. K. Happe, L. C. Murrin, R. F. Pfeiffer, Neurochem. Int. 1995, 27, 1–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    K. L. Wong, R. Cachia, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1980, 56, 317–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    S. Choudhuri, W. L. Liu, N. E. Berman, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Lett. 1996, 84, 127–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    J. P. Provias, C. A. Ackerley, C. Smith, L. E. Becker, Acta Neuropathol. 1994, 88, 583–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    W. Zheng, Microsc Res Tech 2001, 52, 89–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    N. Nishimura, H. Nishimura, A. Ghaffar, C. Tohyama, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1992, 40, 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    H. U. Ozcaglar, B. Agirdir, O. Dinc, M. Turhan, S. Kilincarslan, G. Oner, Acta Otolaryngol. 2001, 121, 393–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    M. P. Nava-Hernandez, L. A. Hauad-Marroquin, S. Bassol-Mayagoitia, G. Garcia-Arenas, R. Mercado-Hernandez, M. A. Echavarri-Guzman, R. M. Cerda-Flores, DNA Cell Biol. 2009, 28, 241–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    A. Blanco, R. Moyano, A. M. Molina Lopez, C. Blanco, R. Flores-Acuna, J. R. Garcia-Flores, M. Espada, J. G. Monterde, Toxicol. Ind. Health 2010, 26, 451–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    H. Zenick, L. Hastings, M. Goldsmith, R. J. Niewenhuis, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1982, 9, 377–387.Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    X. Yu, S. Hong, E. M. Faustman, Toxicol. Sci. 2008, 104, 385–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    T. Kusakabe, K. Nakajima, K. Nakazato, K. Suzuki, H. Takada, T. Satoh, M. Oikawa, K. Arakawa, T. Nagamine, Toxicol. In Vitro 2008, 22, 1469–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    J. Thompson, J. Bannigan, Reprod. Toxicol. 2008, 25, 304–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    P. Pillai, C. Pandya, S. Gupta, J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 2010, 24, 384–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    W. Zhang, F. Pang, Y. Huang, P. Yan, W. Lin, Toxicol. Lett. 2008, 182, 18–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    M. C. Henson, P. J. Chedrese, Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 2004, 229, 383–392.Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    J. P. Gennart, J. P. Buchet, H. Roels, P. Ghyselen, E. Ceulemans, R. Lauwerys, Am. J. Epidemiol. 1992, 135, 1208–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    S. Benoff, R. Hauser, J. L. Marmar, I. R. Hurley, B. Napolitano, G. M. Centola, Mol. Med. 2009, 15, 248–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    G. Angenard, V. Muczynski, H. Coffigny, C. Pairault, C. Duquenne, R. Frydman, R. Habert, V. Rouiller-Fabre, G. Livera, Environ. Health Perspect. 2010, 118, 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    E. W. Wong, C. Y. Cheng, Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2011, 32, 290–299.Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    C. Y. Cheng, D. D. Mruk, Pharmacol. Rev. 2011, 64, 16–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    A. Caride, B. Fernandez-Perez, T. Cabaleiro, G. Bernardez, A. Lafuente, J. Appl. Toxicol. 2010, 30, 84–90.Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    A. Lafuente, A. I. Esquifino, Toxicol. Lett. 1999, 110, 209–218.Google Scholar
  384. 384.
    R. B. Rastogi, R. L. Singhal, Endocr. Res. Commun. 1975, 2, 87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Z. Anca, S. Gabor, V. V. Papilian, Endocrinologie 1982, 20, 95–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    R. Der, M. Yousef, Z. Fahim, M. Fahim, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 1977, 17, 237–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    G. A. Jackl, W. E. Kollmer, Sci. Total Environ. 1982, 25, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    S. A. Mathias, O. P. Mgbonyebi, E. Motley, J. R. Owens, J. J. Mrotek, Cell Biol. Toxicol. 1998, 14, 225–236.Google Scholar
  389. 389.
    O. P. Mgbonyebi, C. T. Smothers, J. J. Mrotek, Cell Biol. Toxicol. 1993, 9, 223–234.Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    B. Pilat-Marcinkiewicz, B. Sawicki, M. M. Brzoska, J. Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 2002, 40, 189–190.Google Scholar
  391. 391.
    M. Yoshizuka, N. Mori, K. Hamasaki, I. Tanaka, M. Yokoyama, K. Hara, Y. Doi, Y. Umezu, H. Araki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Miyazaki, S. Fujimoto, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 1991, 55, 97–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    J. R. Edwards, W. C. Prozialeck, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 289–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Y. W. Chen, C. Y. Yang, C. F. Huang, D. Z. Hung, Y. M. Leung, S. H. Liu, Islets 2009, 1, 169–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    G. G. Schwartz, D. Il'yasova, A. Ivanova, Diabetes Care 2003, 26, 468–470.Google Scholar
  395. 395.
    H. I. Afridi, T. G. Kazi, N. Kazi, M. K. Jamali, M. B. Arain, N. Jalbani, J. A. Baig, R. A. Sarfraz, Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2008, 80, 280–288.Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    H. Hiratsuka, O. Katsuta, N. Toyota, M. Tsuchitani, T. Umemura, F. Marumo, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1996, 137, 228–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    H. Horiguchi, E. Oguma, F. Kayama, Arch. Toxicol. 2006, 80, 680–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    H. Horiguchi, E. Oguma, F. Kayama, Toxicol. Sci. 2011, 122, 198–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    H. Horiguchi, M. Sato, N. Konno, M. Fukushima, Arch. Toxicol. 1996, 71, 11–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    H. Horiguchi, F. Kayama, E. Oguma, W. G. Willmore, P. Hradecky, H. F. Bunn, Blood 2000, 96, 3743–3747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    H. Horiguchi, K. Aoshima, E. Oguma, S. Sasaki, K. Miyamoto, Y. Hosoi, T. Katoh, F. Kayama, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 2010, 83, 953–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    H. Horiguchi, H. Teranishi, K. Niiya, K. Aoshima, T. Katoh, N. Sakuragawa, M. Kasuya, Arch. Toxicol. 1994, 68, 632–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    S. Muller, K. E. Gillert, C. Krause, G. Jautzke, U. Gross, T. Diamantstein, Experientia 1979, 35, 909–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    R. F. Borgman, B. Au, R. K. Chandra, Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 1986, 8, 813–817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    W. R. Williams, S. Kagamimori, M. Watanabe, T. Shinmura, N. Hagino, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1983, 53, 651–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    R. K. Chopra, K. K. Kohli, R. Nath, Toxicol. Lett. 1984, 23, 99–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    H. Horiguchi, N. Mukaida, S. Okamoto, H. Teranishi, M. Kasuya, K. Matsushima, Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 1993, 12, 421–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    S. V. Kumar, S. Bhattacharya, In Vitro Mol. Toxicol. 2000, 13, 137–144.Google Scholar
  409. 409.
    M. Kocak, E. Akcil, Pathophysiol. Haemost. Thromb. 2006, 35, 411–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    G. F. Nordberg, Biometals 2004, 17, 485–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    B. A. Fowler, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 294–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    A. Chargui, S. Zekri, G. Jacquillet, I. Rubera, M. Ilie, A. Belaid, C. Duranton, M. Tauc, P. Hofman, P. Poujeol, M. V. El May, B. Mograbi, Toxicol. Sci. 2011, 121, 31–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    P. W. Mueller, R. G. Price, W. F. Finn, Environ. Health Perspect. 1998, 106, 227–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    C. W. Noonan, S. M. Sarasua, D. Campagna, S. J. Kathman, J. A. Lybarger, P. W. Mueller, Environ. Health Perspect. 2002, 110, 151–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    T. Uno, E. Kobayashi, Y. Suwazono, Y. Okubo, K. Miura, K. Sakata, A. Okayama, H. Ueshima, H. Nakagawa, K. Nogawa, Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2005, 31, 307–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Z. A. Shaikh, C. Tohyama, Environ. Health Perspect. 1984, 54, 171–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Z. A. Shaikh, K. J. Ellis, K. S. Subramanian, A. Greenberg, Toxicology 1990, 63, 53–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    L. Chen, T. Jin, B. Huang, G. Nordberg, M. Nordberg, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2006, 215, 93–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    E. I. Christensen, J. Gburek, Pediatr. Nephrol. 2004, 19, 714–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    A. Bernard, R. Lauwerys, Toxicol. Lett. 1995, 77, 145–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    J. Huang, Biometals 2004, 17, 511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    T. Jin, G. Nordberg, X. Wu, T. Ye, Q. Kong, Z. Wang, F. Zhuang, S. Cai, Environ. Res. 1999, 81, 167–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    G. Garcon, B. Leleu, T. Marez, F. Zerimech, J. M. Haguenoer, D. Furon, P. Shirali, Sci. Total Environ. 2007, 377, 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    W. C. Prozialeck, J. R. Edwards, V. S. Vaidya, J. V. Bonventre, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 301–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    A. Sundberg, E. L. Appelkvist, G. Dallner, R. Nilsson, Environ. Health Perspect. 1994, 102 Suppl 3, 293–296.Google Scholar
  426. 426.
    V. S. Vaidya, M. A. Ferguson, J. V. Bonventre, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2008, 48, 463–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    V. Bailly, Z. Zhang, W. Meier, R. Cate, M. Sanicola, J. V. Bonventre, J. Biol. Chem. 2002, 277, 39739–39748.Google Scholar
  428. 428.
    V. S. Vaidya, G. M. Ford, S. S. Waikar, Y. Wang, M. B. Clement, V. Ramirez, W. E. Glaab, S. P. Troth, F. D. Sistare, W. C. Prozialeck, J. R. Edwards, N. A. Bobadilla, S. C. Mefferd, J. V. Bonventre, Kidney Int. 2009, 76, 108–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    W. C. Prozialeck, V. S. Vaidya, J. Liu, M. P. Waalkes, J. R. Edwards, P. C. Lamar, A. M. Bernard, X. Dumont, J. V. Bonventre, Kidney Int. 2007, 72, 985–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. 430.
    V. Pennemans, J. M. Rigo, J. Penders, Q. Swennen, Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 2012, 50, 539–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. 431.
    N. Borregaard, J. B. Cowland, Biometals 2006, 19, 211–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    K. M. Schmidt-Ott, K. Mori, J. Y. Li, A. Kalandadze, D. J. Cohen, P. Devarajan, J. Barasch, J. Am. Soc. Nephrol .2007, 18, 407–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    P. Devarajan, Nephrology (Carlton) 2010, 15, 419–428.Google Scholar
  434. 434.
    D. Bolignano, A. Lacquaniti, G. Coppolino, V. Donato, S. Campo, M. R. Fazio, G. Nicocia, M. Buemi, Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2009, 4, 337–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    N. Paragas, A. Qiu, Q. Zhang, B. Samstein, S. X. Deng, K. M. Schmidt-Ott, M. Viltard, W. Yu, C. S. Forster, G. Gong, Y. Liu, R. Kulkarni, K. Mori, A. Kalandadze, A. J. Ratner, P. Devarajan, D. W. Landry, V. D'Agati, C. S. Lin, J. Barasch, Nat. Med. 2011, 17, 216–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    R. Lauwerys, A. Bernard, J. P. Buchet, H. Roels, P. Bruaux, F. Claeys, G. Ducoffre, P. De Plaen, J. Staessen, A. Amery, R. Fagard, P. Lijnen, L. Thijs, D. Rondia, F. Sartor, A. Saint-Remy, L. Nick, Acta Clin. Belg. 1991, 46, 219-225.Google Scholar
  437. 437.
    L. Friberg, C. G. Elinder, in Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Ed L. Parmeggiani, International Labour Organization Publications, Geneva, 1983, pp. 356–357.Google Scholar
  438. 438.
    R. H. Dreisbach, Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California, 1983, pp. 247–250.Google Scholar
  439. 439.
    F. Z. Sheabar, S. Yannai, U. Taitelman, Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1989, 65, 13–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    C. D. Klaassen, M. P. Waalkes, L. R. Cantilena, Jr., Environ. Health Perspect. 1984, 54, 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    M. A. Basinger, M. M. Jones, M. A. Holscher, W. K. Vaughn, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 1988, 23, 77–89.Google Scholar
  442. 442.
    O. Andersen, J. B. Nielsen, Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1988, 63, 386–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    O. Andersen, Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 1989, 20, 83–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    M. M. Jones, M. G. Cherian, Toxicology 1990, 62, 1–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    M. G. Cherian, Nature 1980, 287, 871–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    H. W. Gil, E. J. Kang, K. H. Lee, J. O. Yang, E. Y. Lee, S. Y. Hong, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2011, 30, 79–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    T. W. Clarkson, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1993, 33, 545–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    C. C. Bridges, R. K. Zalups, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2005, 204, 274–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    L. He, K. Girijashanker, T. P. Dalton, J. Reed, H. Li, M. Soleimani, D. W. Nebert, Mol. Pharmacol. 2006, 70, 171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. 450.
    Z. Liu, H. Li, M. Soleimani, K. Girijashanker, J. M. Reed, L. He, T. P. Dalton, D. W. Nebert, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2008, 365, 814–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. 451.
    D. J. Eide, Pflugers Arch. 2004, 447, 796–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. 452.
    L. He, B. Wang, E. B. Hay, D. W. Nebert, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 250–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. 453.
    D. I. Bannon, R. Abounader, P. S. Lees, J. P. Bressler, Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 2003, 284, C44–C50.Google Scholar
  454. 454.
    M. D. Garrick, S. T. Singleton, F. Vargas, H. C. Kuo, L. Zhao, M. Knopfel, T. Davidson, M. Costa, P. Paradkar, J. A. Roth, L. M. Garrick, Biol. Res. 2006, 39, 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. 455.
    M. Okubo, K. Yamada, M. Hosoyamada, T. Shibasaki, H. Endou, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2003, 187, 162–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. 456.
    D. De Stefani, A. Raffaello, E. Teardo, I. Szabo, R. Rizzuto, Nature 2011, 476, 336–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. 457.
    Y. Kirichok, G. Krapivinsky, D. E. Clapham, Nature 2004, 427, 360–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. 458.
    W. K. Lee, U. Bork, F. Gholamrezaei, F. Thévenod, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2005, 288, F27–F39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. 459.
    S. Y. Ryu, G. Beutner, R. T. Dirksen, K. W. Kinnally, S. S. Sheu, FEBS Lett. 2010, 584, 1948–1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. 460.
    F. Thévenod, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 221–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    J. M. Moulis, Biometals 2010, 23, 877–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. 462.
    E. Hassler, B. Lind, M. Piscator, Br. J. Ind. Med. 1983, 40, 420–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. 463.
    O. Barbier, G. Jacquillet, M. Tauc, P. Poujeol, M. Cougnon, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2004, 287, F1067–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. 464.
    P. M. Verbost, M. H. Senden, C. H. van Os, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1987, 902, 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. 465.
    I. Sabolic, M. Ljubojevic, C. M. Herak-Kramberger, D. Brown, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2002, 283, F1389–1402.Google Scholar
  466. 466.
    G. J. Long, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1997, 143, 189–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. 467.
    S. H. Jeon, M. H. Cho, J. H. Cho, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2001, 20, 577–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. 468.
    J. B. Smith, S. D. Dwyer, L. Smith, J. Biol. Chem. 1989, 264, 7115–7118.Google Scholar
  469. 469.
    K. Yamagami, S. Nishimura, M. Sorimachi, Brain Res. 1998, 798, 316–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. 470.
    G. Abou-Mohamed, A. Papapetropoulos, J. D. Catravas, R. W. Caldwell, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1998, 341, 265–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. 471.
    A. Persechini, K. McMillan, B. S. Masters, Biochemistry 1995, 34, 15091–15095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. 472.
    P. O'Brien, H. J. Salacinski, Arch. Toxicol. 1998, 72, 690–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. 473.
    D. Beyersmann, S. Hechtenberg, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1997, 144, 247–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. 474.
    B. Halliwell, J. M. C. Gutteridge, Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Oxford University Press Inc., Oxford, New York, 2007.Google Scholar
  475. 475.
    M. Margoshes, B. L. Vallee, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1957, 79, 4813–4814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. 476.
    E. Carvalho, P. O. Gothe, R. Bauer, E. Danielsen, L. Hemmingsen, Eur. J. Biochem. 1995, 234, 780–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. 477.
    T. W. Lane, F. M. Morel, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2000, 97, 4627–4631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. 478.
    C. Meplan, K. Mann, P. Hainaut, J. Biol. Chem. 1999, 274, 31663–31670.Google Scholar
  479. 479.
    M. Matsuoka, H. Igisu, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2001, 282, 1120–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. 480.
    B. Medicherla, A. L. Goldberg, J. Cell Biol. 2008, 182, 663–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. 481.
    S. Chen, Y. Xu, B. Xu, M. Guo, Z. Zhang, L. Liu, H. Ma, Z. Chen, Y. Luo, S. Huang, L. Chen, J. Neurochem. 2011, 119, 1108–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. 482.
    T. Doi, P. Puri, J. Bannigan, J. Thompson, Pediatr. Surg. Int. 2010, 26, 91–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. 483.
    S. L. Shirran, P. E. Barran, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2009, 20, 1159–1171.Google Scholar
  484. 484.
    S. Majumder, R. Gupta, H. Reddy, S. Sinha, A. Muley, G. K. Kolluru, S. Chatterjee, Biochem. Cell Biol. 2009, 87, 605–620.Google Scholar
  485. 485.
    S. Soyupek, T. Oksay, R. Sutcu, A. Armagan, O. Gokalp, H. Perk, N. Delibas, Toxicol. Ind. Health 2012, 28, 624–628.Google Scholar
  486. 486.
    N. Haugaard, Physiol. Rev. 1968, 48, 311–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. 487.
    M. Kitamura, N. Hiramatsu, Biometals 2010, 23, 941–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. 488.
    G. Gobe, D. Crane, Toxicol. Lett. 2010, 198, 49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. 489.
    A. Cuypers, M. Plusquin, T. Remans, M. Jozefczak, E. Keunen, H. Gielen, K. Opdenakker, A. R. Nair, E. Munters, T. J. Artois, T. Nawrot, J. Vangronsveld, K. Smeets, Biometals 2010, 23, 927–940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. 490.
    M. Kippler, M. B. Hossain, C. Lindh, S. E. Moore, I. Kabir, M. Vahter, K. Broberg, Environ. Res. 2012, 112, 164–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. 491.
    S. L'Hoste, A. Chargui, R. Belfodil, C. Duranton, I. Rubera, B. Mograbi, C. Poujeol, M. Tauc, P. Poujeol, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2009, 46, 1017–1031.Google Scholar
  492. 492.
    V. Souza, C. Escobar Mdel, L. Bucio, E. Hernandez, L. E. Gomez–Quiroz, M. C. Gutierrez Ruiz, Toxicol. Lett. 2009, 187, 180–186.Google Scholar
  493. 493.
    D. Ron, P. Walter, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2007, 8, 519–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. 494.
    I. Tabas, D. Ron, Nat. Cell Biol. 2011, 13, 184–190.Google Scholar
  495. 495.
    M. Moenner, O. Pluquet, M. Bouchecareilh, E. Chevet, Cancer Res. 2007, 67, 10631–10634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. 496.
    N. Hiramatsu, A. Kasai, S. Du, M. Takeda, K. Hayakawa, M. Okamura, J. Yao, M. Kitamura, FEBS Lett. 2007, 581, 2055–2059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. 497.
    M. G. Permenter, J. A. Lewis, D. A. Jackson, PLoS One 2011, 6, e27730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. 498.
    M. Yokouchi, N. Hiramatsu, K. Hayakawa, A. Kasai, Y. Takano, J. Yao, M. Kitamura, Cell Death Differ. 2007, 14, 1467–1474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. 499.
    M. Biagioli, S. Pifferi, M. Ragghianti, S. Bucci, R. Rizzuto, P. Pinton, Cell Calcium 2008, 43, 184–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. 500.
    M. Yokouchi, N. Hiramatsu, K. Hayakawa, M. Okamura, S. Du, A. Kasai, Y. Takano, A. Shitamura, T. Shimada, J. Yao, M. Kitamura, J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 4252–4260.Google Scholar
  501. 501.
    W. K. Lee, P. K. Chakraborty, E. Roussa, N. A. Wolff, F. Thévenod, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2012, 1823, 1864–1876.Google Scholar
  502. 502.
    Y. L. Ji, H. Wang, X. F. Zhao, Q. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Zhao, Y. H. Chen, X. H. Meng, D. X. Xu, Toxicol. Sci. 2011, 124, 446–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. 503.
    Y. MacKinnon, C. M. Kapron, Birth Defects Res. A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 2010, 88, 707–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. 504.
    J. Liu, A. Lin, Cell Res. 2005, 15, 36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. 505.
    Y. Iryo, M. Matsuoka, B. Wispriyono, T. Sugiura, H. Igisu, Biochem. Pharmacol. 2000, 60, 1875–1882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. 506.
    P. Martin, M. C. Poggi, J. C. Chambard, K. E. Boulukos, P. Pognonec, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2006, 350, 803–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. 507.
    G. Jiang, W. Duan, L. Xu, S. Song, C. Zhu, L. Wu, Toxicol. In Vitro 2009, 23, 973–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. 508.
    N. D. Perkins, Nat. Rev. Cancer 2012, 12, 121–132.Google Scholar
  509. 509.
    B. A. Hart, C. H. Lee, G. S. Shukla, A. Shukla, M. Osier, J. D. Eneman, J. F. Chiu, Toxicology 1999, 133, 43–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. 510.
    J. Xie, Z. A. Shaikh, Toxicology 2006, 224, 56–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. 511.
    P. M. Yang, H. C. Chen, J. S. Tsai, L. Y. Lin, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2007, 20, 406–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. 512.
    T. S. Hsu, P. M. Yang, J. S. Tsai, L. Y. Lin, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 235, 153–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. 513.
    A. L. Edinger, C. B. Thompson, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 2004, 16, 663–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  514. 514.
    D. Denton, S. Nicolson, S. Kumar, Cell Death Differ. 2012, 19, 87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. 515.
    D. R. Green, Cell 2005, 121, 671–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. 516.
    X. M. Yin, Cell Res. 2000, 10, 161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. 517.
    S. S. Habeebu, J. Liu, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1998, 149, 203–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. 518.
    M. Ishido, S. Homma-Takeda, C. Tohyama, T. Suzuki, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 1998, 55, 1–12.Google Scholar
  519. 519.
    T. Eichler, Q. Ma, C. Kelly, J. Mishra, S. Parikh, R. F. Ransom, P. Devarajan, W. E. Smoyer, Toxicol. Sci. 2006, 90, 392–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. 520.
    J. P. Vit, C. Guillouf, F. Rosselli, Exp. Cell Res. 2001, 269, 2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. 521.
    T. Tenev, K. Bianchi, M. Darding, M. Broemer, C. Langlais, F. Wallberg, A. Zachariou, J. Lopez, M. MacFarlane, K. Cain, P. Meier, Mol. Cell 2011, 43, 432–448.Google Scholar
  522. 522.
    W. K. Lee, M. Abouhamed, F. Thévenod, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2006, 291, F823–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. 523.
    M. Li, T. Kondo, Q. L. Zhao, F. J. Li, K. Tanabe, Y. Arai, Z. C. Zhou, M. Kasuya, J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275, 39702–39709.Google Scholar
  524. 524.
    W. P. Mao, J. L. Ye, Z. B. Guan, J. M. Zhao, C. Zhang, N. N. Zhang, P. Jiang, T. Tian, Toxicol. In Vitro 2007, 21, 343–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. 525.
    W. K. Lee, M. Spielmann, U. Bork, F. Thévenod, Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 2005, 289, C656–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. 526.
    A. Lemarie, D. Lagadic-Gossmann, C. Morzadec, N. Allain, O. Fardel, L. Vernhet, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2004, 36, 1517–1531.Google Scholar
  527. 527.
    M. Crompton, Biochem. J. 1999, 341, 233–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. 528.
    S. H. Oh, B. H. Lee, S. C. Lim, Biochem. Pharmacol. 2004, 68, 1845–1855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. 529.
    M. Li, T. Xia, C. S. Jiang, L. J. Li, J. L. Fu, Z. C. Zhou, Toxicology 2003, 194, 19–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. 530.
    E. A. Belyaeva, V. V. Glazunov, S. M. Korotkov, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2002, 405, 252–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  531. 531.
    W. K. Lee, U. Bork, F. Thévenod, Toxicol. Mech. Methods 2004, 14, 67–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  532. 532.
    C. Zazueta, C. Sanchez, N. Garcia, F. Correa, Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2000, 32, 1093–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. 533.
    W. K. Lee, F. Thévenod, Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 2006, 291, C195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. 534.
    A. Schinzel, T. Kaufmann, C. Borner, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2004, 1644, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. 535.
    J. M. Jurgensmeier, Z. Xie, Q. Deveraux, L. Ellerby, D. Bredesen, J. C. Reed, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1998, 95, 4997–5002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. 536.
    S. Shimizu, M. Narita, Y. Tsujimoto, Nature 1999, 399, 483–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. 537.
    Y. Li, S. C. Lim, Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2007, 24, 231–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. 538.
    E. S. Papadakis, K. G. Finegan, X. Wang, A. C. Robinson, C. Guo, M. Kayahara, C. Tournier, FEBS Lett. 2006, 580, 1320–1326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. 539.
    M. Ishido, R. Ohtsubo, T. Adachi, M. Kunimoto, Environ. Health Perspect. 2002, 110, 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. 540.
    R. N. Kolesnick, M. Kronke, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1998, 60, 643–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. 541.
    L. J. Siskind, R. N. Kolesnick, M. Colombini, J. Biol. Chem. 2002, 277, 26796–26803.Google Scholar
  542. 542.
    W. K. Lee, B. Torchalski, F. Thévenod, Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 2007, 293, C839–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. 543.
    S. J. Storr, N. O. Carragher, M. C. Frame, T. Parr, S. G. Martin, Nat. Rev. Cancer 2011, 11, 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. 544.
    I. Johnson, M. T. Z. Spence, The Molecular Probes Handbook, A Guide to Fluorescent Probes and Labeling Technologies, Life Technologies Corporation, Paisley, UK, 2010, pp. 1076.Google Scholar
  545. 545.
    K. T. Izutsu, S. P. Felton, I. A. Siegel, W. T. Yoda, A. C. Chen, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 1972, 49, 1034–1039.Google Scholar
  546. 546.
    M. Biagioli, P. Pinton, R. Scudiero, M. Ragghianti, S. Bucci, R. Rizzuto, Toxicology 2005, 208, 389–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  547. 547.
    B. E. Tvermoes, G. S. Bird, J. H. Freedman, PLoS One 2011, 6, e20542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. 548.
    P. Golstein, G. Kroemer, Trends Biochem. Sci. 2007, 32, 37–43.Google Scholar
  549. 549.
    P. Nicotera, G. Melino, Oncogene 2004, 23, 2757–2765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. 550.
    P. Nicotera, M. Leist, E. Ferrando-May, Toxicol. Lett. 1998, 102–103, 139–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. 551.
    T. Hirsch, P. Marchetti, S. A. Susin, B. Dallaporta, N. Zamzami, I. Marzo, M. Geuskens, G. Kroemer, Oncogene 1997, 15, 1573–1581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. 552.
    P. Sancho, C. Fernandez, V. J. Yuste, D. Amran, A. M. Ramos, E. de Blas, S. A. Susin, P. Aller, Apoptosis 2006, 11, 673–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. 553.
    E. Niemczyk, A. Majczak, A. Hallmann, J. Kedzior, M. Wozniak, T. Wakabayashi, Acta Biochim. Pol. 2004, 51, 1015–1022.Google Scholar
  554. 554.
    S. Somji, S. H. Garrett, M. A. Sens, V. Gurel, D. A. Sens, Toxicol. Sci. 2004, 80, 358–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. 555.
    H. McNeill, J. R. Woodgett, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2010, 11, 404–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. 556.
    J. M. Bailey, P. K. Singh, M. A. Hollingsworth, J. Cell Biochem. 2007, 102, 829–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  557. 557.
    R. van Amerongen, R. Nusse, Development 2009, 136, 3205–3214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. 558.
    J. Thompson, L. Wong, P. S. Lau, J. Bannigan, Reprod. Toxicol. 2008, 25, 39–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. 559.
    M. L. Hanson, K. M. Brundage, R. Schafer, J. C. Tou, J. B. Barnett, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2010, 242, 136–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. 560.
    P. K. Chakraborty, W. K. Lee, M. Molitor, N. A. Wolff, F. Thévenod, Mol. Cancer 2010, 9, 102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. 561.
    P. K. Chakraborty, B. Scharner, J. Jurasovic, B. Messner, D. Bernhard, F. Thévenod, Toxicol. Lett. 2010, 198, 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  562. 562.
    F. Thévenod, P. K. Chakraborty, Curr. Mol. Med. 2010, 10, 387–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. 563.
    M. Varjosalo, J. Taipale, Genes Dev. 2008, 22, 2454–2472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. 564.
    M. S. Cooke, M. D. Evans, M. Dizdaroglu, J. Lunec, FASEB J. 2003, 17, 1195–1214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. 565.
    A. Hartwig, D. Beyersmann, Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1989, 21, 359–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. 566.
    Y. H. Jin, A. B. Clark, R. J. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J. A. Taylor, T. A. Kunkel, M. A. Resnick, D. A. Gordenin, Nat. Genet. 2003, 34, 326–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. 567.
    M. Asmuss, L. H. Mullenders, A. Hartwig, Toxicol. Lett. 2000, 112–113, 227–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. 568.
    J. C. Mathers, G. Strathdee, C. L. Relton, Adv. Genet. 2010, 71, 3–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. 569.
    M. Takiguchi, W. E. Achanzar, W. Qu, G. Li, M. P. Waalkes, Exp. Cell Res. 2003, 286, 355–365.Google Scholar
  570. 570.
    G. Jiang, L. Xu, S. Song, C. Zhu, Q. Wu, L. Zhang, L. Wu, Toxicology 2008, 244, 49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. 571.
    H. Fujishiro, S. Okugaki, S. Yasumitsu, S. Enomoto, S. Himeno, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 241, 195–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. 572.
    K. P. Singh, R. Kumari, C. Pevey, D. Jackson, J. W. DuMond, Cancer Lett. 2009, 279, 84–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. 573.
    S. Somji, S. H. Garrett, C. Toni, X. D. Zhou, Y. Zheng, A. Ajjimaporn, M. A. Sens, D. A. Sens, Cancer Cell Int. 2011, 11, 2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. 574.
    S. L. Ameres, J. Martinez, R. Schroeder, Cell 2007, 130, 101–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  575. 575.
    S. Li, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Y. Bai, G. Liang, N. Huang, Z. Xiao, Biomaterials 2011, 32, 3807–3814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  576. 576.
    N. Mizushima, M. Komatsu, Cell 2011, 147, 728–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  577. 577.
    Y. O. Son, X. Wang, J. A. Hitron, Z. Zhang, S. Cheng, A. Budhraja, S. Ding, J. C. Lee, X. Shi, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2011, 255, 287–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. 578.
    S. H. Wang, Y. L. Shih, T. C. Kuo, W. C. Ko, C. M. Shih, Toxicol. Sci. 2009, 108, 124–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. 579.
    S. C. Lim, K. S. Hahm, S. H. Lee, S. H. Oh, Toxicology 2010, 276, 18–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  580. 580.
    S. H. Wang, Y. L. Shih, W. C. Ko, Y. H. Wei, C. M. Shih, Cell Mol. Life Sci. 2008, 65, 3640–3652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. 581.
    Z. Dong, L. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. Miao, Toxicol. In Vitro 2009, 23, 105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  582. 582.
    M. Di Gioacchino, C. Petrarca, A. Perrone, S. Martino, D. L. Esposito, L. V. Lotti, R. Mariani-Costantini, Autophagy 2008, 4, 537–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  583. 583.
    K. Taguchi, H. Motohashi, M. Yamamoto, Genes Cells 2011, 16, 123–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. 584.
    X. He, M. G. Chen, Q. Ma, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2008, 21, 1375–1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  585. 585.
    D. Stewart, E. Killeen, R. Naquin, S. Alam, J. Alam, J. Biol. Chem. 2003, 278, 2396–2402.Google Scholar
  586. 586.
    Y. Jing, L. Z. Liu, Y. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. L. Guo, J. Barnett, Y. Rojanasakul, F. Agani, B. H. Jiang, Toxicol. Sci. 2012, 125, 10–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. 587.
    S. H. Oh, S. Y. Lee, C. H. Choi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Lim, Arch. Pharm. Res. 2009, 32, 883–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  588. 588.
    F. Thévenod, J. M. Friedmann, A. D. Katsen, I. A. Hauser, J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275, 1887–1896.Google Scholar
  589. 589.
    W. Ding, D. M. Templeton, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2000, 162, 93–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. 590.
    D. Hanahan, R. A. Weinberg, Cell 2011, 144, 646–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. 591.
    A. Hartwig, Biometals 2010, 23, 951–960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  592. 592.
    A. J. Levine, Cell 1997, 88, 323–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. 593.
    I. Hamann, C. Konig, C. Richter, G. Jahnke, A. Hartwig, Mutat. Res. 2011.Google Scholar
  594. 594.
    M. Tokumoto, Y. Fujiwara, A. Shimada, T. Hasegawa, Y. Seko, H. Nagase, M. Satoh, J. Toxicol. Sci. 2011, 36, 191–200.Google Scholar
  595. 595.
    W. E. Achanzar, K. B. Achanzar, J. G. Lewis, M. M. Webber, M. P. Waalkes, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2000, 164, 291–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  596. 596.
    U. Bork, W. K. Lee, A. Kuchler, T. Dittmar, F. Thévenod, Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 2010, 298, F255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. 597.
    C. Meplan, M. J. Richard, P. Hainaut, Oncogene 2000, 19, 5227–5236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  598. 598.
    M. M. Gottesman, T. Fojo, S. E. Bates, Nat. Rev. Cancer 2002, 2, 48–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. 599.
    C. Huynh-Delerme, H. Huet, L. Noel, A. Frigieri, M. Kolf-Clauw, Toxicol. In Vitro 2005, 19, 439–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. 600.
    O. Kimura, T. Endo, Y. Hotta, M. Sakata, Toxicology 2005, 208, 123–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. 601.
    W. K. Lee, B. Torchalski, N. Kohistani, F. Thévenod, Toxicol. Sci. 2011, 121, 343–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  602. 602.
    C. Byrne, S. D. Divekar, G. B. Storchan, D. A. Parodi, M. B. Martin, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009, 238, 266–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. 603.
    N. Silva, R. Peiris-John, R. Wickremasinghe, H. Senanayake, N. Sathiakumar, J. Appl. Toxicol 2011.Google Scholar
  604. 604.
    C. L. Siewit, B. Gengler, E. Vegas, R. Puckett, M. C. Louie, Mol. Endocrinol. 2010, 24, 981–992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. 605.
    A. Stoica, B. S. Katzenellenbogen, M. B. Martin, Mol. Endocrinol. 2000, 14, 545–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  606. 606.
    M. B. Martin, R. Reiter, T. Pham, Y. R. Avellanet, J. Camara, M. Lahm, E. Pentecost, K. Pratap, B. A. Gilmore, S. Divekar, R. S. Dagata, J. L. Bull, A. Stoica, Endocrinology 2003, 144, 2425–2436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. 607.
    B. J. Deegan, A. M. Bona, V. Bhat, D. C. Mikles, C. B. McDonald, K. L. Seldeen, A. Farooq, J. Mol. Recognit. 2011, 24, 1007–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. 608.
    E. Silva, M. J. Lopez-Espinosa, J. M. Molina-Molina, M. Fernandez, N. Olea, A. Kortenkamp, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2006, 216, 20–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  609. 609.
    M. D. Johnson, N. Kenney, A. Stoica, L. Hilakivi-Clarke, B. Singh, G. Chepko, R. Clarke, P. F. Sholler, A. A. Lirio, C. Foss, R. Reiter, B. Trock, S. Paik, M. B. Martin, Nat. Med. 2003, 9, 1081–1084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  610. 610.
    W. Zhang, J. Yang, J. Wang, P. Xia, Y. Xu, H. Jia, Y. Chen, Toxicology 2007, 241, 84–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  611. 611.
    I. Ali, P. E. Penttinen-Damdimopoulou, S. I. Makela, M. Berglund, U. Stenius, A. Akesson, H. Hakansson, K. Halldin, Environ. Health Perspect. 2010, 118, 1389–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  612. 612.
    P. Fechner, P. Damdimopoulou, G. Gauglitz, PLoS One 2011, 6, e23048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  613. 613.
    G. S. Prins, Endocr. Relat. Cancer 2008, 15, 649–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  614. 614.
    J. Ye, S. Wang, M. Barger, V. Castranova, X. Shi, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 2000, 19, 275–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  615. 615.
    W. E. Achanzar, B. A. Diwan, J. Liu, S. T. Quader, M. M. Webber, M. P. Waalkes, Cancer Res. 2001, 61, 455–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  616. 616.
    W. Maret, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 16, 1079–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  617. 617.
    J. H. Kagi, B. L. Vallee, J. Biol. Chem. 1960, 235, 3188–3192.Google Scholar
  618. 618.
    R. D. Palmiter, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1994, 91, 1219–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. 619.
    W. Maret, Antioxid. Redox Signal 2006, 8, 1419–1441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  620. 620.
    G. Roesijadi, Cell Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 2000, 46, 393–405.Google Scholar
  621. 621.
    Y. Liu, J. Liu, S. M. Habeebu, M. P. Waalkes, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 57, 167–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. 622.
    S. S. Habeebu, J. Liu, Y. Liu, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 56, 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  623. 623.
    Y. Liu, J. Liu, M. B. Iszard, G. K. Andrews, R. D. Palmiter, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1995, 135, 222–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  624. 624.
    C. D. Klaassen, J. Liu, Environ. Health Perspect. 1998, 106 Suppl 1, 297–300.Google Scholar
  625. 625.
    J. Liu, Y. Liu, A. E. Michalska, K. H. Choo, C. D. Klaassen, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1996, 136, 260–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  626. 626.
    M. T. Wu, B. Demple, R. A. Bennett, D. C. Christiani, R. Fan, H. Hu, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 2000, 61, 553–567.Google Scholar
  627. 627.
    K. Kita, N. Miura, M. Yoshida, K. Yamazaki, T. Ohkubo, Y. Imai, A. Naganuma, Hum. Genet. 2006, 120, 553–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  628. 628.
    Z. Kayaalti, V. Aliyev, T. Soylemezoglu, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2011, 256, 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  629. 629.
    Z. Kayaalti, G. Mergen, T. Soylemezoglu, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2010, 245, 252–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  630. 630.
    N. Miura, Ind. Health 2009, 47, 487–494.Google Scholar
  631. 631.
    N. S. Gould, E. Min, R. J. Martin, B. J. Day, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2012, 52, 1201–1206.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Biomedical Training and Research (ZBAF), Institute of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Faculty of HealthPrivate University of Witten/HerdeckeWittenGermany

Personalised recommendations