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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2021

The Science of Citizen Science

  • Provides a unique overview of the field of citizen science

  • Explores and summarizes an innovative research field

  • Case studies illustrate the varying aspect of citizen science

  • Research based on a pan-European networks of experts

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Table of contents (26 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-vii
  2. Editorial: The Science of Citizen Science Evolves

    • Katrin Vohland, Anne Land-Zandstra, Luigi Ceccaroni, Rob Lemmens, Josep Perelló, Marisa Ponti et al.
    Pages 1-12Open Access
  3. What Is Citizen Science? The Challenges of Definition

    • Mordechai (Muki) Haklay, Daniel Dörler, Florian Heigl, Marina Manzoni, Susanne Hecker, Katrin Vohland
    Pages 13-33Open Access
  4. Citizen Science in Europe

    • Katrin Vohland, Claudia Göbel, Bálint Balázs, Eglė Butkevičienė, Maria Daskolia, Barbora Duží et al.
    Pages 35-53Open Access
  5. Citizen Science as Science

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 55-55
    2. Science as a Commons: Improving the Governance of Knowledge Through Citizen Science

      • Maite Pelacho, Hannot Rodríguez, Fernando Broncano, Renata Kubus, Francisco Sanz García, Beatriz Gavete et al.
      Pages 57-78Open Access
    3. Citizen Science in the Natural Sciences

      • Didone Frigerio, Anett Richter, Esra Per, Baiba Pruse, Katrin Vohland
      Pages 79-96Open Access
    4. Citizen Humanities

      • Barbara Heinisch, Kristin Oswald, Maike Weißpflug, Sally Shuttleworth, Geoffrey Belknap
      Pages 97-118Open Access
    5. Citizen Social Science: New and Established Approaches to Participation in Social Research

      • Alexandra Albert, Bálint Balázs, Eglė Butkevičienė, Katja Mayer, Josep Perelló
      Pages 119-138Open Access
    6. Data Quality in Citizen Science

      • Bálint Balázs, Peter Mooney, Eva Nováková, Lucy Bastin, Jamal Jokar Arsanjani
      Pages 139-157Open Access
    7. A Conceptual Model for Participants and Activities in Citizen Science Projects

      • Rob Lemmens, Gilles Falquet, Chrisa Tsinaraki, Friederike Klan, Sven Schade, Lucy Bastin et al.
      Pages 159-182Open Access
    8. Machine Learning in Citizen Science: Promises and Implications

      • Martina Franzen, Laure Kloetzer, Marisa Ponti, Jakub Trojan, Julián Vicens
      Pages 183-198Open Access
    9. Participation and Co-creation in Citizen Science

      • Enric Senabre Hidalgo, Josep Perelló, Frank Becker, Isabelle Bonhoure, Martine Legris, Anna Cigarini
      Pages 199-218Open Access
    10. Citizen Science, Health, and Environmental Justice

      • Luigi Ceccaroni, Sasha M. Woods, James Sprinks, Sacoby Wilson, Elaine M. Faustman, Aletta Bonn et al.
      Pages 219-239Open Access
  6. Citizen Science in Society

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 241-241
    2. Participants in Citizen Science

      • Anne Land-Zandstra, Gaia Agnello, Yaşar Selman Gültekin
      Pages 243-259Open Access
    3. Inclusiveness and Diversity in Citizen Science

      • Carole Paleco, Sabina García Peter, Nora Salas Seoane, Julia Kaufmann, Panagiota Argyri
      Pages 261-281Open Access
    4. Learning in Citizen Science

      • Laure Kloetzer, Julia Lorke, Joseph Roche, Yaela Golumbic, Silvia Winter, Aiki Jõgeva
      Pages 283-308Open Access
    5. Citizen Science Case Studies and Their Impacts on Social Innovation

      • Eglė Butkevičienė, Artemis Skarlatidou, Bálint Balázs, Barbora Duží, Luciano Massetti, Ioannis Tsampoulatidis et al.
      Pages 309-329Open Access
    6. Science as a Lever: The Roles and Power of Civil Society Organisations in Citizen Science

      • Claudia Göbel, Lucile Ottolini, Annett Schulze
      Pages 331-349Open Access

About this book

This open access book discusses how the involvement of citizens into scientific endeavors is expected to contribute to solve the big challenges of our time, such as climate change and the loss of biodiversity, growing inequalities within and between societies, and the sustainability turn. The field of citizen science has been growing in recent decades. Many different stakeholders from scientists to citizens and from policy makers to environmental organisations have been involved in its practice. In addition, many scientists also study citizen science as a research approach and as a way for science and society to interact and collaborate. This book provides a representation of the practices as well as scientific and societal outcomes in different disciplines. It reflects the contribution of citizen science to societal development, education, or innovation and provides and overview of the field of actors as well as on tools and guidelines. It serves as an introduction for anyone who wants to get involved in and learn more about the science of citizen science.

Editors and Affiliations

  • Museum für Naturkunde Berlin – Leibniz, Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science (MfN), Berlin, Germany

    Katrin Vohland, Katherin Wagenknecht

  • Natural History Museum (NHM), Vienna, Austria

    Katrin Vohland

  • Faculty of Science, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

    Anne Land-Zandstra

  • Earthwatch Europe, Oxford, UK

    Luigi Ceccaroni

  • Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands

    Rob Lemmens

  • OpenSystems, Departament de Física de la Matèria Condensada, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

    Josep Perelló

  • Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

    Marisa Ponti

  • Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Roeland Samson

About the editors

Katrin Vohland supports and investigates knowledge exchange between science, policy, and different publics mainly in the area of biodiversity. She chairs the COST Action CA15212 to explore the added value of citizen science. She was based at the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin and the Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Research. Since June 2020 she is the Director General of the Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria.


Anne Land-Zandstra studies citizen science as a form of informal science education. Her research focuses on participant motivation and learning impact. She is a member of the Dutch Citizen Science Lab and is vice-chair of the COST Action CA15212. She is also an assistant professor at Leiden University.


Luigi Ceccaroni manages innovation and strategic research at Earthwatch, an independent research organisation based in Oxford, UK. He is co-vice-chair of the European Citizen Science Association.


Rob Lemmens works in the Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) at the University of Twente, with a research focus on semantic web technologies and the improvement of geo-crowdsourcing methods.


Josep Perelló is the leader of the OpenSystems Research Group and the coordinator of the CoAct EU research project. His research is focused on citizen social science and more particularly on public experimentation on a wide variety of social issues related to human collective behaviour in the field of computational social science.


Marisa Ponti works in the Department of Applied Information Technology at the University of Gothenburg. Her current research focuses on machine–human cooperation to advance collective knowledge for scientific activities and to solve social problems.


Roeland Samson is professor at the University of Antwerp. His research focuses on urban air pollution monitoring, ecosystem services of urban green spaces, urban biodiversity, and the link between air pollution and health. He initiated and coordinated AIRbezen (strawbAIRies), and was involved in Curieuzeneuzen, both citizen science campaigns on air quality monitoring.


Katherin Wagenknecht coordinates the EU-Citizen.Science project. With a background in sociology and cultural anthropology her research focus is on participatory research practice and urban space. She was based at the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin and the Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Research.

Bibliographic Information

Buy it now

Buying options

Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Other ways to access