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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2021

The Science of Citizen Science

  • Provides a unique overview of the field of citizen science

  • Explores and summarizes an innovative research field

  • Case studies illustrate the varying aspect of citizen science

  • Research based on a pan-European networks of experts

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Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (26 chapters)

  1. Citizen Science in Society

    1. Citizen Science and Policy

      • Sven Schade, Maite Pelacho, Toos (C. G. E.) van Noordwijk, Katrin Vohland, Susanne Hecker, Marina Manzoni
      Pages 351-371Open Access
    2. Creating Positive Environmental Impact Through Citizen Science

      • Toos (C. G. E.) van Noordwijk, Isabel Bishop, Sarah Staunton-Lamb, Alice Oldfield, Steven Loiselle, Hilary Geoghegan et al.
      Pages 373-395Open Access
    3. Ethical Challenges and Dynamic Informed Consent

      • Loreta Tauginienė, Philipp Hummer, Alexandra Albert, Anna Cigarini, Katrin Vohland
      Pages 397-416Open Access
  2. Citizen Science in Practice

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 417-417
    2. Finding What You Need: A Guide to Citizen Science Guidelines

      • Francisco Sanz García, Maite Pelacho, Tim Woods, Dilek Fraisl, Linda See, Mordechai (Muki) Haklay et al.
      Pages 419-437Open Access
    3. Citizen Science Platforms

      • Hai-Ying Liu, Daniel Dörler, Florian Heigl, Sonja Grossberndt
      Pages 439-459Open Access
    4. Citizen Science in the Digital World of Apps

      • Rob Lemmens, Vyron Antoniou, Philipp Hummer, Chryssy Potsiou
      Pages 461-474Open Access
    5. Communication and Dissemination in Citizen Science

      • Simone Rüfenacht, Tim Woods, Gaia Agnello, Margaret Gold, Philipp Hummer, Anne Land-Zandstra et al.
      Pages 475-494Open Access
    6. Evaluation in Citizen Science: The Art of Tracing a Moving Target

      • Teresa Schaefer, Barbara Kieslinger, Miriam Brandt, Vanessa van den Bogaert
      Pages 495-514Open Access
  3. Conclusions/Lessons Learnt

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 515-515
    2. The Recent Past and Possible Futures of Citizen Science: Final Remarks

      • Josep Perelló, Andrzej Klimczuk, Anne Land-Zandstra, Katrin Vohland, Katherin Wagenknecht, Claire Narraway et al.
      Pages 517-529Open Access

About this book

This open access book discusses how the involvement of citizens into scientific endeavors is expected to contribute to solve the big challenges of our time, such as climate change and the loss of biodiversity, growing inequalities within and between societies, and the sustainability turn. The field of citizen science has been growing in recent decades. Many different stakeholders from scientists to citizens and from policy makers to environmental organisations have been involved in its practice. In addition, many scientists also study citizen science as a research approach and as a way for science and society to interact and collaborate. This book provides a representation of the practices as well as scientific and societal outcomes in different disciplines. It reflects the contribution of citizen science to societal development, education, or innovation and provides and overview of the field of actors as well as on tools and guidelines. It serves as an introduction for anyone who wants to get involved in and learn more about the science of citizen science.


  • Citizen science tools and guidelines
  • Data quality, standardization, interoperability
  • Evaluation and quality criteria in citizen science
  • Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity
  • Knowledge transfer and science communication
  • Open Access

Editors and Affiliations

  • Museum für Naturkunde Berlin – Leibniz, Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science (MfN), Berlin, Germany

    Katrin Vohland, Katherin Wagenknecht

  • Natural History Museum (NHM), Vienna, Austria

    Katrin Vohland

  • Faculty of Science, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

    Anne Land-Zandstra

  • Earthwatch Europe, Oxford, UK

    Luigi Ceccaroni

  • Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands

    Rob Lemmens

  • OpenSystems, Departament de Física de la Matèria Condensada, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

    Josep Perelló

  • Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

    Marisa Ponti

  • Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Roeland Samson

About the editors

Katrin Vohland supports and investigates knowledge exchange between science, policy, and different publics mainly in the area of biodiversity. She chairs the COST Action CA15212 to explore the added value of citizen science. She was based at the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin and the Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Research. Since June 2020 she is the Director General of the Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria.


Anne Land-Zandstra studies citizen science as a form of informal science education. Her research focuses on participant motivation and learning impact. She is a member of the Dutch Citizen Science Lab and is vice-chair of the COST Action CA15212. She is also an assistant professor at Leiden University.


Luigi Ceccaroni manages innovation and strategic research at Earthwatch, an independent research organisation based in Oxford, UK. He is co-vice-chair of the European Citizen Science Association.


Rob Lemmens works in the Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) at the University of Twente, with a research focus on semantic web technologies and the improvement of geo-crowdsourcing methods.


Josep Perelló is the leader of the OpenSystems Research Group and the coordinator of the CoAct EU research project. His research is focused on citizen social science and more particularly on public experimentation on a wide variety of social issues related to human collective behaviour in the field of computational social science.


Marisa Ponti works in the Department of Applied Information Technology at the University of Gothenburg. Her current research focuses on machine–human cooperation to advance collective knowledge for scientific activities and to solve social problems.


Roeland Samson is professor at the University of Antwerp. His research focuses on urban air pollution monitoring, ecosystem services of urban green spaces, urban biodiversity, and the link between air pollution and health. He initiated and coordinated AIRbezen (strawbAIRies), and was involved in Curieuzeneuzen, both citizen science campaigns on air quality monitoring.


Katherin Wagenknecht coordinates the EU-Citizen.Science project. With a background in sociology and cultural anthropology her research focus is on participatory research practice and urban space. She was based at the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin and the Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Research.

Bibliographic Information

Buying options

Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)