Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxxviii
  2. Hans von Storch, Anders Omstedt, Janet Pawlak, Marcus Reckermann
    Pages 1-22 Open Access
  3. Long-term Climate Change

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 23-23
    2. Irena Borzenkova, Eduardo Zorita, Olga Borisova, Laimdota Kalniņa, Dalia Kisielienė, Tiiu Koff et al.
      Pages 25-49 Open Access
    3. Tadeusz Niedźwiedź, Rüdiger Glaser, Daniel Hansson, Samuli Helama, Vladimir Klimenko, Ewa Łupikasza et al.
      Pages 51-65 Open Access
  4. Recent Climate Change (Past 200 Years)

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 67-67
    2. Anna Rutgersson, Jaak Jaagus, Frederik Schenk, Martin Stendel, Lars Bärring, Agrita Briede et al.
      Pages 69-97 Open Access
    3. Jukka Käyhkö, Elga Apsite, Anna Bolek, Nikolai Filatov, Sergey Kondratyev, Johanna Korhonen et al.
      Pages 99-116 Open Access
    4. Sirpa Rasmus, Jan Boelhouwers, Agrita Briede, Ian A. Brown, Malgorzata Falarz, Susanne Ingvander et al.
      Pages 117-129 Open Access
    5. Jüri Elken, Andreas Lehmann, Kai Myrberg
      Pages 131-144 Open Access
    6. Jari J. Haapala, Iina Ronkainen, Natalija Schmelzer, Marzenna Sztobryn
      Pages 145-153 Open Access
    7. Birgit Hünicke, Eduardo Zorita, Tarmo Soomere, Kristine S. Madsen, Milla Johansson, Ülo Suursaar
      Pages 155-185 Open Access
  5. Future Climate Change

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 187-187
    2. Joanna Wibig, Douglas Maraun, Rasmus Benestad, Erik Kjellström, Philip Lorenz, Ole Bøssing Christensen
      Pages 189-215 Open Access
    3. Ole Bøssing Christensen, Erik Kjellström, Eduardo Zorita
      Pages 217-233 Open Access
    4. Torben Obel Sonnenborg
      Pages 235-241 Open Access
    5. H. E. Markus Meier
      Pages 243-252 Open Access
    6. Aslak Grinsted
      Pages 253-263 Open Access
  6. Environmental Impacts of Climate Change

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 265-265
    2. David Simpson, Jerzy Bartnicki, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Ole Hertel, Joakim Langner et al.
      Pages 267-289 Open Access
    3. Pekka Niemelä, Harri Tolvanen, Mia Rönkä, Seppo Kellomäki, Joachim Krug, Guy Schurgers et al.
      Pages 291-306 Open Access
    4. Christoph Humborg, Hans Estrup Andersen, Thorsten Blenckner, Mathias Gadegast, Reiner Giesler, Jens Hartmann et al.
      Pages 307-336 Open Access
    5. Bernd Schneider, Kari Eilola, Kaarina Lukkari, Bärbel Muller-Karulis, Thomas Neumann
      Pages 337-361 Open Access
    6. Markku Viitasalo, Thorsten Blenckner, Anna Gårdmark, Hermanni Kaartokallio, Lena Kautsky, Harri Kuosa et al.
      Pages 363-380 Open Access
    7. Tomasz A. Łabuz
      Pages 381-396 Open Access
  7. Socio-economic Impacts of Climate Change

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 397-397
    2. Joachim Krug, Hillevi Eriksson, Claudia Heidecke, Seppo Kellomäki, Michael Köhl, Marcus Lindner et al.
      Pages 399-409 Open Access
    3. Sonja Deppisch, Sirkku Juhola, Holger Janßen, Michael Richter
      Pages 411-423 Open Access
  8. Drivers of Regional Climate Change

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 425-425
    2. Jonas Bhend
      Pages 427-439 Open Access
    3. Hans-Christen Hansson, Jonas Bhend
      Pages 441-452 Open Access
    4. Marie-José Gaillard, Thomas Kleinen, Patrick Samuelsson, Anne Birgitte Nielsen, Johan Bergh, Jed Kaplan et al.
      Pages 453-477 Open Access
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 479-501

About this book


This book is an update of the first BACC assessment, published in 2008. It offers new and updated scientific findings in regional climate research for the Baltic Sea basin. These include climate changes since the last glaciation (approx. 12,000 years ago), changes in the recent past (the last 200 years), climate projections up until 2100 using state-of-the-art regional climate models and an assessment of climate-change impacts on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. There are dedicated new chapters on sea-level rise, coastal erosion and impacts on urban areas. A new set of chapters deals with possible causes of regional climate change along with the global effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, namely atmospheric aerosols and land-cover change.

The evidence collected and presented in this book shows that the regional climate has already started to change and this is expected to continue. Projections of potential future climates show that the region will probably become considerably warmer and wetter in some parts, but dryer in others. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have already shown adjustments to increased temperatures and are expected to undergo further changes in the near future.

The BACC II Author Team consists of 141 scientists from 12 countries, covering various disciplines related to climate research and related impacts. BACC II is a project of the Baltic Earth research network and contributes to the World Climate Research Programme.


BACC BACC books Baltic Sea Environmental Impacts Northern Europe Regional Climate Change Regional Climate Projections

Editors and affiliations

  •  The BACC II Author Team
    • 1
  1. 1.c/o International Baltic Earth Secretariat Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbHGeesthachtGermany

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