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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2015

Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin

  • Provides an up-to-date regional assessment of climate change in the Baltic Sea basin

  • Treats atmospheric, hydrological, oceanographic, biogeochemical, ecosystem and societal changes now and in the future

  • Comprehensive reference and text book for professional and academic use

Part of the book series: Regional Climate Studies (REGCLIMATE)

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (25 chapters)

  1. Environmental Impacts of Climate Change

    1. Environmental Impacts—Coastal Ecosystems, Birds and Forests

      • Pekka Niemelä, Harri Tolvanen, Mia Rönkä, Seppo Kellomäki, Joachim Krug, Guy Schurgers et al.
      Pages 291-306Open Access
    2. Environmental Impacts—Freshwater Biogeochemistry

      • Christoph Humborg, Hans Estrup Andersen, Thorsten Blenckner, Mathias Gadegast, Reiner Giesler, Jens Hartmann et al.
      Pages 307-336Open Access
    3. Environmental Impacts—Marine Biogeochemistry

      • Bernd Schneider, Kari Eilola, Kaarina Lukkari, Bärbel Muller-Karulis, Thomas Neumann
      Pages 337-361Open Access
    4. Environmental Impacts—Marine Ecosystems

      • Markku Viitasalo, Thorsten Blenckner, Anna Gårdmark, Hermanni Kaartokallio, Lena Kautsky, Harri Kuosa et al.
      Pages 363-380Open Access
    5. Environmental Impacts—Coastal Erosion and Coastline Changes

      • Tomasz A. Łabuz
      Pages 381-396Open Access
  2. Socio-economic Impacts of Climate Change

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 397-397
    2. Socio-economic Impacts—Forestry and Agriculture

      • Joachim Krug, Hillevi Eriksson, Claudia Heidecke, Seppo Kellomäki, Michael Köhl, Marcus Lindner et al.
      Pages 399-409Open Access
    3. Socio-economic Impacts—Urban Complexes

      • Sonja Deppisch, Sirkku Juhola, Holger Janßen, Michael Richter
      Pages 411-423Open Access
  3. Drivers of Regional Climate Change

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 425-425
    2. Regional Evidence of Global Warming

      • Jonas Bhend
      Pages 427-439Open Access
    3. Causes of Regional Change—Aerosols

      • Hans-Christen Hansson, Jonas Bhend
      Pages 441-452Open Access
    4. Causes of Regional Change—Land Cover

      • Marie-José Gaillard, Thomas Kleinen, Patrick Samuelsson, Anne Birgitte Nielsen, Johan Bergh, Jed Kaplan et al.
      Pages 453-477Open Access
  4. Back Matter

    Pages 479-501

About this book

​This book is an update of the first BACC assessment, published in 2008. It offers new and updated scientific findings in regional climate research for the Baltic Sea basin. These include climate changes since the last glaciation (approx. 12,000 years ago), changes in the recent past (the last 200 years), climate projections up until 2100 using state-of-the-art regional climate models and an assessment of climate-change impacts on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. There are dedicated new chapters on sea-level rise, coastal erosion and impacts on urban areas. A new set of chapters deals with possible causes of regional climate change along with the global effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, namely atmospheric aerosols and land-cover change.

The evidence collected and presented in this book shows that the regional climate has already started to change and this is expected to continue. Projections of potential future climates show that the region will probably become considerably warmer and wetter in some parts, but dryer in others. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have already shown adjustments to increased temperatures and are expected to undergo further changes in the near future.

The BACC II Author Team consists of 141 scientists from 12 countries, covering various disciplines related to climate research and related impacts. BACC II is a project of the Baltic Earth research network and contributes to the World Climate Research Programme.


  • BACC
  • BACC books
  • Baltic Sea
  • Environmental Impacts
  • Northern Europe
  • Regional Climate Change
  • Regional Climate Projections

Editors and Affiliations

  • c/o International Baltic Earth Secretariat Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany

    The BACC II Author Team

Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin

  • Editors: The BACC II Author Team

  • Series Title: Regional Climate Studies

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Springer Cham

  • eBook Packages: Earth and Environmental Science, Earth and Environmental Science (R0)

  • Copyright Information: The Editor(s) (if applicable) and the Author(s) 2015

  • License: CC BY-NC

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-319-16005-4Published: 20 April 2015

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-3-319-36883-2Published: 08 October 2016

  • eBook ISBN: 978-3-319-16006-1Published: 03 April 2015

  • Series ISSN: 1862-0248

  • Series E-ISSN: 1865-505X

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: XXXVIII, 501

  • Number of Illustrations: 58 b/w illustrations, 174 illustrations in colour

  • Topics: Earth System Sciences, Atmospheric Science

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)