Optical and Ferroelectric Properties of \({\hbox {Bi}}_{0.95}{\hbox {Gd}}_{0.05}{\hbox {Fe}}_{1-x}{\hbox {Cr}}_{x}{\hbox {O}}_{3}\)

Abstract

In this paper, optical and ferroelectric properties were investigated for gadolinium, \({\hbox {Gd}}^{3+}\) (5 at.%) and chromium, \({\hbox {Cr}}^{3+}\) (0–8 at.%) co-doped of BiFeO\(_3\). Chemical solution deposition (CSD) method was employed as compatible device fabrication technology to synthesize Gd and Cr co-doped multiferroic \({\hbox {BiFeO}}_{3}\) \(({\hbox {Bi}}_{0.95}{\hbox {Gd}}_{0.05}{\hbox {Fe}}_{1-x}{\hbox {Cr}}_{x}{\hbox {O}}_{3}\) with \({\hbox {x}}\) = 0–0.08). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed a well-defined crystalline phase with a tendency towards structural change from rhombohedral to orthorhombic symmetry. Crystallite size was found to reduce substantially from 34 to 13.5 nm with increasing the doping concentration of \({\hbox {Cr}}^{3+}\). The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) demonstrated a significant reduction in grain size of doped \({\hbox {BiFeO}}_{3}\) compared to un-doped one following the trend obtained from XRD results. Ferroelectric nature of samples was obtained from polarization versus electric field measurements. Improved ferroelectric order was displayed in co-doped \({\hbox {BiFeO}}_{3}\) with a maximum remnant polarization of 0.23 μ\({\hbox {C}}/{\hbox {cm}}^2\). Diffuse reflectance measurement by UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy of Gd\(^{3+}\) and \({\hbox {Cr}}^{3+}\) co-doped \({\hbox {BiFeO}}_{3}\) has shown a significant reduction in the optical band-gap energy \(({\hbox {E}}_{g})\) to 1.71 eV compared to 2.03 eV of pure BiFeO\(_{3}\) counterpart.

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Matin, M.A., Hossain, M.N., Islam, M.M. et al. Optical and Ferroelectric Properties of \({\hbox {Bi}}_{0.95}{\hbox {Gd}}_{0.05}{\hbox {Fe}}_{1-x}{\hbox {Cr}}_{x}{\hbox {O}}_{3}\). Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 22, 243–249 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42341-020-00235-7

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Keywords

  • Ferroelectrics
  • Band-gap
  • Photovoltaic
  • Efficiency
  • Sol–gel
  • X-ray diffraction