In order to enhance corrosion protection efficiency of electrodeposited sol–gel zinc/silica coatings, this paper resorted to a central composite design as a tool to improve cathodic protection effectiveness time and electrochemical tests to understand the film protection mechanism. Coatings were produced by electrodeposition of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and Zn2+ onto carbon steel. The amount of silane agent, concentration of zinc nitrate and the applied potential were chosen as the variables to be studied. Open-circuit potentials in NaCl 3.5% (wt.) solution were monitored to verify the duration of cathodic protection, according to ISO 15589-2:201. Microstructures characterization and distribution of deposited zinc were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. At last, coating degradation was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and visual inspection of corrosion products. Results revealed films whose cathodic protection endured more than 600 min of immersion when higher concentrations of Zn2+ were combined with lower potentials and lower silane content. Furthermore, visual inspection of immersed specimens showed no corrosion signs for carbon steel samples deposited with zinc and TEOS, even after 20 h, providing a superior protection when compared to the sample deposited solely with zinc.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
L.L. Jiang, L.K. Wu, J.M. Hu, J.Q. Zhang, and C.N. Cao, Electrodeposition of Protective Organosilane Films from a Thin Layer of Precursor Solution, Corros. Sci., 2012, 60, p 309–313
E.T. Akinlabi, A.D. Baruwa, O.P. Oladijo, N. Maledi, and J. Chinn, Characterization of Hydrophobic Silane Film Deposited on AISI, 304 Stainless Steel for Corrosion Protection, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2019, 28, p 6330–6339
P.R. Seré, W. Egli, A.R. Di Sarli, and C. Deyá, Preparation and Characterization of Silanes Films to Protect Electrogalvanized Steel, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2018, 27, p 1194–1202
P. Rodič, J. Katić, D. Korte, P.M. Desimone, M. Franko, S.M. Ceré, M. Metikoš-Huković, and I. Milošev, The Effect of Cerium Ions on the Structure, Porosity and Electrochemical Properties of Si/Zr-Based Hybrid Sol–Gel Coatings Deposited on Aluminum, Metals, 2018, 8(4), p 248
P. Rodič, I. Milošev, M. Lekka, F. Andreatta, and L. Fedrizzi, Corrosion Behaviour and Chemical Stability of Transparent Hybrid Sol–Gel Coatings Deposited on Aluminium in Acidic and Alkaline Solutions, Prog. Org. Coat., 2018, 124, p 286–295
A. Valero-Gómez, J. Molina, S. Pradas, M.J. López-Tendero, and F. Bosch, Microencapsulation of Cerium and Its Application in Sol–Gel Coatings for the Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Alloy AA2024, J. Sol–Gel. Sci. Technol., 2020, 93, p 36–51
M. Sheffer, A. Groysman, and D. Mandler, Electrodeposition of Sol–Gel Films on Al for Corrosion Protection, Corros. Sci., 2003, 45, p 2893–2904
R. Shacham, D. Avnir, and D. Mandler, Electrodeposition of Methylated Sol–Gel Films on Conducting Surfaces, Adv. Mater., 1999, 11(5), p 384–388
E. Sibottier, S. Sayen, F. Gaboriaud, and A. Walcarius, Factors Affecting the Preparation and Properties of Electrodeposited Silica Thin Films Functionalized with Amine or Thiol Groups, Langmuir, 2006, 22(20), p 8366–8373
G. Giordano, C. Durante, A. Gennaro, and M. Guglielmi, Electrochemical Deposition of Silica Sol–Gel Films on Stainless Steel: Preliminary Analysis of Key Variables, J. Sol–Gel. Sci. Technol., 2015, 76(2), p 233–240
S. Xu and Z.L. Wang, One-Dimensional ZnO Nanostructures: Solution Growth and Functional Properties, Nano Res., 2011, 4(11), p 1013–1098
G. Giordano, C. Durante, A. Gennaro, and M. Guglielmi, Multilayer Deposition of Silica Sol–Gel Films by Electrochemical Assisted Techniques, J. Phys. Chem., 2016, 120(50), p 28820–28824
L.K. Wu, X.F. Zhang, and J.M. Hu, Corrosion Protection of Mild Steel by One-Step Electrodeposition of Superhydrophobic Silica Film, Corros. Sci., 2014, 84, p 482–487
D. Lv, H. Shao, X. Gao, K. Lu, H. Lu, and H. Ma, Fabrication and Corrosion Resistance Properties of Super-Hydrophobic Coatings on Iron and Steel Substrates by Creating Micro-/Nano-Structures and Modifying Rough Surfaces, RSC Adv., 2016, 6(96), p 93419–93427
Y.H. Liu, J.B. Xu, J.T. Zhang, and J.M. Hu, Electrodeposited Silica Film Interlayer for Active Corrosion Protection, Corros. Sci., 2017, 120, p 61–74
Z. Cao, H. Wang, J. Qu, M. Zhang, X. Wang, and W. Xia, One Step GO/DTES co-deposition on Steels: Electro-Induced Fabrication and Characterization of Thickness-Controlled Coatings, Chem. Eng. J., 2017, 320(15), p 588–607
L. Liu, J.M. Hu, J.Q. Zhang, and C.N. Cao, Improving the Formation and Protective Properties of Silane Films by the Combined Use of Electrodeposition and Nanoparticles Incorporation, Electrochim. Acta, 2006, 52(2), p 538–545
C. Chen, S. Dong, R. Hou, J. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ye, R. Du, and C. Lin, Insight Into the Anti-corrosion Performance of Electrodeposited Silane/Nano-CeO2 Film on Carbon Steel, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 326(15), p 183–191
R. Toledano, R. Shacham, D. Avnir, and D. Mandler, Electrochemical Co-deposition of Sol-Gel/Metal Thin Nanocomposite Films”, Chem. Mater., 2008, 20(13), p 4276–4283
L.K. Wu, J.M. Hu, and J.Q. Zhang, Electrodeposition of Zinc-Doped Silane Films for Corrosion Protection of Mild Steels, Corros. Sci., 2012, 59, p 348–351
M.A. Maher, J. Sadhan, and D.S. Mark, Corrosion Performance of Polyurethane Hybrid Coatings with Encapsulated Inhibitor, Prog. Org. Coat., 2019, 130(1), p 235–243
P. Nafise, R. Bahram, and S. Taghi, Corrosion Protection and Adhesion Properties of the Epoxy Coating Applied on the Steel Substrate Pre-treated by a Sol–Gel Based Silane Coating Filled with Amino and Isocyanate Silane Functionalized Graphene Oxide Nanosheets, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2018, 439, p 45–59
A.P. Romano, M. Fedel, F. Deflorian, and M.G. Olivier, Silane Sol–Gel Film as Pretreatment for Improvement of Barrier Properties and Filiform Corrosion Resistance of 6016 Aluminium Alloy Covered by Cataphoretic Coating, Prog. Org. Coat., 2011, 72(4), p 695–702
J. Li, P. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Liu, and M. Xuan, Uniformity Study of Nickel Thin-Film Microstructure Deposited by Electroplating, Microsyst. Technol., 2009, 15(4), p 505–510
Y.J. Tan and K.Y. Lim, Understanding and Improving the Uniformity of Electrodeposition, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 167(2–3), p 255–262
J.K. Luo, D.P. Chu, A.J. Flewitt, S.M. Spearing, N.A. Fleck, and W.I. Milnea, Uniformity Control of Ni Thin-Film Microstructures Deposited by Through-Mask Plating, J. Electrochem. Soc., 2005, 152(1), p C36–C41
C.A.M. Dutra, E.N. Codaro, and R.Z. Nakazato, Electrochemical Behavior and Corrosion Study of Electrodeposits of Zn and Zn-Fe-Co on Steel, Mater. Sci. Appl., 2012, 3(6), p 348–354
M. Fedel, M.E. Druart, M. Olivier, M. Poelman, F. Deflorian, and S. Rossi, Compatibility Between Cataphoretic Electro-Coating and Silane Surface Layer for the Corrosion Protection of Galvanized Steel, Prog. Org. Coat., 2010, 69(2), p 118–125
M. Montemor, A. Cabral, M. Zheludkevich, and M. Ferreira, The Corrosion Resistance of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel Pretreated with Bis-Functional Silanes Modified with Microsilica, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 200(9), p 2875–2885
D. Zhu and W.J.V. Ooij, Corrosion Protection of AA 2024-T3 by bis-[3-triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide in Sodium Chloride Solution: Part 2: Mechanism for Corrosion Protection, Corros. Sci., 2003, 45(10), p 2177–2197
B. Chico, J.C. Galván, D. Fuente, and M. Morcillo, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study of the Effect of Curing Time on the Early Barrier Properties of Silane Systems Applied on Steel Substrates, Prog. Org. Coat., 2007, 60(1), p 45–53
This study was funded by CNPq.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Rego, V.H.C.A., Leoni, G.B. & Brasil, S.L.D.C. Multivariable Analysis of Electrodeposited Silane/Zinc Coating—Improvement of Cathodic Protection of Steel. J. of Materi Eng and Perform (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-020-05088-y
- nonferrous metals