Dyrbye LN, Harper W, Durning SJ, et al. Patterns of distress in US medical students. Med Teach. 2011;33:834–9.
Guthrie EA, Black D, Shaw CM, Hamilton J, Creed FH, Tomenson B. Embarking upon a medical career: psychological morbidity in first year medical students. Med Educ. 1995;29:337–41.
Murphy JM, Nadelson CC, Notman MT. Factors influencing first-year medical students’ perceptions of stress. J Human Stress. 1984;10:165–73.
Dyrbye LN, Shanafelt TD. Commentary: medical student distress: a call to action. Acad Med. 2011;86:801–3.
Dyrbye LN, Thomas MR, Shanafelt TD. Systematic review of depression, anxiety, and other indicators of psychological distress among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Acad Med. 2006;81:354–73.
Guthrie E, Black D, Bagalkote H, Shaw C, Campbell M, Creed F. Psychological stress and burnout in medical students: a five-year prospective longitudinal study. J R Soc Med. 1998;91:237–43.
Goebert D, Thompson D, Takeshita J, et al. Depressive symptoms in medical students and residents: a multischool study. Acad Med. 2009;84:236–41.
Dahlin M, Joneborg N, Runeson B. Stress and depression among medical students: a cross-sectional study. Med Educ. 2005;39:594–604.
Toews JA, Lockyer JM, Dobson DJ, et al. Analysis of stress levels among medical students, residents, and graduate students at four Canadian schools of medicine. Acad Med. 1997;72:997–1002.
Kliewer W, Sandler IN. Locus of control and self-esteem as moderators of stressor-symptom relations in children and adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1992;20:393–413.
Hamilton NA, Catley D, Karlson C. Sleep and the affective response to stress and pain. Health Psychol. 2007;26:288–95.
Carr D, Friedman MA. Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States. J Health Soc Behav. 2005;46:244–59.
Crocker J, Cornwell B, Major B. The stigma of overweight: affective consequences of attributional ambiguity. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993;64:60–70.
Friedman KE, Ashmore JA, Applegate KL. Recent experiences of weight-based stigmatization in a weight loss surgery population: psychological and behavioral correlates. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(Suppl 2):S69–74.
Pascoe EA, Smart RL. Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull. 2009;135:531–54.
Verkuyten M. Perceived discrimination and self-esteem among ethnic minority adolescents. J Soc Psychol. 1998;138:479–93.
Major B, O’Brien LT. The social psychology of stigma. Annu Rev Psychol. 2005;56:393–421.
Puhl R, Brownell KD. Ways of coping with obesity stigma: review and conceptual analysis. Eat Behav. 2003;4:53–78.
Puhl R, Moss-Racusin C, Schwartz M. Internalization of weight bias: Implications for binge eating and emotional well-being. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:19–23.
Puhl RM. Coping with weight stigma. In: Brownell KD, Puhl RM, Schwartz MB, Rudd L, eds. Weight bias: Nature, Consequences, and Remedies. New York: The Guilford Press; 2005.
Phelan SM, Burgess DJ, Yeazel M, Hellerstedt W, Griffin J, van Ryn, M. The Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for obese patients. Obesity Reviews. 2015. In press.
Link BG, Phelan JC. Stigma and its public health implications. Lancet. 2006;367:528–9.
Myers AM, Rothblum ED. Coping with prejudice and discrimination based on weight. In: Chin JL, ed. The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination: disability, Religion, Physique, and Other Traits, vol. 4. Westport: Praeger Publishers; 2005.
Jost JT, Burgess DJ, Mosso C. Conflicts of Legitimation Among Self, Group, and System: The Integrative Potential of System Justification Theory. In: Jost JT, Major B, eds. The Psychology of Legitimacy: emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice, and Intergroup Relations. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2001:363–88.
Hilbert A, Braehler E, Haeuser W, Zenger M. Weight bias internalization, core self-evaluation, and health in overweight and obese persons. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22:79–85.
Pearl RL, White MA, Grilo CM. Weight bias internalization, depression, and self-reported health among overweight binge eating disorder patients. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;22:E142–8.
Phelan SM, Dovidio JF, Puhl RM, et al. Implicit and explicit weight bias in a national sample of 4,732 medical students: the medical student CHANGES study. Obesity. 2013;22:1201–8.
Brown I. Nurses’ attitudes towards adult patients who are obese: literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2006;53:221–32.
Budd GM, Mariotti M, Graff D, Falkenstein K. Health care professionals’ attitudes about obesity: an integrative review. Appl Nurs Res. 2009;24:127–37.
Puhl RM, Heuer CA. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:941–64.
Schwartz MB, Chambliss HO, Brownell KD, Blair SN, Billington C. Weight bias among health professionals specializing in obesity. Obes Res. 2003;11:1033–9.
Wear D, Aultman JM, Varley JD, Zarconi J. Making fun of patients: medical students’ perceptions and use of derogatory and cynical humor in clinical settings. Acad Med. 2006;81:454–62.
Puhl RM, Grilo C, Luedicke J. Obesity bias in training: attitudes, beliefs, and observations among advanced trainees in professional health disciplines. Obesity. 2013. doi:10.1002/oby.20637.
Heatherton TF, Polivy J. Development and validation of a scale for measuring state self esteem. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991;60:895–910.
Ware J, Kosinski M, Turner-Bowker D, Gandek B. How to Score Version 2 of the SF-12 Health Survey. Lincoln: QualityMetric Inc.; 2005.
Cella D, Riley W, Stone A, et al. The patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) developed and tested its first wave of adult self-reported health outcome item banks: 2005–2008. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63:1179–94.
Pilkonis PA, Choi SW, Reise SP, Stover AM, Riley WT, Cella D. Item banks for measuring emotional distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(R)): depression, anxiety, and anger. Assessment. 2011;18:263–83.
Garcia SF, Cella D, Clauser SB, et al. Standardizing patient-reported outcomes assessment in cancer clinical trials: a patient-reported outcomes measurement information system initiative. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:5106–12.
Pearlin LI, Schooler C. The structure of coping. J Health Soc Behav. 1978;19:2–21.
Sherbourne CD, Stewart AL. The MOS social support survey. Soc Sci Med. 1991;32:705–14.
Hughes M, Waite L, Hawkley L, Cacioppo J. A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys: results from two population-based studies. Res Aging. 2004;26:655–72.
Carver CS. You want to measure coping but your protocol’s too long: consider the brief COPE. Int J Behav Med. 1997;4:92–100.
Crandall CS. Prejudice against fat people: ideology and self-interest. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994;66:882–94.
Greenwald AG, McGhee DE, Schwartz JL. Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998;74:1464–80.
Greenwald AG, Poehlman TA, Uhlmann EL, Banaji MR. Understanding and using the implicit association test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2009;97:17–41.
Williams DR, Yan Y, Jackson JS, Anderson NB. Racial differences in physical and mental health: socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. J Health Psychol. 1997;2:335–51.
Crowne DP, Marlowe D. A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. J Consult Psychol. 1960;24:349–54.
McManus IC, Winder BC, Gordon D. The causal links between stress and burnout in a longitudinal study of UK doctors. Lancet. 2002;359:2089–90.
Dyrbye LN, Thomas MR, Shanafelt TD. Medical student distress: causes, consequences, and proposed solutions. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:1613–22.
Thomas MR, Dyrbye LN, Huntington JL, et al. How do distress and well-being relate to medical student empathy? A multicenter study. J Gen Int Med. 2007;22:177–83.
Stewart SM, Lam TH, Betson CL, Wong CM, Wong AM. A prospective analysis of stress and academic performance in the first two years of medical school. Med Educ. 1999;33:243–50.
Spiegel DA, Smolen RC, Hopfensperger KA. Medical student stress and clerkship performance. J Med Educ. 1986;61:929–31.
Spiegel DA, Smolen RC, Jonas CK. An examination of the relationships among interpersonal stress, morale and academic performance in male and female medical students. Soc Sci Med. 1986;23:1157–61.
Bramness JG, Fixdal TC, Vaglum P. Effect of medical school stress on the mental health of medical students in early and late clinical curriculum. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991;84:340–5.
Ball S, Bax A. Self-care in medical education: effectiveness of health-habits interventions for first-year medical students. Acad Med. 2002;77:911–7.
Tyssen R, Vaglum P, Gronvold NT, Ekeberg O. Suicidal ideation among medical students and young physicians: a nationwide and prospective study of prevalence and predictors. J Affect Disord. 2001;64:69–79.
Cacioppo JT, Hawkley LC, Crawford LE, et al. Loneliness and health: potential mechanisms. Psychosom Med. 2002;64:407–17.
Cacioppo JT, Hughes ME, Waite LJ, Hawkley LC, Thisted RA. Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychol Aging. 2006;21:140–51.
Hawkley LC, Thisted RA, Masi CM, Cacioppo JT. Loneliness predicts increased blood pressure: 5-year cross-lagged analyses in middle-aged and older adults. Psychol Aging. 2010;25:132–41.
Prins JT, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, Gazendam-Donofrio SM, et al. The role of social support in burnout among Dutch medical residents. Psychol Health Med. 2007;12:1–6.
Williams DR, Neighbors HW, Jackson JS. Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:S29–37.
Agell G, Rothblum ED. Effects of clients’ obesity and gender on the therapy judgments of psychologists. Prof Psychol-Res Pr. 1991;22(3):223–9.
Sabin JA, Marini M, Nosek BA. Implicit and explicit anti-Fat bias among a large sample of medical doctors by BMI, race/ethnicity and gender. PloS one. 2012;7(11):e48448.
Ip EH, Marshall S, Vitolins M, et al. Measuring medical student attitudes and beliefs regarding patients who are obese. Acad Med. 2013;88:282–9.
O’Brien KS, Puhl RM, Latner JD, Mir AS, Hunter JA. Reducing anti-fat prejudice in preservice health students: a randomized trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:2138–44.
Jost JT, Banaji MR, Nosek BA. A decade of system justification theory: accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology. 2004;25:881–919.