Small Business Economics

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 447–486

Gender differences in entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship: an empirical analysis


DOI: 10.1007/s11187-016-9793-y

Cite this article as:
Adachi, T. & Hisada, T. Small Bus Econ (2017) 48: 447. doi:10.1007/s11187-016-9793-y


This study examines the gender gap in start-up activities to determine whether it is family status or employment status that is responsible for the observed gender gap. We consider independent entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship as two different start-up modes: While intrapreneurship is conducted within an established organization, independent entrepreneurship is solely an independent activity. This study focuses on this fundamental distinction to identify the parameters of our empirical model. Using nationally representative US data, we find that the effects of being a part-time worker on the likelihood of becoming an independent entrepreneur differ across genders. The obtained results suggest similar findings for intrapreneurship, but in opposite directions. Furthermore, our decomposition results suggest that for both entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, the gender differences in the employment-related variables are more significant than those in the family-related variables in affecting the observed gender gap negatively (for entrepreneurship) or positively (for intrapreneurship).


Gender gap Entrepreneurship Intrapreneurship 

JEL Classifications

J15 J16 L26 M13 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
  • Grant-in-aid for scientific research (A) 23243049
  • Grant-in-aid for scientific research (C) 15K03425

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EconomicsNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of EconomicsOsaka UniversityToyonakaJapan

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