Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles are one of the highly significant compounds in construction. The novelty concentrated on using sol–gel technique coupled with ultrasonication for synthesis of MgO nanoparticles to prevent the agglomeration and its effect on the size was investigated. The synthesized samples were characterized by TGA, DSC, XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDX mapping, DLS, and HRTEM. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of MgO nanoparticles were investigated against multidrug-resistant microbes causing-urinary tract infection (UTI). TGA, XRD, and FTIR characterization were used to identify the calcination temperature, characterization peaks, and functional groups of MgO nanoparticles, respectively. DLS technique confirmed the particle size distribution which found to be 21.04 nm. HRTEM and SEM/EDX mapping showed that MgO nanoparticles are pure, spherical and the average particle size is 19.2 nm. MgO nanoparticles showed a promising antimicrobial effect against all UTI-causing pathogens. It showed a prominent antimicrobial capability against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans by 19.3 mm, 16.1 mm and 15.2 mm ZOI, respectively. Additionally, they showed improved biofilm inhibition as 95.65%, 84.23%, and 76.85% against C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Therefore, due to these outstanding properties, this study could give insights for solving serious industrial, pharmaceutical and medical challenges throughout the utilization of new nanoparticle-based approach.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
J. T. Seil and T. J. Webster (2012). Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature. Int. J. Nanomed.7, 2767.
A. El-Batal, et al. (2014). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and incorporation with certain antibiotic using gamma irradiation. Br. J. Pharm. Res.4, (11), 1341.
A. F. El-Baz, et al. (2016). Extracellular biosynthesis of anti-Candida silver nanoparticles using Monascus purpureus. J. Basic Microbiol.56, (5), 531–540.
K. Karthik, et al. (2018). Facile microwave-assisted green synthesis of NiO nanoparticles from Andrographis paniculata leaf extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic and anticancer activities. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.673, (1), 70–80.
G. S. El-Sayyad, et al. (2019). Facile biosynthesis of tellurium dioxide nanoparticles by Streptomyces cyaneus melanin pigment and gamma radiation for repressing some Aspergillus pathogens and bacterial wound cultures. J. Clust. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10876-019-01629-1.
M. Abd Elkodous, et al. (2019). Therapeutic and diagnostic potential of nanomaterials for enhanced biomedical applications. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces180, 411–428.
M. Abd Elkodous, et al. (2019). Engineered nanomaterials as potential candidates for HIV treatment: between opportunities and challenges. J. Clust. Sci.30, (3), 531–540.
A. Kumar and J. Kumar (2008). On the synthesis and optical absorption studies of nano-size magnesium oxide powder. J. Phys. Chem. Solids69, (11), 2764–2772.
S. Peng, et al. (2015). Influence of functionalized MgO nanoparticles on electrical properties of polyethylene nanocomposites. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul.22, (3), 1512–1519.
S. Suresh (2014). Investigations on synthesis, structural and electrical properties of MgO nanoparticles by sol–gel method. J. Ovonic Res.10, (6), 205–210.
A. I. El-Batal, et al. (2019). Penicillium chrysogenum-mediated mycogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using gamma rays for in vitro antimicrobial activity against some plant pathogens. J. Clust. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10876-019-01619-3.
F. J. Heiligtag and M. Niederberger (2013). The fascinating world of nanoparticle research. Mater. Today16, (7–8), 262–271.
M. Mastuli, et al. (2014). Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol–gel synthesis using different complexing agents. Nanoscale Res. Lett.9, (1), 1–9.
J. Xie, et al. (2017). Influence of moisture absorption on the synthesis and properties of Y2O3–MgO nanocomposites. Ceram. Int.43, (1), 40–44.
M. Afrand (2017). Experimental study on thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol containing hybrid nano-additives and development of a new correlation. Appl. Thermal Eng.110, 1111–1119.
G. Venugopal, et al. (2015). Structural and mechanical properties of MgO-poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite film. Adv. Sci. Eng. Med.7, (6), 457–464.
H. Guan, et al. (2007). Synthesis of high surface area nanometer magnesia by solid-state chemical reaction. Front. Chem. China2, (2), 204–208.
G. I. Almerindo, et al. (2011). Magnesium oxide prepared via metal-chitosan complexation method: application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and catalyst deactivation studies. J. Power Sources196, (19), 8057–8063.
R. Al-Gaashani, et al. (2012). Investigation of the optical properties of Mg(OH)2 and MgO nanostructures obtained by microwave-assisted methods. J. Alloys Compd.521, 71–76.
H. Mirzaei and A. Davoodnia (2012). Microwave assisted sol–gel synthesis of MgO nanoparticles and their catalytic activity in the synthesis of hantzsch 1, 4-dihydropyridines. Chin. J. Catal.33, (9), 1502–1507.
K. Karthik, et al. (2019). Fabrication of MgO nanostructures and its efficient photocatalytic, antibacterial and anticancer performance. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B190, 8–20.
K. Karthik, et al. (2019). Ultrasonic-assisted CdO–MgO nanocomposite for multifunctional applications. Mater. Technol.34, (7), 403–414.
K. Karthik, et al. (2019). Microwave-assisted ZrO2 nanoparticles and its photocatalytic and antibacterial studies. J. Clust. Sci.30, (2), 311–318.
A. Pugazhendhi, et al. (2019). Anticancer, antimicrobial and photocatalytic activities of green synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) using aqueous extract of Sargassum wightii. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B190, 86–97.
C. Martinez-Boubeta, et al. (2010). Self-assembled multifunctional Fe/MgO nanospheres for magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia. Nanomedicine6, (2), 362–370.
D.-R. Di, et al. (2012). A new nano-cryosurgical modality for tumor treatment using biodegradable MgO nanoparticles. Nanomedicine8, (8), 1233–1241.
K. Karthik, et al. (2017). Microwave assisted green synthesis of MgO nanorods and their antibacterial and anti-breast cancer activities. Mater. Lett.206, 217–220.
J. Jeevanandam, Y. S. Chan, and M. K. Danquah (2017). Calcination-dependent morphology transformation of sol–gel-synthesized MgO nanoparticles. ChemistrySelect2, (32), 10393–10404.
G. S. El-Sayyad, F. M. Mosallam, and A. I. El-Batal (2018). One-pot green synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles using Penicillium chrysogenum melanin pigment and gamma rays with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant microbes. Adv. Powder Technol.29, (11), 2616–2625.
V. S. Nagineni, et al. (2005). Microreactors for syngas conversion to higher alkanes: characterization of sol–gel-encapsulated nanoscale Fe–Co catalysts in the microchannels. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.44, (15), 5602–5607.
S. V. Gaponenko, V. Gurin, and V. E. E. Borisenko Physics, Chemistry, and Application of Nanostructures: Reviews and Short Notes to Nanomeeting 2003: Minsk, Belarus, 20–23 May 2003 (World Scientific, Singapore, 2003).
A. Ashour, et al. (2018). Antimicrobial activity of metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel technique. Particuology40, 141–151.
M. I. A. Abdel Maksoud, et al. (2019). Incorporation of Mn2+ into cobalt ferrite via sol–gel method: insights on induced changes in the structural, thermal, dielectric, and magnetic properties. J. Sol–Gel Sci. Technol.90, (3), 631–642.
M. Yoshimura and S. Sōmiya (1999). Hydrothermal synthesis of crystallized nano-particles of rare earth-doped zirconia and hafnia. Mater. Chem. Phys.61, (1), 1–8.
M. I. A. Abdel Maksoud, et al. (2018). Synthesis and characterization of metals-substituted cobalt ferrite [Mx Co(1 − x) Fe2O4; (M = Zn, Cu and Mn; x = 0 and 0.5)] nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents and sensors for anagrelide determination in biological samples. Mater. Sci. Eng. C92, 644–656.
T. Athar, A. Hakeem, and W. Ahmed (2012). Synthesis of MgO nanopowder via non aqueous sol–gel method. Adv. Sci. Lett.7, 27–29.
M. I. A. A. Maksoud, et al. (2019). Tunable structures of copper substituted cobalt nanoferrites with prospective electrical and magnetic applications. J. Mater. Sci.30, (5), 4908–4919.
Z. X. Tang and B. F. Lv (2014). MgO nanoparticles as antibacterial agent: preparation and activity. Braz. J. Chem. Eng.31, (3), 591–601.
Z. X. Tang, et al. (2012). Nanosize MgO as antibacterial agent: preparation and characteristics. Braz. J. Chem. Eng.29, (4), 775–781.
K. Y. Sara Lee, et al. (2012). Effect of ultrasonication on synthesis of forsterite ceramics. Adv. Mater. Res.576, 252–255.
Hielscher, K. Ultrasonic Milling and Dispersing Technology for Nano-Particles. in MRS Proceedings. 2012. Cambridge Univ Press.
K. Karthik, et al. (2019). Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of V2O5 nanoparticles for photocatalytic and antibacterial studies. Mater. Res. Innov.. https://doi.org/10.1080/14328917.2019.1634404.
A. Kaboorani, B. Riedl, and P. Blanchet (2013). Ultrasonication technique: a method for dispersing nanoclay in wood adhesives. J. Nanomater.2013, 3.
H. Guo, et al. (2005). Effect of heat-treatment temperature on the luminescent properties of Lu2O3: Eu film prepared by Pechini sol–gel method. Appl. Surf. Sci.243, (1), 245–250.
A. I. El-Batal, et al. (2017). Response surface methodology optimization of melanin production by Streptomyces cyaneus and synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using gamma radiation. J. Clust. Sci.28, (3), 1083–1112.
M. I. A. A. Maksoud, et al. (2019). Antibacterial, antibiofilm, and photocatalytic activities of metals-substituted spinel cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. Microb. Pathog.127, 144–158.
A. I. El-Batal, et al. (2019). Antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities of silver boron nanoparticles synthesized by PVP polymer and gamma rays against urinary tract pathogens. J. Clust. Sci.30, (4), 947–964.
A. I. El-Batal, F. M. Mosallam, and G. S. El-Sayyad (2018). Synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles by fluconazole drug and gamma rays to inhibit the growth of multidrug-resistant microbes. J. Clust. Sci.29, (6), 1003–1015.
A. I. El-Batal, et al. (2018). Biogenic synthesis of copper nanoparticles by natural polysaccharides and Pleurotus ostreatus fermented fenugreek using gamma rays with antioxidant and antimicrobial potential towards some wound pathogens. Microb. Pathog.118, 159–169.
A. Baraka, et al. (2017). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using natural pigments extracted from Alfalfa leaves and its use for antimicrobial activity. Chem. Pap.71, (11), 2271–2281.
G. D. Christensen, et al. (1982). Adherence of slime-producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to smooth surfaces. Infect. Immun.37, (1), 318–326.
M. A. Ansari, et al. (2014). Antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles against biofilm of extended spectrum β-lactamase isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Appl. Nanosci.4, (7), 859–868.
S. H. Abidi, et al. (2013). Drug resistance profile and biofilm forming potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from contact lenses in Karachi-Pakistan. BMC Ophthalmol.13, (1), 57.
T. Mathur, et al. (2006). Detection of biofilm formation among the clinical isolates of staphylococci: an evaluation of three different screening methods. Indian J. Med. Microbiol.24, (1), 25.
M. A. Elkodous, et al. (2019). Layer-by-layer preparation and characterization of recyclable nanocomposite (CoxNi 1 − x Fe2O4; X = 0.9/SiO2/TiO2). J. Mater. Sci.30, (9), 8312–8328.
B. Doreswamy, et al. (2005). A novel three-dimensional polymeric structure of crystalline neodymium malonate hydrate. Mater. Lett.59, (10), 1206–1213.
Jaison, J., S. Balakumar, and Y. Chan. Sol–Gel synthesis and characterization of magnesium peroxide nanoparticles. in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2015. IOP Publishing.
M. S. Mastuli, et al. (2012). Effects of cationic surfactant in sol–gel synthesis of nano sized magnesium oxide. APCBEE Procedia3, 93–98.
G. Gao and L. Xiang (2010). Emulsion-phase synthesis of honeycomb-like Mg5(OH)2 (CO3)4·4H2O micro-spheres and subsequent decomposition to MgO. J. Alloys Compd.495, (1), 242–246.
International Standard ISO 13321, Methods for Determination of Particle Size Distribution Part 8: Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. 1996, International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
International Standard ISO 22412, Particle Size Analysis—Dynamic Light Scattering. 2008, International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
J. L. Ford (1993). Particle size analysis in pharmaceutics and other industries. Theory and practice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.45, (11), 1015.
M. Mourabet, et al. (2014). Use of response surface methodology for optimization of fluoride adsorption in an aqueous solution by Brushite. Arab. J. Chem.10, S3292–S3302.
J. Segurola, et al. (1999). Design of eutectic photoinitiator blends for UV/visible curable acrylated printing inks and coatings. Prog. Org. Coat.37, (1–2), 23–37.
P. Kanmani, et al. (2012). The use of response surface methodology as a statistical tool for media optimization in lipase production from the dairy effluent isolate Fusarium solani. ISRN Biotechnol.2013, 528708.
L. Reddy, et al. (2008). Optimization of alkaline protease production by batch culture of Bacillus sp. RKY3 through Plackett–Burman and response surface methodological approaches. Bioresour. Technol.99, (7), 2242–2249.
N. Sharma, R. Khanna, and R. D. Gupta (2015). WEDM process variables investigation for HSLA by response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Eng. Sci. Technol. Int. J.18, (2), 171–177.
M. R. Waghulde and J. B. Naik (2016). Poly-e-caprolactone-loaded miglitol microspheres for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus using the response surface methodology. J. Taibah Univ. Med. Sci.11, (4), 364–373.
M. Ashengroph, I. Nahvi, and J. Amini (2013). Application of taguchi design and response surface methodology for improving conversion of isoeugenol into vanillin by resting cells of Psychrobacter sp. CSW4. Iran. J. Pharm. Res.12, (3), 411–421.
R. V. Muralidhar, et al. (2001). A response surface approach for the comparison of lipase production by Candida cylindracea using two different carbon sources. Biochem. Eng. J.9, (1), 17–23.
J. L. L. García and M. D. L. de Castro Acceleration and Automation of Solid Sample Treatment (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 2002).
H. Osman and M. Khairy (2013). Optimization of polyester printing with disperse dye nanoparticles. Indian J. Fibre Text. Res.38, 202–206.
H.-Y. Kim, et al. (2013). Effect of ultrasonic treatments on nanoparticle preparation of acid-hydrolyzed waxy maize starch. Carbohydr. Polym.93, (2), 582–588.
D. Zhou, S. W. Bennett, and A. A. Keller (2012). Increased mobility of metal oxide nanoparticles due to photo and thermal induced disagglomeration. PLoS ONE7, (5), e37363.
Z.-X. Tang and L.-E. Shi (2008). Preparation of nano-MgO using ultrasonic method and its characteristics. Eclética Química33, 15–20.
O. Masala and R. Seshadri (2004). Synthesis routes for large volumes of nanoparticles. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.34, (1), 41–81.
J. Taurozzi, V. Hackley, and M. Wiesner (2012). Preparation of nanoparticle dispersions from powdered material using ultrasonic disruption. NIST Spec. Publ.1200, 2.
W. A. Twej (2009). Temperature influence on the gelation process of tetraethylorthosilicate using sol–gel technique. Iraqi J. Sci.50, (1), 43–49.
C. Milea, C. Bogatu, and A. Duta (2011). The influence of parameters in silica sol–gel process. Bull. Transilvania Univ. Brasov4, 53.
P.-H. Li and B.-H. Chiang (2012). Process optimization and stability of d-limonene-in-water nanoemulsions prepared by ultrasonic emulsification using response surface methodology. Ultrason. Sonochem.19, (1), 192–197.
M. L. Tsai, S. W. Bai, and R. H. Chen (2008). Cavitation effects versus stretch effects resulted in different size and polydispersity of ionotropic gelation chitosan–sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticle. Carbohydr. Polym.71, (3), 448–457.
E. S. K. Tang, M. Huang, and L. Y. Lim (2003). Ultrasonication of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles. Int. J. Pharm.265, (1–2), 103–114.
J. S. Taurozzi, V. A. Hackley, and M. R. Wiesner (2011). Ultrasonic dispersion of nanoparticles for environmental, health and safety assessment–issues and recommendations. Nanotoxicology5, (4), 711–729.
L. Kumar, et al. (2015). Full factorial design for optimization, development and validation of HPLC method to determine valsartan in nanoparticles. Saudi Pharm. J.23, (5), 549–555.
A. I. El-Batal, et al. (2019). Potential nematicidal properties of silver boron nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in vivo root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) treatments. J. Clust. Sci.30, (3), 687–705.
Powder Diffraction File, 71-1176. International Centre for Diffraction Data. Newton Square, PA, 2000.
R. Wongmaneerung, R. Yimnirun, and S. Ananta (2009). Effect of magnesium niobate precursors on phase formation, microstructure and dielectric properties of perovskite lead magnesium niobate ceramics. J. Alloys Compd.477, (1–2), 805–810.
M. A. Shah (2010). Preparation of MgO nanoparticles with water. Afr. Rev. Phys.4, 3.
S. Demirci, et al. (2015). Synthesis and comparison of the photocatalytic activities of flame spray pyrolysis and sol–gel derived magnesium oxide nano-scale particles. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.34, 154–161.
G. Marina, et al. (2017). Problems of magnesium oxide wallboard usage in construction. IOP Conf. Ser.90, (1), 012103.
A. M. Pourrahimi, et al. (2016). Polyethylene nanocomposites for the next generation of ultralow-transmission-loss HVDC cables: insulation containing moisture-resistant MgO nanoparticles. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces8, (23), 14824–14835.
M. S. Attia, et al. (2019). Spirulina platensis-polysaccharides promoted green silver nanoparticles production using gamma radiation to suppress the expansion of pear fire blight-producing Erwinia amylovora. J. Clust. Sci.30, (4), 919–935.
Hamid, H., Infrared Spectrometry 2007: New Delhi. p. 26.
F. M. Mosallam, et al. (2018). Biomolecules-mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using Aspergillus oryzae fermented Lupin extract and gamma radiation for hindering the growth of some multidrug-resistant bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Microb. Pathog.122, 108–116.
J. Mohan Organic Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications (Alpha Science, Oxford, 2004).
Merlic, C.A. and B.C. Fam. Table of IR Absorptions. 2000 [cited 2016 April 17]; Available from: http://www.chem.ucla.edu/~webspectra/irtable.html.
K. Nakanishi and P. H. Solomon Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (Emerson-Adams Press, Boca Raton, 1977).
C. Ashok, R. K. Venkateswara, and Chakra C. Shilpa (2015). Synthesis and characterization of MgO/TiO2 nanocomposites. J. Nanomed. Nanotechnol.6, (329), 2.
L.-Z. Pei, et al. (2010). Low temperature synthesis of magnesium oxide and spinel powders by a sol–gel process. Mater. Res.13, (3), 339–343.
Y.-S. Heo, et al. (2011). Construction application of fibre/mesh method for protecting concrete columns in fire. Constr. Build. Mater.25, (6), 2928–2938.
L. F. Vilches, et al. (2003). Recycling potential of coal fly ash and titanium waste as new fireproof products. Chem. Eng. J.95, (1–3), 155–161.
T. Jin and Y. He (2011). Antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens. J. Nanoparticle Res.13, (12), 6877–6885.
Y. H. Leung, et al. (2014). Mechanisms of antibacterial activity of MgO: non-ROS mediated toxicity of MgO nanoparticles towards Escherichia coli. Small10, (6), 1171–1183.
K. Yamada, et al. (2000). Effects of the chemical structure on the properties of polycarboxylate-type superplasticizer. Cement Concr. Res.30, (2), 197–207.
P. Tian, et al. (2013). Synthesis of porous hierarchical MgO and its superb adsorption properties. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces5, (23), 12411–12418.
T. Ungár, et al. (2005). Correlation between subgrains and coherently scattering domains. Powder Diffr.20, (04), 366–375.
G. Schmid Nanoparticles: From Theory to Application (Wiley, New York, 2011).
K. Pal, M. A. Elkodous, and M. M. Mohan (2018). CdS nanowires encapsulated liquid crystal in-plane switching of LCD device. J. Mater. Sci.29, (12), 10301–10310.
M. A. El-Ghazaly, et al. (2016). Anti-inflammatory effect of selenium nanoparticles on the inflammation induced in irradiated rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.95, (2), 101–110.
A. El-Batal, et al. (2016). Impact of silver and selenium nanoparticles synthesized by gamma irradiation and their physiological response on early blight disease of potato. J. Chem. Pharm. Res.8, (4), 934–951.
A. I. El-Batal, et al. (2017). Melanin-gamma rays assistants for bismuth oxide nanoparticles synthesis at room temperature for enhancing antimicrobial, and photocatalytic activity. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B173, 120–139.
K. Karthik, et al. (2019). Multifunctional applications of microwave-assisted biogenic TiO2 nanoparticles. J. Clust. Sci.30, (4), 965–972.
S. Pal, Y. K. Tak, and J. M. Song (2007). Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.73, (6), 1712–1720.
Y. He, et al. (2016). Study on the mechanism of antibacterial action of magnesium oxide nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens. J. Nanobiotechnol.14, (1), 54.
M. Sundrarajan, J. Suresh, and R. R. Gandhi (2012). A comparative study on antibacterial properties of MgO nanoparticles prepared under different calcination temperature. Digest J. Nanomater. Biostruct.7, (3), 983–989.
C. Ashajyothi, et al. (2016). Antibiofilm activity of biogenic copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles-antimicrobials collegiate against multiple drug resistant bacteria: a nanoscale approach. J. Nanostruct. Chem.6, (4), 329–341.
H.-J. Park, et al. (2013). Removal characteristics of engineered nanoparticles by activated sludge. Chemosphere92, (5), 524–528.
A. I. El-Batal, et al. (2018). Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of zinc nanoparticles prepared by natural polysaccharides and gamma radiation. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.107, 2298–2311.
A. El-Batal, et al. (2013). Gamma irradiation induces silver nanoparticles synthesis by Monascus purpureus. J. Chem. Pharm. Res.5, (8), 1–15.
N. Mazaheri, A. Karimi, and H. Salavati (2019). In vivo toxicity investigation of magnesium oxide nanoparticles in rat for environmental and biomedical applications. Iran. J. Biotechnol.17, (1), 1–9.
All the authors want to acknowledge the support of Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sciences in the experiments and completion of this manuscript. The authors would like to thank the PI of Nanotechnology Research Unit (Prof. Dr. Ahmed I. El-Batal), Drug Microbiology Lab., Drug Radiation Research Department, NCRRT, Egypt, for financing and supporting this study under the project “Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Production by using Nano/Biotechnological and Irradiation Processes”. Also, the authors would like to thank Director of Research, Nile University, Egypt and Prof. Mohamed Gobara (Military Technical College, Egyptian Armed Forces), and Zeiss microscope team in Cairo, Egypt for their invaluable advice during this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human Participation and/or Animals
This article does not contain any studies with human and/or animals performed by any of the authors.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Wong, C.W., Chan, Y.S., Jeevanandam, J. et al. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Mono-dispersed MgO Nanoparticles Fabricated by Ultrasonic-Assisted Sol–Gel Method for Outstanding Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities. J Clust Sci 31, 367–389 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10876-019-01651-3
- MgO nanoparticles
- Sol–gel synthesis
- Antibiofilm potential
- Antimicrobial activity