Cancer IA for R on. GLOBOCAN 2012: estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012. World Heal. Organ. http//globocan. iarc. fr/Pages/fact_sheets_cancer. aspx. Accessed Sept 2014.
Czene K, Lichtenstein P, Hemminki K. Environmental and heritable causes of cancer among 9.6 million individuals in the Swedish family-cancer database. Int J Cancer. 2002;99:260–6.
Burger M, Catto JWF, Dalbagni G, Grossman HB, Herr H, Karakiewicz P, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors of urothelial bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2013;63:234–41.
Chavan S, Bray F, Lortet-Tieulent J, Goodman M, Jemal A. International variations in bladder cancer incidence and mortality. Eur Urol. 2014;66:59–73.
Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61:69–90.
Zeegers MPA, Kellen E, Buntinx F, van den Brandt PA. The association between smoking, beverage consumption, diet and bladder cancer: a systematic literature review. World J Urol. 2004;21:392–401.
Vineis P, Wild CP. Global cancer patterns: causes and prevention. Lancet. 2014;383:549–57.
Rushton L, Bagga S, Bevan R, Brown TP, Cherrie JW, Holmes P, et al. Occupation and cancer in Britain. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:1428–37.
Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, Robinson M, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Thomson B, et al. Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980–2012. JAMA. 2014;311:183–92.
van Osch FHM, Jochems SHJ, van Schooten F-J, Bryan RT, Zeegers MPA. Quantified relations between exposure to tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 89 studies. Manuscript submitted for publication. Int J Epidemiol. 2016. doi:10.1093/ije/dyw044.
Hemelt M, Yamamoto H, Cheng KK, Zeegers MPA. The effect of smoking on the male excess of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis and geographical analyses. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:412–9.
Clark PE, Agarwal N, Biagioli MC, Eisenberger MA, Greenberg RE, Herr HW, et al. Bladder cancer. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw. 2013;11:446–75.
Yeung C, Dinh T, Lee J. The health economics of bladder cancer: an updated review of the published literature. Pharmacoeconomics. 2014;32:1093–104.
Al-Zalabani A, Stewart K, Wesselius A, Zeegers M. Modifiable risk factors for the prevention of bladder cancer: a systematic review of meta-analyses. PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015023411 [Internet]. Available from: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015023411.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009;339:b2535.
Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT, Rothstein HR. Front matter. Introduction to meta-analysis. Chichester: Wiley; 2009.
Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327:557–60.
Bouter LM, van Dongen MCJM, Zielhuis GA, Zeegers MP. Leerboek epidemiologie. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum; 2015.
Yao B, Yan Y, Ye X, Fang H, Xu H, Liu Y, et al. Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of bladder cancer: a dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2014;25:1645–58.
Liang S, Lv G, Chen W, Jiang J, Wang J. Citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014;7486:1–6.
Steinmaus CM, Nuñez S, Smith AH. Diet and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of six dietary variables. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:693–702.
Bai Y, Yuan H, Li J, Tang Y, Pu C, Han P. Relationship between bladder cancer and total fluid intake: a meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence. World J Surg Oncol Engl. 2014;12:223.
Qin J, Xie B, Mao Q, Kong D, Lin Y, Zheng X. Tea consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. World J Surg Oncol Engl. 2012;10:172.
Huang T, Guo Z, Zhang X, Zhang X, Liu H, Geng J, et al. Coffee consumption and urologic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Int Urol Nephrol. 2014;46:1481–93.
Zhou Y, Tian C, Jia C. A dose–response meta-analysis of coffee consumption and bladder cancer. Prev Med (Baltim). 2012;55:14–22.
Yu X, Bao Z, Zou J, Dong J. Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMC Cancer Engl. 2011;11:96.
Villanueva CM, Cantor KP, King WD, Jaakkola JJK, Cordier S, Lynch CF, et al. Total and specific fluid consumption as determinants of bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:2040–7.
Sala M, Cordier S, Chang-Claude J, Donato F, Escolar-Pujolar A, Fernandez F, et al. Coffee consumption and bladder cancer in nonsmokers: a pooled analysis of case-control studies in European countries. Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:925–31.
Wu W, Tong Y, Zhao Q, Yu G, Wei X, Lu Q. Coffee consumption and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Sci Rep. Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved; 2015; 5.
Boyle P, Koechlin A, Autier P. Sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk: meta-analysis and review. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014;23:481–90.
Mao Q-Q, Dai Y, Lin Y-W, Qin J, Xie L-P, Zheng X-Y. Milk consumption and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:1263–71.
Li Z, Yu J, Miao Q, Sun S, Sun L, Yang H, et al. The association of fish consumption with bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. World J Surg Oncol. 2011;9:107.
Li F, An S, Hou L, Chen P, Lei C, Tan W. Red and processed meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014;7:2100–10.
Pelucchi C, Galeone C, Tramacere I, Bagnardi V, Negri E, Islami F, et al. Alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:1586–93.
Li F, Zhou Y, Hu R, Hou L, Du Y-J, Zhang X, et al. Egg consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65:538–46.
Tang J-E, Wang R-J, Zhong H, Yu B, Chen Y. Vitamin A and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. World J Surg Oncol. 2014;12:130.
Jeon Y-J, Myung S-K, Lee E-H, Kim Y, Chang YJ, Ju W, et al. Effects of beta-carotene supplements on cancer prevention: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:1196–207.
Wang Y-Y, Wang X-L, Yu Z-J. Vitamin C and E intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014;7:4154–64.
Liao Y, Huang JL, Qiu MX, Ma ZW. Impact of serum vitamin D level on risk of bladder cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:1567–72.
Chen F, Li Q, Yu Y, Yang W, Shi F, Qu Y. Association of vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and risk of bladder cancer: a dose–response meta-analysis. Sci Rep Nat Publ Group. 2015;5:9599.
He H, Shui B. Folate intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014;65:286–92.
Amaral AFS, Cantor KP, Silverman DT, Malats N. Selenium and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2010;19:2407–15.
Vinceti M, Dennert G, Crespi CM, Zwahlen M, Brinkman M, Zeegers MPA, et al. Selenium for preventing cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;3:CD005195.
Myung S-K, Kim Y, Ju W, Choi HJ, Bae WK. Effects of antioxidant supplements on cancer prevention: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:166–79.
Pelucchi C, Bosetti C, Galeone C, La Vecchia C. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:2912–22.
Sun J-W, Zhao L-G, Yang Y, Ma X, Wang Y-Y, Xiang Y-B. Obesity and risk of bladder cancer: a dose–response meta-analysis of 15 cohort studies. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0119313.
Qin Q, Xu X, Wang X, Zheng X-Y. Obesity and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:3117–21.
Puente D, Hartge P, Greiser E, Cantor KP, King WD, Gonzalez CA, et al. A pooled analysis of bladder cancer case–control studies evaluating smoking in men and women. Cancer Causes Control Neth. 2006;17:71–9.
Freedman ND, Silverman DT, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC. Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women. JAMA USA. 2011;306:737–45.
Brennan P, Bogillot O, Cordier S, Greiser E, Schill W, Vineis P, et al. Cigarette smoking and bladder cancer in men: a pooled analysis of 11 case-control studies. Int J Cancer. 2000;86:289–94.
Brennan P, Bogillot O, Greiser E, Chang-Claude J, Wahrendorf J, Cordier S, et al. The contribution of cigarette smoking to bladder cancer in women (pooled European data). Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:411–7.
Pitard A, Brennan P, Clavel J, Greiser E, Lopez-Abente G, Chang-Claude J, et al. Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking and bladder cancer risk in European men. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:551–6.
Cumberbatch MG, Rota M, Catto JWF, La Vecchia C. The role of tobacco smoke in bladder and kidney carcinogenesis: a comparison of exposures and meta-analysis of incidence and mortality risks. Eur Urol 2015;1–9.
Van Hemelrijck MJJ, Michaud DS, Connolly GN, Kabir Z. Secondhand smoking, 4-aminobiphenyl, and bladder cancer: two meta-analyses. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2009;18:1312–20.
Lee PN, Hamling J. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America. BMC Med. 2009;7:36.
Keimling M, Behrens G, Schmid D, Jochem C, Leitzmann MF. The association between physical activity and bladder cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2014;110:1862–70.
Turati F, Pelucchi C, Galeone C, Decarli A, La Vecchia C. Personal hair dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Ann Epidemiol. 2014;24:151–9.
Kelsh MA, Alexander DD, Kalmes RM, Buffler PA. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Cancer Causes Control. 2008;19:549–58.
Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. Public Health Rep USA. 2005;120:31–8.
Takkouche B, Etminan M, Montes-Martínez A. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2005;293:2516–25.
Cumberbatch MGK, Cox A, Teare D, Catto JWF. Contemporary occupational carcinogen exposure and bladder cancer. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1:1282–90.
Reulen RC, Kellen E, Buntinx F, Brinkman M, Zeegers MP. A meta-analysis on the association between bladder cancer and occupation. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 2008;42:64–78.
Kogevinas M, ’t Mannetje A, Cordier S, Ranft U, González CA, Vineis P, et al. Occupation and bladder cancer among men in Western Europe. Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14:907–14.
Mannetje A, Kogevinas M, Chang-Claude J, Cordier S, Gonzalez CA, Hours M, et al. Occupation and bladder cancer in European women. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10:209–17.
Clavel J, Cordier S, Boccon-Gibod L, Hemon D. Tobacco and bladder cancer in males: increased risk for inhalers and smokers of black tobacco. Int J Cancer. 1989;44:605–10.
D’Avanzo B, Negri E, La Vecchia C, Gramenzi A, Bianchi C, Franceschi S, et al. Cigarette smoking and bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1990;26:714–8.
D’Avanzo B, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Decarli A, Benichou J. Attributable risks for bladder cancer in northern Italy. Ann Epidemiol. 1995;5:427–31.
Iscovich J, Castelletto R, Esteve J, Munoz N, Colanzi R, Coronel A, et al. Tobacco smoking, occupational exposure and bladder cancer in Argentina. Int J Cancer. 1987;40:734–40.
Momas I, Daures JP, Festy B, Bontoux J. Gremy F (1994) Bladder cancer and black tobacco cigarette smoking Some results from a French case-control study. Eur J Epidemiol. 1994;10:599–604.
De Stefani E, Correa P, Fierro L, Fontham E, Chen V, Zavala D. Black tobacco, mate, and bladder cancer. A case–control study from Uruguay. Cancer. 1991;67:536–40.
Samanic C, Kogevinas M, Dosemeci M, Malats N, Real FX, Garcia-Closas M, et al. Smoking and bladder cancer in Spain: effects of tobacco type, timing, environmental tobacco smoke, and gender. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2006;15:1348–54.
Cole P, Monson RR, Haning H, Friedell GH. Smoking and cancer f the lower urinary tract. N Engl J Med. 1971;284:129–34.
Morrison AS, Buring JE, Verhoek WG, Aoki K, Leck I, Ohno Y, et al. An international study of smoking and bladder cancer. J Urol. 1984;131:650–4.
Zeegers MPA, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13:83–90.
Lopez-Abente G, Gonzalez CA, Errezola M, Escolar A, Izarzugaza I, Nebot M, et al. Tobacco smoke inhalation pattern, tobacco type, and bladder cancer in Spain. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;134:830–9.
Burch JD, Rohan TE, Howe GR, Risch HA, Hill GB, Steele R, et al. Risk of bladder cancer by source and type of tobacco exposure: a case–control study. Int J Cancer. 1989;44:622–8.
Hartge P, Silverman D, Hoover R, Schairer C, Altman R, Austin D, et al. Changing cigarette habits and bladder cancer risk: a case–control study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987;78:1119–25.
Castelao JE, Yuan JM, Skipper PL, Tannenbaum SR, Gago-Dominguez M, Crowder JS, et al. Gender- and smoking-related bladder cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:538–45.
Howe GR, Burch JD, Miller AB, Cook GM, Esteve J, Morrison B, et al. Tobacco use, occupation, coffee, various nutrients, and bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1980;64:701–13.
Lockwood K. On the etiology of bladder tumors in Kobenhavn-Frederiksberg. An inquiry of 369 patients and 369 controls. Acta Pathol Microbiol. Scand. Suppl. Not Available; 1961;51(Suppl 1):1–166.
Hein DW. Molecular genetics and function of NAT1 and NAT2: role in aromatic amine metabolism and carcinogenesis. Mutat Res. 2002;506–507:65–77.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How tobacco smoke causes disease: The biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta (GA); 2010.
Pelucchi C, Bosetti C, Negri E, Malvezzi M, La Vecchia C. Mechanisms of disease: The epidemiology of bladder cancer. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2006;3:327–40.
Brinkman M, Zeegers MP. Nutrition, total fluid and bladder cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 2008;42:25–36.
Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr. 2004;134:3479S–85S.
Talalay P, Fahey JW. Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism. J Nutr. 2001;131:3027S–33S.
Kirk SF, Cade JE, Barrett JH, Conner M. Diet and lifestyle characteristics associated with dietary supplement use in women. Public Health Nutr. 1999;2:69–73.
Nutting CM, Huddart RA. Retinoids in the prevention of bladder cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2001;1:541–5.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 2: Carotenoids. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1998.
Stahl W, Sies H. Antioxidant activity of carotenoids. Mol Aspects Med. 2003;24:345–51.
Jiang Q. Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities and their role in disease prevention and therapy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;72:76–90.
Balkwill F, Mantovani A. Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet (Lond). 2001;357:539–45.
Das S. Vitamin E in the genesis and prevention of cancer. A review. Acta Oncol. 1994;33:615–9.
Jackson MI, Combs GF. Selenium and anticarcinogenesis: underlying mechanisms. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008;11:718–26.
Mosby TT, Cosgrove M, Sarkardei S, Platt KL, Kaina B. Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:4171–92.
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010;121:2271–83.
Baena Ruiz R, Salinas Hernández P. Diet and cancer: risk factors and epidemiological evidence. Maturitas. 2014;77:202–8.
Choi SW, Mason JB. Folate and carcinogenesis: an integrated scheme. J Nutr. 2000;130:129–32.
Duthie SJ, Narayanan S, Brand GM, Pirie L, Grant G. Impact of folate deficiency on DNA stability. J Nutr. 2002;132:2444S–9S.
Ulrich CM, Potter JD. Folate and cancer—timing is everything. JAMA. 2007;297:2408.
Lee JE, Li H, Chan AT, Hollis BW, Lee I-M, Stampfer MJ, et al. Circulating levels of vitamin D and colon and rectal cancer: the Physicians’ Health Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:735–43.
Kim Y, Je Y. Vitamin D intake, blood 25(OH)D levels, and breast cancer risk or mortality: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2014;110:2772–84.
Feldman D, Krishnan AV, Swami S, Giovannucci E, Feldman BJ. The role of vitamin D in reducing cancer risk and progression. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:342–57.
Silberstein JL, Parsons JK. Evidence-based principles of bladder cancer and diet. Urology. 2010;75:340–6.
Villanueva CM, Fernández F, Malats N, Grimalt JO, Kogevinas M. Meta-analysis of studies on individual consumption of chlorinated drinking water and bladder cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57:166–73.
Costet N, Villanueva CM, Jaakkola JJK, Kogevinas M, Cantor KP, King WD, et al. Water disinfection by-products and bladder cancer: Is there a European specificity? A pooled and meta-analysis of European case–control studies. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68:379–85.
Tsuji JS, Alexander DD, Perez V, Mink PJ. Arsenic exposure and bladder cancer: quantitative assessment of studies in human populations to detect risks at low doses. Toxicology. 2014;317:17–30.
Chu H-A, Crawford-Brown DJ. Inorganic arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis for dose–response assessment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2006;3:316–22.
Rogers CJ, Colbert LH, Greiner JW, Perkins SN, Hursting SD. Physical activity and cancer prevention: pathways and targets for intervention. Sports Med. 2008;38:271–96.
Letašiová S, Medve’ová A, Šovčíková A, Dušinská M, Volkovová K, Mosoiu C, et al. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors. Environ Health. 2012;11(Suppl 1):S11.
Alavanja MCR, Bonner MR. Occupational pesticide exposures and cancer risk: a review. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2012;15:238–63.
Ntzani E, Chondrogiorgi M, Ntritsos G, Evangelou E, Tzoulaki I. Literature re view on epidemiological studies linking exposure to pesticides and health effect. EFSA supporting publication 2013:EN-497. 2013.
IAC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 53, Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides. Lyon, France; 1991.
Tramèr MR, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Impact of covert duplicate publication on meta-analysis: a case study. BMJ. 1997;315:635–40.
Berrigan D, Dodd K, Troiano RP, Krebs-Smith SM, Barbash RB. Patterns of health behavior in U.S. adults. Prev Med (Baltim). 2003;36:615–23.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2224–60.
Stein CJ, Colditz GA. Modifiable risk factors for cancer. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:299–303.
Yusuf PS, Hawken S, Ôunpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case–control study. Lancet. 2004;364:937–52.
Danaei G, Ding EL, Mozaffarian D, Taylor B, Rehm J, Murray CJL, et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000058.
Riboli E, Norat T. Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:559S–69S.
Liu B, Mao Q, Lin Y, Zhou F, Xie L. The association of cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. World J Urol. 2013;31:127–33.
Vieira AR, Vingeliene S, Chan DSM, Aune D, Abar L, Navarro Rosenblatt D, et al. Fruits, vegetables, and bladder cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Med. 2015;4:136–46.
Liu H, Wang X-C, Hu G-H, Guo Z-F, Lai P, Xu L, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015;24:508–16.
Xu C, Zeng X-T, Liu T-Z, Zhang C, Yang Z-H, Li S, et al. Fruits and vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer: a PRISMA-compliant systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94:e759.
Zeegers MP, Tan FE, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Are coffee and tea consumption associated with urinary tract cancer risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:353–62.
Zhang Y-F, Xu Q, Lu J, Wang P, Zhang H-W, Zhou L, et al. Tea consumption and the incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015;24:353–62.
Wu S, Li F, Huang X, Hua Q, Huang T, Liu Z, et al. The association of tea consumption with bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22:128–37.
Wang X, Lin Y-W, Wang S, Wu J, Mao Q-Q, Zheng X-Y, et al. A meta-analysis of tea consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. Urol Int. 2013;90:10–6.
Boehm K, Borrelli F, Ernst E, Habacher G, Hung SK, Milazzo S, et al. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005004.pub2.
Qin J, Xie B, Mao Q, Kong D, Lin Y, Zheng X. Tea consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:172.
Arab L. Epidemiologic evidence on coffee and cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:271–83.
Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C. Alcohol, coffee, and bladder cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2009;18:62–8.
Zhang Z-H, Yang L-S, Sun Y-H. The association between milk consumption and bladder cancer risk: appraisal of a recent meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64:1288–9.
Lampe JW. Dairy products and cancer. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011;30:464S–70S.
Li F, An S, Zhou Y, Liang Z, Jiao Z, Jing Y, et al. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Urology. 2011;78:1298–305.
Wang C, Jiang H. Meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Med Oncol. 2012;29:848–55.
Mao Q, Lin Y, Zheng X, Qin J, Yang K, Xie L. A meta-analysis of alcohol intake and risk of bladder cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:1843–50.
de Menezes RF, Bergmann A, Thuler LCS. Alcohol consumption and risk of cancer: a systematic literature review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:4965–72.
Bagnardi V, Blangiardo M, La Vecchia C, Corrao G. A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2001;85:1700–5.
Zeegers MP, Tan FE, Verhagen AP, Weijenberg MP, van den Brandt PA. Elevated risk of cancer of the urinary tract for alcohol drinkers: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10:445–51.
Fang D, Tan F, Wang C, Zhu X, Xie L. Egg intake and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Exp Ther Med. 2012;4:906–12.
Musa-Veloso K, Card JW, Wong AW, Cooper DA. Influence of observational study design on the interpretation of cancer risk reduction by carotenoids. Nutr Rev. 2009;67:527–45.
Coulter ID, Hardy ML, Morton SC, Hilton LG, Tu W, Valentine D, et al. Antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin e for the prevention and treatment of cancer. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:735–44.
MacLean CH, Newberry SJ, Mojica WA, Khanna P, Issa AM, Suttorp MJ, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cancer risk: a systematic review. JAMA. 2006;295:403–15.
Mao S, Huang S. Zinc and copper levels in bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;153:5–10.
Psaltopoulou T, Kosti RI, Haidopoulos D, Dimopoulos M, Panagiotakos DB. Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13,800 patients and 23,340 controls in 19 observational studies. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:127.
Lotan Y, Daudon M, Bruyère F, Talaska G, Strippoli G, Johnson RJ, et al. Impact of fluid intake in the prevention of urinary system diseases: a brief review. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2013;22(Suppl 1):S1–10.
Stelmach R, Clasen T. Household water quantity and health: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:5954–74.
Zeegers MP, Tan FE, Dorant E, van Den Brandt PA. The impact of characteristics of cigarette smoking on urinary tract cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Cancer. 2000;89:630–9.
Crivelli JJ, Xylinas E, Kluth LA, Rieken M, Rink M, Shariat SF. Effect of smoking on outcomes of urothelial carcinoma: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol. 2014;65:742–54.
Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K. Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence. Lung Cancer. 2004;45(Suppl 2):S3–9.
Vineis P, Alavanja M, Garte S. Dose–response relationship in tobacco-related cancers of bladder and lung: a biochemical interpretation. Int J Cancer. 2004;108:2–7.
Shiels MS, Gibson T, Sampson J, Albanes D, Andreotti G, Beane Freeman L, et al. Cigarette smoking prior to first cancer and risk of second smoking-associated cancers among survivors of bladder, kidney, head and neck, and stage I lung cancers. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:3989–95.
’t Mannetje A, Kogevinas M, Chang-Claude J, Cordier S, González CA, Hours M, et al. Smoking as a confounder in case–control studies of occupational bladder cancer in women. Am J Ind Med. 1999;36:75–82.
Akl EA, Gaddam S, Gunukula SK, Honeine R, Jaoude PA, Irani J. The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: a systematic review. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39:834–57.
Rollison DE, Helzlsouer KJ, Pinney SM. Personal hair dye use and cancer: a systematic literature review and evaluation of exposure assessment in studies published since 1992. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006;9:413–39.
Bosetti C, Pira E, La Vecchia C. Bladder cancer risk in painters: a review of the epidemiological evidence, 1989–2004. Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:997–1008.
Guha N, Steenland NK, Merletti F, Altieri A, Cogliano V, Straif K. Bladder cancer risk in painters: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:568–73.
Bachand A, Mundt KA, Mundt DJ, Carlton LE. Meta-analyses of occupational exposure as a painter and lung and bladder cancer morbidity and mortality 1950–2008. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2010;40:101–25.
Takkouche B, Regueira-Méndez C, Montes-Martínez A. Risk of cancer among hairdressers and related workers: a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:1512–31.
Harling M, Schablon A, Schedlbauer G, Dulon M, Nienhaus A. Bladder cancer among hairdressers: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:351–8.
’t Mannetje A, Pearce N. Bladder cancer risk in sales workers: artefact or cause for concern? Am J Ind Med. 2006;49:175–86.
Boffetta P, Silverman DT. A meta-analysis of bladder cancer and diesel exhaust exposure. Epidemiology. 2001;12:125–30.
Manju L, George PS, Mathew A. Urinary bladder cancer risk among motor vehicle drivers: a meta-analysis of the evidence, 1977–2008. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10:287–94.
Acquavella J, Olsen G, Cole P, Ireland B, Kaneene J, Schuman S, et al. Cancer among farmers: a meta-analysis. Ann Epidemiol. 1998;8:64–74.
Gaertner RRW, Thériault GP. Risk of bladder cancer in foundry workers: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:655–63.
Mastrangelo G, Fedeli U, Fadda E, Milan G, Lange JH. Epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk in textile industry workers: a review and update. Toxicol Ind Health. 2002;18:171–81.
Tokumaru O, Haruki K, Bacal K, Katagiri T, Yamamoto T, Sakurai Y. Incidence of cancer among female flight attendants: a meta-analysis. J Travel Med. 2006;13:127–32.
Buja A, Mastrangelo G, Perissinotto E, Grigoletto F, Frigo AC, Rausa G, et al. Cancer Incidence among female flight attendants: a meta-analysis of published data. J Women’s Heal. 2006;15:98–105.
Wong O, Raabe GK. A critical review of cancer epidemiology in the petroleum industry, with a meta-analysis of a combined database of more than 350,000 workers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000;32:78–98.
Baena AV, Allam MF, Díaz-Molina C, Del Castillo AS, Abdel-Rahman AG, Navajas RF-C. Urinary bladder cancer and the petroleum industry: a quantitative review. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2006;15:493–7.
Greenberg RS, Mandel JS, Pastides H, Britton NL, Rudenko L, Starr TB. A meta-analysis of cohort studies describing mortality and cancer incidence among chemical workers in the United States and western Europe. Epidemiology. 2001;12:727–40.
Vlaanderen J, Straif K, Ruder A, Blair A, Hansen J, Lynge E, et al. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of dry-cleaning-worker studies. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122:661–6.
Fu H, Boffetta P. Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data. Occup Environ Med. 1995;52:73–81.
Cole P, Mandel JS, Collins JJ. Acrylonitrile and cancer: a review of the epidemiology. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;52:342–51.
Collins JJ, Acquavella JF. Review and meta-analysis of studies of acrylonitrile workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998;24(Suppl 2):71–80.
Bosetti C, Boffetta P, La Vecchia C. Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: a quantitative review to 2005. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:431–46.
Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8:444–72.
Rota M, Bosetti C, Boccia S, Boffetta P, La Vecchia C. Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: an updated systematic review and a meta-analysis to 2014. Arch Toxicol. 2014;88:1479–90.
Calvert GM, Ward E, Schnorr TM, Fine LJ. Cancer risks among workers exposed to metalworking fluids: a systematic review. Am J Ind Med. 1998;33:282–92.
Mundt KA, Birk T, Burch MT. Critical review of the epidemiological literature on occupational exposure to perchloroethylene and cancer. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2003;76:473–91.
Goodman M, Morgan RW, Ray R, Malloy CD, Zhao K. Cancer in asbestos-exposed occupational cohorts: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10:453–65.
International Labour Office (ILO). International Standard Classification of Occupations. Revised Edition 1968. Geneva: International Labour Office (ILO); 1969.
Statistical Office of the United Nations. International standard industrial classification of all economic activities. Statistical papers series M, number 4, revision 2. 1968.