Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction.
Materials and methods
Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum.
Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P < 0.0001) and osteocyte density (P < 0.0001). MT increased immunolabeling of MnSOD (P < 0.001), OCN (P < 0.0001), RANKL (P < 0.001), OPG (P < 0.0001), and TRAP (P < 0.001). Calcium and phosphorus concentrations did not differ between the groups. In addition, MT enhanced ALP (P < 0.05) and TRAP (P < 0.0001) activities. MT increased the TAC (P < 0.001), whereas it reduced MDA concentrations (P < 0.0001).
MT increases bone area and osteocyte density in the alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction.
Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.
KeywordsIlex paraguariensis Tooth extraction Wound healing Antioxidant
The authors would like to thank José Marcelo Tramarin, Araçatuba School of Dentistry, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Department of Pathology and Clinical Propaedeutic, Brazil, for technical assistance.
For this study, no funding was obtained.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study was conducted according to the national (CONCEA—National Association for Animals Experiments Control: http://concea.mct.gov.br) and institutional laws and it was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA), of the São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil (Authorization Protocol 2013-01572). All surgery was performed under ketamine anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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