Processing, physico-chemical and functional properties of carob molasses and powders
- 243 Downloads
Tunisian carob pods were used to produce molasses and powders, which were then analyzed for their composional and functional properties. Molasses were made from carob juice by boiling until three different concentrations (60, 70 and 80 °Brix), while powders were prepared by microwave drying of the by-product derived from carob molasses processing at three power levels (100, 300 and 600 W). Results showed that the processed carob products exhibited interesting characteristics. Carob molasses were characterized by important reducing sugars content, dark color and functional properties with high antioxidant activity and emulsifying capacity. On the other hand, carob powders were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers, brown color and water/oil retention capacity. This study provides, for the first time, a potential valorization of the carob by-product into powder and highlights some functional properties of carob products required by food industry.
KeywordsCarob molasses Boiling concentration Carob powder Microwave drying Functional properties
The authors would like to thank Confiserie Triki-Le Moulin (CTM, Sfax, Tunisia) for the financial support. They are also very grateful to Mr. Firas Chaker for her precious help to perform some analyzes in the industry.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 8.R. Abi Azar, Milk protein complexation by green carob pods extract: Technological properties of obtained coagulums. PhD thesis, AgroParisTech, France (2007)Google Scholar
- 15.AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC Intl, 15th edn. (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, 1995)Google Scholar
- 16.AFNOR, Produits dérivés des fruits et des légumes, détermination des sucres. (Association Française de Normalisation, Paris, 1970)Google Scholar
- 18.L. Prosky, N.G. Asp, T.F. Schweizer, J.W. De Vries, I. Furda, Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fibre in food products: Interlaboratory study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 71, 1017–1023 (1988)Google Scholar
- 19.V.L. Singleton, J.A. Rossi, Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagent. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16, 144–158 (1965)Google Scholar
- 20.A. Haddarah, A. Ismail, A. Bassal, T. Hamieh, I. Ioannou, M. Ghoul, Morphological and chemical variability of lebanese carob varieties. Eur. Sci. J 9, 353–369 (2013)Google Scholar