Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 84, Issue 4–5, pp 399–413 | Cite as

Characterization of gibberellin-signalling elements during plum fruit ontogeny defines the essentiality of gibberellin in fruit development

  • Islam El-Sharkawy
  • Sherif Sherif
  • Walid El Kayal
  • Abdullah Mahboob
  • Kamal Abubaker
  • Pratibha Ravindran
  • Pavithra A. Jyothi-Prakash
  • Prakash P. Kumar
  • Subramanian JayasankarEmail author


Fruit growth is a coordinated, complex interaction of cell division, differentiation and expansion. Gibberellin (GA) involvement in the reproductive events is an important aspect of GA effects. Perennial fruit-trees such as plum (Prunus salicina L.) have distinct features that are economically important and provide opportunities to dissect specific GA mechanisms. Currently, very little is known on the molecular mechanism(s) mediating GA effects on fruit development. Determination of bioactive GA content during plum fruit ontogeny revealed that GA1 and GA4 are critical for fruit growth and development. Further, characterization of several genes involved in GA-signalling showed that their transcriptional regulation are generally GA-dependent, confirming their involvement in GA-signalling. Based on these results, a model is presented elucidating how the potential association between GA and other hormones may contribute to fruit development. PslGID1 proteins structure, Y2H and BiFC assays indicated that plum GA-receptors can form a complex with AtDELLA-repressors in a GA-dependent manner. Moreover, phenotypical-, molecular- and GA-analyses of various Arabidopsis backgrounds ectopically expressing PslGID1 sequences provide evidence on their role as active GA-signalling components that mediate GA-responsiveness. Our findings support the critical contribution of GA alone or in association with other hormones in mediating plum fruit growth and development.


Fruit development GA content GA-signalling Plum PslGID1/DELLA interaction Hormones cross-talk 



We thank Dr. Stephen G. Thomas for providing gid1a-1/gid1c-1 double mutant, Dr. Stanton Gelvin for providing the EYFP vectors. We also thank the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and Early Researchers Award of the Ontario Ministry of Innovation for financial assistance. We thank Dr. Bouzayen for help with subcellular localization experiment.

Supplementary material

11103_2013_139_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1836 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Islam El-Sharkawy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sherif Sherif
    • 1
    • 2
  • Walid El Kayal
    • 3
    • 4
  • Abdullah Mahboob
    • 5
  • Kamal Abubaker
    • 1
  • Pratibha Ravindran
    • 6
  • Pavithra A. Jyothi-Prakash
    • 6
  • Prakash P. Kumar
    • 6
  • Subramanian Jayasankar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant AgricultureUniversity of GuelphVineland StationCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureDamanhour UniversityDamanhourEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  4. 4.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of AlexandriaAlexandriaEgypt
  5. 5.Department of Biological SciencesBrock UniversitySt. CatharinesCanada
  6. 6.Department of Biological SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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