Leading Article


, Volume 72, Issue 8, pp 1011-1028

First online:

Management of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Recent Advances
  • Deborah MukherjiAffiliated withInstitute of Cancer Research
  • , Andrew EichholzAffiliated withInstitute of Cancer Research
  • , Johann S. De BonoAffiliated withInstitute of Cancer Research Email author 

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Metastatic prostate cancer remains a considerable therapeutic challenge; however, advances in clinical research have resulted in five new treatments in the last 2 years. The immunotherapy sipuleucel-T, the cytotoxic cabazitaxel, the androgen biosynthesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate, the radioisotope al-pharadin and the anti-androgen MDV3100 have all been shown to improve overall survival in randomized phase III studies for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The therapeutic strategies of targeting androgen-receptor signalling and other key intracellular pathways involved in tumour progression and treatment resistance are yielding promising results. Agents such as the dual vascular endothelial growth factor receptor/MET inhibitor cabozantinib, the clusterin inhibitor custirsen and the Src inhibitor dasatinib have shown encouraging results in phase II studies. Novel immunotherapeutics such as prostate-specific membrane antigen-directed therapy and the anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated receptor 4 (CTLA4) antibody ipilimumab are also under investigation. Optimal methods of treatment selection, combination and sequencing have yet to be determined.