Review Article

Sustainability Science

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 203-218

First online:

Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development

  • Arnim WiekAffiliated withSchool of Sustainability, Arizona State University Email author 
  • , Lauren WithycombeAffiliated withSchool of Sustainability, Arizona State University
  • , Charles L. RedmanAffiliated withSchool of Sustainability, Arizona State University

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The emerging academic field focused on sustainability has been engaged in a rich and converging debate to define what key competencies are considered critical for graduating students to possess. For more than a decade, sustainability courses have been developed and taught in higher education, yet comprehensive academic programs in sustainability, on the undergraduate and graduate level, have emerged only over the last few years. Considering this recent institutional momentum, the time is seemingly right to synthesize the discussion about key competencies in sustainability in order to support these relatively young academic programs in shaping their profiles and achieving their ambitious missions. This article presents the results of a broad literature review. The review identifies the relevant literature on key competencies in sustainability; synthesizes the substantive contributions in a coherent framework of sustainability research and problem-solving competence; and addresses critical gaps in the conceptualization of key competencies in sustainability. Insights from this study lay the groundwork for institutional advancements in designing and revising academic programs; teaching and learning evaluations; as well as hiring and training faculty and staff.


Education for sustainable development Curriculum development Sustainability expertise Sustainability professional Transformative learning