Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 759–796

Report of the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder


    • Department of PsychiatryJJ Peters VA Medical Center
    • Department of PsychiatryMt. Sinai School of Medicine
  • Susan J. Bradley
    • Gender Identity Service, Child, Youth, and Family ProgramCentre for Addiction and Mental Health
  • Eli Coleman
    • Department of Family Medicine and Community HealthUniversity of Minnesota
  • A. Evan Eyler
    • Departments of Psychiatry and Family MedicineUniversity of Vermont College of Medicine
  • Richard Green
    • Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California
  • Edgardo J. Menvielle
    • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Children’s National Medical CenterThe George Washington University
  • Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute/Department of PsychiatryColumbia University
  • Richard R. Pleak
    • Department of PsychiatryHofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine Glen Oaks
    • Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesAlbert Einstein College of Medicine
  • D. Andrew Tompkins
    • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesJohns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10508-012-9975-x

Cite this article as:
Byne, W., Bradley, S.J., Coleman, E. et al. Arch Sex Behav (2012) 41: 759. doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9975-x


Both the diagnosis and treatment of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) are controversial. Although linked, they are separate issues and the DSM does not evaluate treatments. The Board of Trustees (BOT) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), therefore, formed a Task Force charged to perform a critical review of the literature on the treatment of GID at different ages, to assess the quality of evidence pertaining to treatment, and to prepare a report that included an opinion as to whether or not sufficient credible literature exists for development of treatment recommendations by the APA. The literature on treatment of gender dysphoria in individuals with disorders of sex development was also assessed. The completed report was accepted by the BOT on September 11, 2011. The quality of evidence pertaining to most aspects of treatment in all subgroups was determined to be low; however, areas of broad clinical consensus were identified and were deemed sufficient to support recommendations for treatment in all subgroups. With subjective improvement as the primary outcome measure, current evidence was judged sufficient to support recommendations for adults in the form of an evidence-based APA Practice Guideline with gaps in the empirical data supplemented by clinical consensus. The report recommends that the APA take steps beyond drafting treatment recommendations. These include issuing position statements to clarify the APA’s position regarding the medical necessity of treatments for GID, the ethical bounds of treatments of gender variant minors, and the rights of persons of any age who are gender variant, transgender or transsexual.


Gender identity disorderGender dysphoriaTranssexualismDisorders of sex developmentAmerican Psychiatric Association

Copyright information

© American Psychiatric Association 2012