Review

Planta

, Volume 238, Issue 6, pp 991-1003

Progress in plant protoplast research

  • Tom EeckhautAffiliated withInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Applied Genetics and Breeding Email author 
  • , Prabhu Shankar LakshmananAffiliated withInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Applied Genetics and BreedingDepartment of Plant Production, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University
  • , Dieter DeryckereAffiliated withInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Applied Genetics and Breeding
  • , Erik Van BockstaeleAffiliated withInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Applied Genetics and BreedingDepartment of Plant Production, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University
  • , Johan Van HuylenbroeckAffiliated withInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Applied Genetics and Breeding

Abstract

In this review we focus on recent progress in protoplast regeneration, symmetric and asymmetric hybridization and novel technology developments. Regeneration of new species and improved culture techniques opened new horizons for practical breeding in a number of crops. The importance of protoplast sources and embedding systems is discussed. The study of reactive oxygen species effects and DNA (de)condensation, along with thorough phytohormone monitoring, are in our opinion the most promising research topics in the further strive for rationalization of protoplast regeneration. Following, fusion and fragmentation progress is summarized. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies have led to better insights in fundamental processes such as cell wall formation, cell development and chromosome rearrangements in fusion products, whether or not obtained after irradiation. Advanced molecular screening methods of both genome and cytoplasmome facilitate efficient screening of both symmetric and asymmetric fusion products. We expect that emerging technologies as GISH, high resolution melting and next generation sequencing will pay major contributions to our insights of genome creation and stabilization, mainly after asymmetric hybridization. Finally, we demonstrate agricultural valorization of somatic hybridization through enumerating recent introgression of diverse traits in a number of commercial crops.

Keywords

Genome fragmentation Hybrid screening Interspecific hybridization Protoplast regeneration Somatic fusion