Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 219-240

First online:

Model fusion: The next phase in developing animal models for parkinson’s disease

  • Amy B. Manning-BoĞAffiliated withThe Parkinson’s Institute Email author 
  • , J. William LangstonAffiliated withThe Parkinson’s Institute

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Within the past 25 years, discoveries of environmental and monogenetic forms of parkinsonism have shaped the direction of Parkinson’s disease (PD) research and development of experimental systems to study PD. In this review, we outline a remarkable array ofin vivo models available, with particular emphasis on their benefits and pitfalls and the contribution each has made to enhance our understanding of pathological mechanisms involved in PD. Further, we discuss the increasingly popular approach of “model fusion” to create a new generation of animal systems in which to study gene-environment interactions, and the usefulness of such models in capturing the most common events underlying PD.


Parkinson’s disease Animal modeling MPTP Transgenic animals Genes Environment