Higher Education Systems, Types of

  • Jens JungblutEmail author
  • Peter Maassen
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_21-1



The structure and organization of higher education institutions within a specific political and geographical setting.


All higher education institutions around the world are embedded in some type of national or subnational system. But this has not always been the case. By the end of the eighteenth century, the then existing higher education landscape consisted of a small number of in essence self-standing universities that were not governed and organized in an integrated way by state authorities. In the middle of the nineteenth century, most of the world’s universities were located in Europe (in total 98 universities), while most of the non-European universities could be found in the USA (Rüegg 2004: 3). Most of these universities were denominationally anchored, homogeneously organized institutions with hardly any specific...


High Education High Education Institution High Education System Institutional Type Governance Mode 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Centre for Higher Education Research (INCHER)University of KasselKasselGermany
  2. 2.Department of EducationUniversity of OsloOsloNorway