Mangroves: Unusual Forests at the Seas Edge

  • Norman C. DukeEmail author
  • Klaus Schmitt
Living reference work entry


Mangroves form distinct sea-edge forested habitat of dense, undulating canopies in both wet and arid tropic regions of the world. These highly adapted, forest wetland ecosystems have many remarkable features, making them a constant source of wonder and inquiry. This chapter introduces mangrove forests, the factors that influence them, and some of their key benefits and functions. This knowledge is considered essential for those who propose to manage them sustainably. We describe key and currently recommended strategies in an accompanying article on mangrove forest management (Schmitt and Duke 2015).


Mangroves Tidal wetlands Tidal forests Biodiversity Structure Biomass Ecology Forest growth and development Recruitment Influencing factors Human pressures Replacement and damage 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TropWATER – Centre for Tropical Water and Aquatic Ecosystem ResearchJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Environment and Natural ResourcesDeutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbHQuezon CityPhilippines

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