Advertisement

Experimental Study of the Behavior of Muscle Cells on Projection Micro-stereolithography Printed Micro-structures

  • Qian Gao
  • Qinyi Wang
  • Dili Li
  • Weiqi Ge
  • Xue Meng
  • Guoqing Jin
  • Haiyi Liang
  • Xifu Shang
  • Runhuai YangEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11740)

Abstract

Recently, muscle cells were studied as a promising bioactuator for bio-syncretic robots. While projection micro-stereolithography (PμSL) can print poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels into micro-scale 3D structures, the muscle cells based robots could be small and easy-fabricated if the muscle cells can directly grow and differentiate on PμSL PEGDA structures. However, PμSL PEGDA cannot be directly used as an extracellular environment for muscle cells without bio-functionalization; the behavior of muscle cells on modified PμSL PEGDA should also be studied. In this paper, collagen I and Matrigel were used to explore the bio-functionalization of PμSL PEGDA. By using functionalized PμSL PEGDA hydrogel structures, the adhesion, survival, differentiation of muscle cells were studied. Results show that physically crosslinked by collagen I, PμSL PEGDA was able to provide a suitable environment for adhesion of C2C12 muscle cells. Mixed with 10% Matrigel in DMEM, the condition of cells were further improved. The results of viability assay were consistent and confirmed the living condition of muscle cells on PμSL PEGDA. The differentiation test provides the evidence that the differentiated C2C12 muscle cells were able to contract. Eventually, this paper provide methods for improving the bio-functionalization of PμSL printed PEGDA, and the results proves that the functionalized PμSL printed PEGDA structures have the potential to be used as muscle cells based micro bioactuators and bio-syncretic robots.

Keywords

Biological robots PμSL Soft robots Hydrogel Muscle cell 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 61603002, 81802391and 61773274), Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (1808085QH266 and KJ2017A209) and the Plan of Funding Outstanding Innovation Projects Launched by Talents Returning from Studying Overseas of Anhui Province (grant no. 2017-20).

References

  1. 1.
    Wang, W., Duan, W., Ahmed, S., Mallouk, T.E., Sen, A.: Small power: autonomous nano- and micromotors propelled by self-generated gradients. Nano Today 8(5), 531–534 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang, C., Wang, W., Xi, N., Wang, Y., Liu, L.: Development and future challenges of bio-syncretic robots. Engineering 4, 452–463 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ricotti, L., Menciassi, A.: Bio-hybrid muscle cell-based actuators. Biomed. Microdevices 14(6), 987–998 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Duffy, R.M., Feinberg, A.M.: Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 6(2), 178–195 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Darnton, N., Turner, L., Breuer, K., Berg, H.C.: Moving fluid with bacterial carpets. Biophys. J. 86(3), 1863–1870 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carlsen, R.W., Sitti, M.: Bio-hybrid cell-based actuators for microsystems. Small 10(19), 3831–3851 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park, B.W., Zhuang, J., Yasa, O., Sitti, M.: Multifunctional bacteria-driven microswimmers for targeted active drug delivery. ACS Nano 11(9), 8910–8923 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nawroth, J.C., et al.: A tissue-engineered jellyfish with biomimetic propulsion. Nat. Biotechnol. 30(8), 792–797 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Williams, B.J., Anand, S.V., Rajagopalan, J., Saif, M.T.A.: A self-propelled biohybrid swimmer at low Reynolds number. Nat. Commun. 5, 1–8 (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu, L., Wang, W., Xi, N., Wang, Y., Zhang, C.: Regulation of C2C12 differentiation and control of the beating dynamics of contractile cells for a muscle-driven biosyncretic crawler by electrical stimulation. Soft Robot. 5(6), 1–13 (2018)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lieber, R.L.: Skeletal Muscle Structure, Function, & Plasticity, 2nd edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    King, A.M., Loiselle, D.S., Kohl, P.: Force generation for locomotion of vertebrates Skeletal muscle overview. IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 29(3), 684–691 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asada, H.H., et al.: Formation and optogenetic control of engineered 3D skeletal muscle bioactuators. Lab Chip 12(23), 4976–4985 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cvetkovic, C., et al.: Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(28), 10125–10130 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Han, D., Lu, Z., Chester, S.A., Lee, H.: Micro 3D printing of a temperature-responsive hydrogel using projection micro-stereolithography. Sci. Rep. 8(1963), 1–10 (2018)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang, W., Yu, H., Li, G., Wang, B., Wang, Y., Liu, L.: Regulation of breast cancer cell behaviours by the physical microenvironment constructed: via projection microstereolithography. Biomater. Sci. 4(5), 863–870 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Gao
    • 1
  • Qinyi Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dili Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Weiqi Ge
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xue Meng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guoqing Jin
    • 3
  • Haiyi Liang
    • 4
    • 5
  • Xifu Shang
    • 6
  • Runhuai Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Life ScienceAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.School of Biomedical EngineeringAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina
  3. 3.Robotics and Microsystems Center, School of Mechanical and Electric EngineeringSoochow UniversitySuzhouChina
  4. 4.CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of MaterialsUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  5. 5.IAT-Chungu Joint Laboratory for Additive ManufacturingAnhui Chungu 3D Printing Institute of Intelligent Equipment and Industrial TechnologyWuhuChina
  6. 6.Department of OrthopedicsThe First Affiliated Hospital of USTC (University of Science and Technology of China)HefeiChina

Personalised recommendations