Advertisement

Continuing the Investigation

Viruses and Neurological Disorders
  • Steven Specter
  • Mauro Bendinelli
  • Herman Friedman
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Abstract

Numerous questions are left unanswered in this volume and provide most intriguing areas for further investigations. In spite of considerable progress, knowledge is far from satisfactory even in the field of acute neurological diseases for which a definite direct etiology is well established. For some of these diseases, Japanese encephalitis for example, we are in great need of efficient vaccines.1 In addition, for such diseases it is especially urgent to develop better diagnostic procedures, since in even the most modern diagnostic virology facilities the etiologic agent remains unrecognized in over 30% of presumed cases of acute viral meningitis and in over 80% of presumed cases of acute viral encephalitis. Indeed, the precise etiologic diagnosis of viral infection of the nervous system (NS) in general is still fraught with difficulties. For example, the association of cerebral malformations and other neurological birth defects with antecedent viral infection of the mother is often beyond present methodologies.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Japanese Encephalitis Rubella Virus Viral Etiology Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Brandt, W. E.,1990, Development of dengue and Japanese encephalitis vaccines, J. Infect. Dis. 162: 577–583.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berger, J. R., Sheremata, A., Resnick, L., Atherton, S., Fletcher, M. A., and Norenberg, M., 1989, Multiple sclerosis-like illness occurring with human immunodeficiency virus infection, Neurology 39: 324–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trapp, B. D., Small, J. A., and Scangos, G. A., 1988, Dysmyelination in transgenic mice containing the early region of JC virus, in: Virus Infection and the Developing Nervous System ( R. T. Johnson and G. Lyon, eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hinrichs, S. H., Nerenberg, M., Reynolds, R. K., Khoury, G., and Jay, G., 1987, A transgenic mouse model for human neurofibromatosis, Science 237: 1340–1343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lustig, S., Jackson, A. C., Hahn, C. S., Griffin, D. E., Strauss, E. G., and Strauss, J. H., 1988, Molecular basis of Sindbis virus neurovirulence in mice, J. Virol. 62: 2329–2336.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Evans, D. M. A., Dunn, G., Minor, P. D., Schild, G. C., Cann, A. J., Stanway, G., Almond, J. W, Currey, K., and Maizel, W, Jr., 1985, Increased neurovirulence associated with a single nucleotide change in a noncoding region of the Sabin type 3 poliovirus genome, Nature 314: 548–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    La Monica, N., Almond, J. W, and Racaniello, V. R., 1987, A mouse model for poliovirus neurovirulence identifies mutations that attenuate the virus for humans, J. Virol. 61: 2917–2920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duke, G. M., Osorio, J. E., and Palmenberg, A. C., 1990, Attenuation of Mengo virus through genetic engineering of the 5’ noncoding poly(C) tract, Nature 343: 474–476.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Calendoff, M. A., Faaberg, K. S., and Lipton, H. L., 1990, Genomic regions of neuro-virulence and attenuation in Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87: 978–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Contag, C. H., and Plagemann, P. G. W, 1989, Age-dependent poliomyelitis in mice: Expression of endogenous retrovirus correlates with cytocidal replication of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus in motor neurons, J. Virol. 63: 4362–4369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tada, H., Rappaport, J., Lashgari, M., Amini, S., Wong-Staal, E, and Khalili, K., 1990, Trans-activation of the JC virus late promoter by the tat protein of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus in glial cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87: 3479–3483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anomasiri, W. T., Tovell, D. R., and Tyrell, D. L. J., 1990, Paramyxovirus membrane protein enhances antibody production to new antigenic determinants in the actin molecule: A model for virus-induced autoimmunity, j Virol. 64: 3174–3184.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Galileo, D. S., Gray, G. E., Owens, G. C., Majors, J., and Sanes, J. R., 1990, Neurons and glia arise from a common progenitor in chicken optic tectum: Demonstration with two retro-viruses and cell type-specific antibodies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87: 458–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Geller, A. I., and Freese, A., 1990, Infection of cultured central nervous system neurons with a defective herpes simplex virus 1 vector results in stable expression of Escherichia coli betagalactosidase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87: 1149–1153.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Specter
    • 1
  • Mauro Bendinelli
    • 2
  • Herman Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of South Florida, College of MedicineTampaUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiomedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations