Monoclonal Antibody Labeling with Indium-111 and Gadolinium via DTPA Chelation on Selective and Nonselective Sites of the Antibody
The recent development of hybridoma technology has allowed the production of large quantities of monoclonal antibodies with predefined specificity (1); this has resulted in a renewed interest in their use as immunodiagnostic reagents. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies are today widely used for specific localization of tumors and metastases (2–4). The success of immunoscintigraphy has generated interest in the application of monoclonal antibodies as specific carriers of paramagnetic agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI has certain advantages over immunoscintigraphy — no ionizing radiation is involved, and the spatial resolution is higher and equals that of computed tomography. Early investigators felt that differences in relaxation times between malignant tumor and normal tissue made contrast agents unnecessary. However, despite the intrinsic tissue contrast, the injection of contrast agents, e.g., gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacet ic acid (Gd-DTPA) increases the sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging as demonstrated by several investigators (5–7). Of the available paramagnetic ions, gadolinium has the greatest effect on proton relaxation time. Its association with DTPA produces a compound that gives a marked reduction in the proton relaxation time in vitro and in vivo and produces minimal acute toxicity with imaging doses (8,9).
KeywordsNude Mouse Tumor Uptake Carbohydrate Moiety Colorectal Tumor Cell Polymeric Chelate
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