Plant Cell Transformation by Agrobacterium Plasmids

  • A. Depicker
  • M. Van Montagu
  • J. Schell
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 26)


Infection of many dicotyledonous plants by the genus Agrobacterium may lead to the plant diseases crown gall, cane gall, and hairy-root disease.


Hairy Root Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Crown Gall Agrobacterium Rhizogenes Crown Gall Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Amasigo, R.M., and C.O. Miller (1982) Hormonal control of tobacco crown gall tumor morphology. Plant Physiol. 69: 389–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beiderbeck, R. (1973) Wurzelinduktion an Blättern von Kalanchoä daigremontiana durch Agrobacterium rhizogenes und der Einfluss von Kinetin auf diesen Prozess. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 68: 460–467.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bomhoff, G., P.M. Klapwijk, H.C.M. Kester, R.A. Schilperoort, J.P. Hernalsteens, and J. Schell (1976) Octopine and nopaline synthesis and breakdown genetically controlled by a plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 145: 177–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bopp, M., and F. Resende (1966) Crown gall tumoren bei verschiedenen arten und bastarden der Kalanchoidae. Portugaliae Acta Biologica 9: 327–366.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Braun, A.C. (1947) Thermal studies on the factors responsible for tumor initiation in crown gall. Amer. J. Bot. 34: 234–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Braun, A.C. (1956) The activation of a growth-substance system accompanying the conversion of normal to tumor cells in crown gall. Cancer Res. 16: 53–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Braun, A.C. (1958) A physiological basis for autonomous growth of the crown gall tumor cell. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 44: 344–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Braun, A.C., and H.N. Wood (1976) Suppression of the neoplastic state with the acquisition of specialized functions of cells, tissues, and organs of crown gall teratomas of tobacco. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 496–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8a.
    Braun, A.C. (1978) Plant tumours. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 516: 167–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Capecchi, M.R. (1980) High efficiency transformation by direct microinjection of DNA into cultured mammalian cells. Cell 22: 479–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Chilton, M.-D., H.J. Drummond, D.J. Merlo, D. Sciaky, A.L. Montoya, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1977) Stable incorporation of plasmid DNA into higher plant cells: The molecular basis of crown gall tumorigenesis. Cell 11: 263–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Chilton, M.D., M.H. Drummond, D.J. Merlo, and D. Sciaky (1978) Highly conserved DNA of Ti-plasmids overlaps T-DNA, maintained in plant tumors. Nature 275: 147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Chilton, M.-D., R.K. Saiki, N. Yadav, M.P. Gordon, and F. Quetier (1980) T-DNA from Agrobacterium Ti plasmid is in the nuclear DNA fraction of crown gall tumor cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 4060–4064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Chilton, M.-D., D.A. Tepfer, A. Petit, C. David, F. CasseDelbart, and J. Tempé (1982) Agrobacterium rhizogenes inserts T-DNA into the genomes of the host plant root cells. Nature, London 295: 432–434.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Costantino, P., P.J.J. Hooykaas, H. den Dulk-Ras, and R.A. Schilperoort (1980) Tumor formation and rhizogenicity of Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying Ti-plasmids. Gene 11: 79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Costantino, P., M.L. Mauro, G. Micheli, G. Risuelo, P.J.J. Hooykaas, and R.A. Schilperoort (1981) Fingerprinting and sequence homology of plasmids from different virulent strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plasmid 5: 170–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    Currier, T.C., and E.W. Nester (1976) Evidence for diverse types of large plasmids in tumor inducing strains of Agrobacterium. J. Bacteriol. 126: 157–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    De Beuckeleer, M., M. Lemmers, G. De Vos, L. Willmitzer, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1981) Further insight on the transferred-DNA of octopine crown gall. Mol. Gen. Genet. 183: 283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    De Cleene, M., and J. De Ley (1976) The host range of crown-gall. Botan. Rev. 42: 389–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    De Cleene, M., and J. De Ley (1981) The host range of infectious hairy-root. Bot. Rev. 47: 147–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    De Greve, H., H. Decraemer, J. Seurinck, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1981) The functional organization of the octopine Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTiB6S3. Plasmid 6: 235–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    De Greve, H., J. Leemans, J.P. Hernalsteens, L. Thia-Toong, M. De Beuckeleer, L. Willmitzer, L. Otten, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1982a) Regeneration of normal and fertile plants that express octopine synthase, from tobacco crown galls after deletion of tumour-controlling functions. Nature, London (in press).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    De Greve, H., P. Dhaese, J. Seurinck, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1982b) Nucleotide sequence and transcript map of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid-encoded octopine synthase gene. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1: 499–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Depicker, A., M. Van Montagu, J. Schell (1978) Homologous DNA sequences in different Ti-plasmids are essential for oncogenicity. Nature, London 275: 150–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Depicker, A., M. De Wilde, G. De Vos, R. De Vos, M. Van Montague, and J. Schell (1980a) Molecular cloning of overlapping segments of the nopaline Ti-plasmid pTiC58 as a means to restriction endonuclease mapping. Plasmid 3: 193–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Depicker, A., M. De Block, D. Inzd, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1980b) Is-like element IS8 in RP4 plasmid and its involvement in cointegration. Gene 10: 329–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Depicker, A., S. Stachel, P. Dhaese, P. Zambryski, and H.M. Goodman (1982) Nopaline synthase: Transcript mapping and DNA sequence. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1: 561–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Deuring, R., U. Winterhoff, F. Tamanoi, S. Stabel, and W. Doerfler (1981) Site of linkage between adenovirus type 12 and cell DNAs in hamster tumour line CLAC3. Nature, London 293: 81–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    De Vos, G., M. De Beuckeleer, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1981) Restriction endonuclease mapping of the octopine tumor inducing pTiAch5 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plasmid 6: 249–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Drummond, M.H., M.P. Gordon, E.W. Nester, and M.-D. Chilton (1977) Foreign DNA of bacterial plasmid origin is transcribed in crown gall tumours. Nature, London 269: 535–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Drummond, M.H., and M.-D. Chilton (1978) Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of Agrobacterium share extensive regions of DNA homology. J. Bacteriol. 136: 1178–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Ellis, J.G., and P.J. Murphy (1981) Four new opines from crown gall tumours–Their detection and properties. Mol. Gen. Genet. 181: 36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Ellis, J.G., A. Kerr, J. Tempi, and A. Petit (1979) Arginine catabolism: A New function of both octopine and nopaline Ti-plasmids of Agrobacterium. Mol. Gen. Genet. 173: 263–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Engler, G., M. Holsters, M. Van Montagu, J. Schell, J.P. Hernalsteens, and R.A. Schilperoort (1975) Agrocin 84 sensitivity: A plasmid determined property in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 138: 345–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Engler, G., A. Depicker, R. Maenhaut, R. Villarroel-Mandiola, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1981) Physical mapping of DNA base sequence homologies between an octopine and a nopaline Ti-plasmid of Agribacterium tumefaciens. J. Mol. Biol. 152: 183–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Engler, G. R. Villarroel-Mandiola, M. De Vos, M.Van Montagu, and J. Schell. Electron microscope heteroduplex analysis of base sequence relations among plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (In preparation).Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Firmin, J.L. and G.R. Fenwick (1978) Agropine–A major new plasmid-determined metabolite in crown gall tumours. Nature, London 276: 842–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Garfinkel, D.J., and E.W. Nester (1980) Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants affected in crown gall tumorigenesis and octopine catabolism. J. Bacteriol. 144: 732–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Garfinkel, D.J., R.B. Simpson, L.W. Ream, F.F. White, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1981) Genetic analysis of crown gall: Fine structure map of the T-DNA by site-directed mutagenesis. Cell 27: 143–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Gelvin, S.B., M.P. Gordon, E.W. Nester, and A.I. Aronson (1981) Transcription of Agrobacterium Ti plasmid in the bacterium and in crown gall tumors. Plasmid 6: 17–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Gelvin, S.B., M.F. Thomashow, J.C. McPherson, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1982) Sizes and map positions of several plasmidDNA-encoded transcripts in octopine-type crown gall tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 76–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Genetello, Ch., N. Van Larebeke, M. Holsters, A. Depicker, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1977) Ti-plasmids of Agrobacterium as conjugative plasmids. Nature, London 265: 561–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Gordon, M.P. (1982) Reversal of crown gall tumors. In Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors, G. Kahl and J. Schell, eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 415–426.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Gresshoff, P.M., M.L. Skotnicki, and B.G. Rolfe (1979) Crown gall tumour formation is plasmid and plant controlled. J. Bacteriol. 137: 1020–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Gurley, W.B., J.D. Kemp, M.J. Albert, D.W. Sutton, and J. Callis (1979) Transcription of Ti plasmid-derived sequences in three octopine-type crown gall tumor lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 2828–2832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Guyon, P., M.-D. Chilton, A. Petit, and J. Tempé (1980) Agro-pine in “null type” crown gall tumors: Evidence for the generality of the opine concept. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 2693–2697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Hack, E., and J.D. Kemp (1977) Comparison of octopine, histopine, lysopine, and octopine acid synthesizing activities in Sunflower crown gall tissues. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 78: 785–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Hack, E., and J.D. Kemp (1980) Purification and characterization of the crown gall-specific enzyme, octopine synthase. Plant Physiol. 65: 949–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Hernalsteens, J.P., H. De Greve, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1978) Mutagenesis by insertion of the drug resistance transposon Tn7 applied to the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plasmid 1: 218–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Hernalsteens, J.P., F. Van Vliet, M.De Beuckeleer, A. Depicker, G. Engler, M. Lemmers, M. Holsters, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1980) The Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid as a host vector system for introducing foreign DNA in plant Cells. Nature, London 287: 654–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Holsters, M., A. Silva, C. Genetello, G. Engler, F. Van Vliet, M. De Block, R. Villarroel, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1978) Spontaneous formation of cointegrates of the oncogenic Ti-plasmid and the wide-host-range P-plasmid RP4. Plasmid 1: 456–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Holsters, M. B. Silva, F. Van Vliet, C. Genetello, M. De Block, P. Dhaese, A. Depicker, D. Inzé, G. Engler, R. Villarroel, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1980) The functional organization of the nopaline A. tumefaciens plasmid pTiC58. Plasmid 3: 212–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Holsters, M. R. Villarroel, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1982) The use of selectable markers for the isolation of plant-DNA/T-DNA junction fragments in a cosmid vector. Mol. Gen. Genet. 185: 283–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Hooykaas, P.J.J., P.M. Klapwijk, M.P. Nuti, R.A. Schilperoort, and A. RSrsch (1977) Transfer of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid to avirulent Agrobacteria and to Rhizobium ex planta. J. Gen. Microbiol. 98: 477–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Hooykaas, P.J.J., G. Ooms, and R.A. Schilperoort (1982) Tumors induced by different strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors, G. Kahl and J. Schell, eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 374–388.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Joos, H., D. Inzé, A. Caplan, M. Sormann, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell. Genetic analysis of T-DNA transcripts in nopaline crown galls. Cell (in press).Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Keane, P.J., A. Kerr, and P.B. New (1970) Crown gall of stone fruit. II. Identification and nomenclature of Agrobacterium isolates. Austr. J. Biol. Sci. 23: 585–595.Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Kemp, J.D., D.W. Sutton, and E. Hack (1979) Purification and characterization of the crown gall specific enzyme nopaline synthase. Biochem. 18: 3755–3760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Kerr, A. (1969) Transfer of virulence between isolates of Agrobacterium. Nature, London 223: 1175–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Kerr, A. (1971) Acquisition of virulence by non-pathogenic isolation of Agrobacterium radiobacter. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 1: 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Kerr, A., P. Manigault, and J. Tempé (1977) Transfer of virulence in vivo and in vitro in Agrobacterium. Nature, London 265: 560–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Kerr, A., and C.G. Panagopoulos (1977) Biotypes of Agrobacterium radiobacter var. tumefaciens and their biological control. Phytopath. Z. 90: 172–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Kersters, K. J. De Ley, P.H.A. Sneath, and M. Sackin (1973) Numerical taxonomic analysis of Agrobacterium. J. Gen. Microbiol. 78: 227–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Kersters, K., and J. De Ley (1982) Family Rhizobiaceae - Genus Agrobacterium. In Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed. Wilkins and Wilkins, Baltimore (in press).Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Klapwijk, P.M., T. Scheulderman, and R.A. Schilperoort (1978) Coordinated regulation of octopine degradation and conjugative transfer of Ti-plasmids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Evidence for a common regulatory gene and separate operons. J. Bacteriol. 136: 775–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Klee, H.J., M.P. Gordon, and E. W. Nester (1982) Complementation analysis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid mutations affecting oncogenicity. J. Bacteriol. 150: 327–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Koekman, B.P., G. Ooms, P.M. Klapwijk, and R.A. Schilperoort (1979) Genetic map of an octopine Ti-plasmid. Plasmid 2: 347–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Koekman, B.P., P.J.J. Hooykaas, and R.A. Schilperoort (1980) Localization of the replication control region of the physical map of the octopine Ti plasmid. Plasmid 4: 184–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Leemans, J., C. Shaw, R. Deblaere, H. De Greve, J.P. Hernalsteens, M. Maes, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1981) Site-specific mutagenesis of Agrobacterium Ti plasmids and transfer of genes to plant cells. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1: 149–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Leemans, J., R. Deblaere, L. Willmitzer, H. De Greve, J.P. Hernalsteens, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1982) Genetic identification of functions of TL-DNA transcripts in octopine crown galls. EMBO Journal 1: 147–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Lemmers, M., M. De Beuckeleer, M. Holsters, P. Zambryski, A. Depicker, J.P. Hernalsteens, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1980) Internal organization, boundaries and integration of Ti-plasmid DNA in nopaline crown gall tumours. J. Mol. Biol. 144: 353–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Lipetz, J. (1966) Crown gall tumorigenesis. II. Relation between wound healing and the tumorigenic response. Cancer Res. 26: 1597–1604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Liu, S.-T., K.L. Perry, C.L. Schardl, and C.I. Kado (1982) Agrobacterium Ti plasmid indoleacetic acid gene is required for crown gall oncogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 2812–2816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Loper, J.E., and C.I. Kado (1979) Host-range conferred by the virulence-specifying plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 139: 591–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Marton, L., G.J. Wullems, L. Molendijk, and R.A. Schilperoort (1979) In vitro transformation of cultured cells from Nicotiana tabacum by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Nature, London 277: 129–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Matzke, A.J.M., and M.-D. Chilton (1981) Site-specific insertion of genes into T-DNA of the Agrobacterium tumor-inducing plasmid: an approach to genetic engineering of higher plant cells. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1: 39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    McPherson, J.C., E.W. Nester, and M.P. Gordon (1980) Proteins encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid DNA (T-DNA) in crown gall tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 2666–2670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Meins, F. Jr., and A. Binns (1977) Epigenetic variation of cultured somatic cells: evidence for gradual changes in the requirement for factors promoting cell division. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 2928–2932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Meins, F., Jr. (1982) Habituation of cultured plant cells. In: Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors, G. Kahl and J. Schell, eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 3–31.Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Ménagé, A., et G. Morel (1964) Sur la presence d’octopine dans les tissus de crown gall. C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris 259: 4795–4796.Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    Ménagé, A., et Morel, G. (1965) Sur la présence d’un acide aminé nouveau dans le tissu de crown-gall. C. R. Soc. Biol., Paris 159: 561–562.Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    Merlo, D.J., and E.W. Nester (1977) Plasmids in avirulent strains of Agrobacterium. J. Bacteriol. 129: 76–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Merlo, D.J., R.C. Nutter, A.L. Montoya, D.J. Garfinkel, M.H. Drummond, M.-D. Chilton, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1980) The boundaries and copy numbers of Ti plasmid T-DNA vary in crown gall tumors. Mol. Gen. Genet. 177: 637–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Moore, L., G. Warren, and G. Strobel (1979) Involvement of a plasmid in the hairy root disease of plants caused by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plasmid 2: 617–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Murai, N., and J. Kemp (1982a) T-DNA of pTi-15955 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is transcribed into a minimum of seven polyadenylated RNAs in a sunflower crown gall tumor. Nucl. Acids Res. 10: 1679–1689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Murai, N., and J.D. Kemp (1982b) Octopine synthase mRNA isolated from sunflower crown gall callus is homologous to the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 86–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Murphy, P.J., and W.P. Roberts (1979) A basis for agrocin 84 sensitivity in Agrobacterium. J. Gen. Microbiol. 114: 207–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Ooms, G., P.M. Klapwijk, J.A. Poulis, and R.A. Schilperoort (1980) Characterization of TN904 insertions in octopine Ti plasmid mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 144: 82–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Ooms, G., P.J. Hooykaas, G. Moleman, and R.A. Schilperoort (1981) Crown gall plant tumors of abnormal morphology, induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying mutated octopine Ti plasmids; analysis of T-DNA functions. Gene 14: 33–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Ooms, G. P.J.J. Hooykaas, R.JrM. Van Veen, P. Van Beelen, T.J.G. Regensburg-Tuink, and R.A. Schilperoort (1982) Octopine Ti plasmid deletion mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on the right side of the T-region. Plasmid 7: 15–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Otten, L., H. De Greve, J.P. Hernalsteens, M. Van Montagu, O. Schieder, J. Straub, and J. Schell (1981) Mendelian transmission of genes introduced in plant by the Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 183: 209–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Panagopoulos, G.G., and P.G. Psallidas (1973) Characterisation of Greek isolates of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Commun. Appl. Bacteriol. 36: 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Petit, A., S. Delhaye, J. Tempi, et G. Morel (1970) Recherches sur les guanidines des tissus de crown gall. Mise en evidence d’une relation biochimique spécifique entre les souches d’Agrobacterium et les tumeurs qu’elles induisent. Physiol. vég. 8: 205–213.Google Scholar
  94. 93.
    Petit, A., J. Tempé, A. Kerr, M. Holsters, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1978) Substrate induction of conjugative activity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Nature, London 271: 570–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Rogler, C.E. (1980) Plasmid-dependent temperature-sensitive phase in crown gall tumorigenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 2688–2692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Ruvkun, G.B., and F.M. Ausubel (1981) A general method for site-directed mutagenesis in prokaryotes. Nature, London 289: 85–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Schell, J., and M. Van Montagu (1977a) The Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a natural vector for the introduction of NIF genes in plants? In Genetic Engineering for nitrogen fixation, A. Hollaender, ed. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 159–179.Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Schell, J. and M. Van Montagu (1977b) On the transfer, maintenance and expression of bacterial Ti-plasmid DNA in plant cells transformed with A. tumefaciens. Brookhaven Symp. Biol., 29: 36–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Schell, J., M. Van Montagu, M. De Beuckeleer, M. De Block, A. Depicker, M. De Wilde, G. Engler, C. Genetello, J.P. Hernalsteens, M. Holsters, J. Seurinck, B. Silva, F. Van Vliet, and R. Villarroel (1979) Interactions and DNA transfer between Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the Ti-plasmid and the plant host. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 204: 251–266.Google Scholar
  100. 99.
    Schröder, J., G. Schröder, H. Huisman, R.A. Schilperoort, and J.Schell (1981) The mRNA for lysopine dehydrogenase in plant tumor cells is complementary to a Ti-plasmid fragment. FEBS Lett. 129: 166–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Schröder, G., and J. Schröder (1982) Hybridization selection and translation of T-DNA encoded mRNAs from octopine tumors. Mol. Gen. Genet. 185: 51–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Sciaky, D., A.L. Montoya, and M.-D. Chilton (1978) Fingerprints of Agrobacterium Ti plasmids. Plasmid 1: 238–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Scott, I.M., J.L. Firmin, D.N. Butcher, L.M. Searle, A.K. Sogeke, J. Eagles, J.F. March, R. Self, and G.R. Fenwick (1979) Analysis of a range of crown gall and normal plant tissues for Ti-plasmid-determined compounds. Mol. Gen. Genet. 176, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Simpson, R.B., P.J. O’Hara, W. Kwok, A.M. Montoya, C. Lichtenstein, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1982) DNA from the AGS/2 crown gall tumor contains scrambled Ti plasmid sequences near its junctions with plant DNA. Cell 29: 1005–1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Skoog, F., and C.O. Miller (1957) Chemical regulation of growth and organ formation in plant tissue cultures in vitro. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 11: 118–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Stonier, T. (1962) Normal, abnormal and pathological regeneration in Nicotiana. In Regeneration, D. Rudnick, ed. Ronald Press, New York, pp. 85–115.Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Tate, M.E., P.J. Murphy, W.P. Roberts, and A. Kerr (1979) Adenine N6-substituent of agrocin 84 determines its bacteríocin-like specificity. Nature, London 280: 697–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Tate, M.E., J.G. Ellis, A. Kerr, J. Tempé, K. Murray, and K. Shaw (1982) Agropine: a revised structure. Carbohyd. Res. 104: 105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Tempé, J., P. Guyon, D. Tepfer, and A. Petit (1979) The role of opines in the ecology of the Ti-plasmids of Agrobacterium. In Plasmids of medical, environmental and commercial importance, K. Timmis and A. Puler, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam 353–363.Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    Tempé J., A. Petit, M. Holsters, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1977) Thermosensitive step associated with transfer of the Ti-plasmid during conjugation: possible relation to transformation in crown gall. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 2848–2849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Tepfer, D.A., and J. Tempé (1981) Production d’agropine par des racines formées sous l’action d’Agrobacterium rhizogenes, souche A4. C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris 292, Série III, 153–156.Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    Thomashow, M.F., R. Nutter, K. Postle, M.-D. Chilton, F.R. Blattner, A. Powell, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1980a) Recombination between higher plant DNA and the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 6448–6452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Thomashow, M.F., R. Nutter, A.L. Montoya, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1980b) Integration and organisation of Ti-plasmid sequences in crown gall tumors. Cell 19: 729–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Thomashow, M.F., C.G. Panagopoulos, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1980c) Host range of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is determined by the Ti plasmid. Nature, London 283: 794–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Thomashow, M.F., V.C. Knauf, and E.W. Nester (1981) Relationship between the limited and wide host range octopine-type Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 146: 484–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Van Haute, E., H. Joos, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell. Broad-host range exchange recombination of pBR322-cloned DNA fragments - application to the reversed genetics of Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (In preparation).Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    Van Larebeke, N., G. Engler, M. Holsters, S. Van den Elsacker, I. Zaenen, R.A. Schilperoort, and J. Schell (1974) Large plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens essential for crown gall-inducing ability. Nature, London 252: 169–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Van Larebeke, N., C. Genetello, J.P. Hernalsteens, A. Depicker, I. Zaenen, E. Messens, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1977) Transfer of Ti-plasmids between Agrobacterium strains by mobilization with the conjugative plasmid RP4. Mol. Gen. Genet. 152: 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Warren, G.J., A.J. Twigg, and D.J. Sherratt (1978) ColE1 plasmid mobility and relaxation complex. Nature, London 274: 259–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Watson, B., T.C. Currier, M.P. Gordon, M.-D. Chilton, and E.W. Nester (1975) Plasmid required for virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 123: 255–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    White, L.O. (1972) The taxonomy of the crown-gall organism Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its relationship to rhizobia and other agrobacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 72: 565–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    White, F.F., and E.W. Nester (1980a) Hairy root: plasmid encodes virulence traits in Agrobacterium rhizogenes. J. Bacteriol. 141: 1134–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    White, F.F., and E.W. Nester (1980b) Relationship of plasmids responsible for hairy root and crown gall tumorigenicity. J. Bacteriol. 144: 710–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    White, F., G. Ghidossi, M. Gordon, and E. Nester (1982) Tumor induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes involves the transfer of plasmid DNA to the plant genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 3193–3197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    Willmitzer, L., M. De Beuckeleer, M. Lemmers, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1980) DNA from Ti-plasmid is present in the nucleus and absent from plastids of plant crown-gall cells. Nature, London 287: 359–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Willmitzer, L., W. Schmalenbach, and J. Schell (1981a) Transcription of T-DNA in octopine and nopaline crown gall tumours is inhibited by low concentrations of a-aminitin. Nucl. Acids Res. 9: 4801–4812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 126.
    Willmitzer, L., L. Otten, G. Simons, W. Schmalenbach, J. Schröder, G. Schröder, M. Van Montagu, G. De Vos, and J. Schell (1981b) Nuclear and polysomal transcripts of T-DNA in octopine crown gall suspension and callus cultures. Mol. Gen. Genet. 182: 255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Willmitzer, L., G. Simons, and J. Schell (1982a) The TL-DNA in octopine crown gall tumours codes for seven well-defined polyadenylated transcripts. EMBO Journal 1: 139–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Willmitzer, L., J. Sanchez-Serrano, E. Buschfeld, and J. Schell (1982b) DNA from Agrobacterium rhizogenes is transferred to and expressed in axenic hairy root plant tissues. Mol. Gen. Genet. 186: 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Willmitzer, L., P. Dhaese, P.H. Schreier, M. Schmalenbach, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell. Size, location and polarity of T-DNA encoded transcripts in nopaline crown gall tumors: Evidence for common transcripts present in both octopine and nopaline tumors. Cell, in press.Google Scholar
  131. 130.
    Wood, H.N., A.N. Binns, and A.C. Braun (1978) Differential expression of oncogenicity and nopaline synthesis in intact leaves derived from crown gall teratomas of tobacco. Differentiation 11: 175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. a.W6stemeyer, A., L. Otten, H. DeGreve, J.P. Hernalsteens, J. Leemans, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1982) Regeneration of plants from crown gall cells. In Genetic Engineering in Eukaryotes, P. Lurquin, ed., Plenum Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  133. 131.
    Wullems, G.J., L. Molendijk, G. Ooms, and R.A. Schilperoort (1981) Retention of tumor markers in F1 progeny plants from in vitro induced octopine and nopaline tumor tissues. Cell 24: 719–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 132.
    Yadav, N.S., K. Postle, R.K. Saiki, M.F. Thomashow, and M.-D. Chilton (1980) T-DNA of a crown gall teratoma is covalently joined to host plant DNA. Nature, London 287: 458–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 133.
    Yadav, N.S., J. Vanderleyden, D.R. Bennett, W.M. Barnes, and M.D. Chilton (1982) Short direct repeats flank the T-DNA on a nopaline Ti Plasmid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 6322–6326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 134.
    Yang, F., J.C. McPherson, M.P. Gordon, and E.W. Nester (1980a) Extensive transcription of foreign DNA in a crown gall teratoma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 92: 1273–1277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 135.
    Yang, F., A.L. Montoya, D.J. Merlo, M.H. Drummond, M.-D. Chilton, E.W. Nester, and M.P. Gordon (1980b) Foreign DNA sequences in crown gall teratomas and their fate during the loss of the tumorous traits. Mol. Gen. Genet. 177: 707–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 136.
    Yang, F.M., A.L. Montoya, E.W. Nester, and M.P. Gordon (1980c) Plant tumor reversal associated with the loss of foreign DNA. In vitro 16: 87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 137.
    Yang, F., and R.B. Simpson (1981) Revertant seedlings from crown gall tumors retain a portion of the bacterial Ti plasmid DNA sequences. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 4151–4155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 138.
    Zaenen, I., N. Van Larebeke, H. Teuchy, M. Van Montagu, and J. Schell (1974) Supercoiled circular DNA in crown gall inducing Agrobacterium strains. J. Mol. Biol. 86: 109–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 139.
    Zambryski, P., M. Holsters, K. Kruger, A. Depicker, J. Schell, M. Van Montagu, and H.M. Goodman (1980) Tumor DNA structure in plant cells transformed by A. tumefaciens. Science 209: 1385–1391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 140.
    Zambryski, P., A. Depicker, K. Kruger, and H. Goodman (1982) Tumor induction by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: analysis of the boundaries of T-DNA. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1: 361–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Depicker
    • 1
  • M. Van Montagu
    • 1
  • J. Schell
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorium voor GeneticaRijksuniversiteit GentGentBelgium

Personalised recommendations