Air Pollution

  • William H. Smith
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

The atmosphere that surrounds the earth is a mixture of gases and suspended solids whose density decreases rapidly with elevation until space void is reached at hundreds of kilometers above the surface of the planet. The lowest portion of the atmosphere is designated the troposphere and it contains approximately 70% of the mass of the atmosphere. At the poles of the earth, the troposphere is about 8 km thick, while at the equator the thickness approximates 16 km. The troposphere contains essentially all storm systems and weather events and is subject to the input of a large number of compounds resulting from both natural processes and human activities at the surface of the earth. The stratosphere extends from the troposphere to very approximately 50 km above the earth. This layer contains the critically important natural ozone band, which is significant for attenuating short wave radiation received from the sun. Persistent chemicals released to the troposphere, for example, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halo- carbons, may become reactive in the higher energy stratosphere (Chapter 19). The highest energy environment of the atmosphere is designated the mesosphere and extends from approximately 50 to 100 km above the surface of the earth.

Keywords

Zinc Nickel Dioxide Cobalt Cadmium 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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