Measurement, Monitoring, Modelling and Control of Bioprocesses

Volume 132 of the series Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology pp 1-33


Automated Measurement and Monitoring of Bioprocesses: Key Elements of the M3C Strategy

  • Bernhard SonnleitnerAffiliated withInstitute for Chemistry and Biological Chemistry (ICBC), Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) Email author 

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The state-of-routine monitoring items established in the bioprocess industry as well as some important state-of-the-art methods are briefly described and the potential pitfalls discussed. Among those are physical and chemical variables such as temperature, pressure, weight, volume, mass and volumetric flow rates, pH, redox potential, gas partial pressures in the liquid and molar fractions in the gas phase, infrared spectral analysis of the liquid phase, and calorimetry over an entire reactor. Classical as well as new optical versions are addressed. Biomass and bio-activity monitoring (as opposed to “measurement”) via turbidity, permittivity, in situ microscopy, and fluorescence are critically analyzed. Some new(er) instrumental analytical tools, interfaced to bioprocesses, are explained. Among those are chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry, flow and sequential injection analyses, field flow fractionation, capillary electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. This chapter surveys the principles of monitoring rather than compiling instruments.

Graphical Abstract


Bio-activity Biomass Chemical variables Physical variables Products Substrates