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Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress and Lung Inflammation

  • Namitosh Tyagi
  • Rashmi Singh
Chapter

Abstract

Lung pathogenesis is associated with the oxidative stress which is one of the major causes of the lung damage. Oxidative stress is an important factor (cause) for development of chronic and degenerative diseases including cancer, aging, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cataract, chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Emerging evidences suggest that the glutathione redox couple may entail dynamic regulation of protein function by reversible disulfide bond formation on kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhances inflammation through the activation of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein-1 through various kinases (c-Jun-activated kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase). This results in enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators. Many environmental pollutants play an important role in causing oxidative stress leading to lung damage. In present chapter impact of paraquat, a known herbicide has been discussed in detail for its effects on oxidative stress and lung inflammation causing injury.

Keywords

Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen species Inflammation Lung damage 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors are thankful to University Grants Commission and Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)-Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India, in part for financial assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Namitosh Tyagi
    • 1
  • Rashmi Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, MMVBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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