Immunotechnological Advancements in Developing Vaccines for Lymphatic Filariasis

  • Prince R. Prabhu
  • Jayaprakasam Madhumathi
  • Perumal Kaliraj


As we head toward the elimination of LF through mass drug administration (MDA) and vector control programs, it is equally reasonable to sustain efforts on vaccine development on a long-term basis. This prophylactic approach will give a foothold for complete protection in endemic areas from future emergence of infection and will also strengthen the current MDA efforts. Currently, we do not have any vaccines to combat multicellular infectious agents leaving alone the neglected infectious diseases like filariasis. But there have been significant efforts on the part of India toward extensive basic research in the identification and preclinical animal model validation of suitable vaccine candidates. This review gives a summary of these efforts that would be pivotal for future clinical vaccine studies in lymphatic filariasis (LF).


  1. Abraham D, Grieve RB, Holy JM, Christensen BM (1989) Immunity to larval Brugia malayi in BALB/c mice: protective immunity and inhibition of larval development. Am J Trop Med & Hyg 40:598–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham D, Grieve RB, Mika-Grieve M, Seibert BP (1988) Active and passive immunization of mice against larval Dirofilaria immitis. J Parasitol 74:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abraham D, Weiner DJ, Farrell JP (1986) Protective immune response of the jird to larval Dipetalonema viteae. Immunology 57:165–169Google Scholar
  4. Allen JE, Daub J, Guiliano D, McDonnell A, Lizotte-Waniewski M, Taylor DW, Blaxter M (2000) Analysis of genes expressed at the infective larval stage validates utility of Litomosoides sigmodontis as murine model for filarial vaccine development’. Infect Immun 68:5454–5458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anand SB, Gnanasekar M, Thangadurai M, Prabhu PR, Kaliraj P, Ramaswamy K (2007) Immune response studies with Wuchereria bancrofti vespid allergen homologue (WbVAH) in human lymphatic filariasis. Parasitol Res 101(4):981–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anand SB, Murugan V, Prabhu PR, Anandharaman V, Reddy MV, Kaliraj P (2008) Comparison of immunogenicity, protective efficacy of single and cocktail DNA vaccine of Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) in mice. Acta Trop 107(2):106–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anand SB, Kodumudi KN, Reddy MV, Kaliraj P (2011) A combination of two Brugia malayi filarial vaccine candidate antigens (BmALT-2 and BmVAH) enhances immune responses and protection in jirds. J Helminthol 4:1–11Google Scholar
  8. Ash LR, Riley JM (1970) Development of subperiodic Brugia malayi in the jird, Meriones unguiculatus, with notes on infections in other rodents. J Parasitol 56:969–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ben-Yedidia T, Arnon R (1997) Design of peptide and polypeptide vaccines. Curr Opin Biotechnol 8(4):442–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bianco AE, Luty A, Whitworth J, Taylor D (1991) Immunity to Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in mice and the induction of cross-protection with O. lienalis. Trop Med Parasitol 42:188–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bjorkman PJ, Saper MA, Samraoui B, Bennett WS, Strominger JL, Wiley DC (1987) Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2. Nature 329(6139):506–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlow CK, Bianco AE (1987) Resistance to Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in mice conferred by egg antigens of homologous and heterologous Onchocerca species. Parasitology 94:485–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carlow CK, Philipp M (1987) Protective immunity to Brugia malayi larvae in BALB/c mice: potential of this model for the identification of protective antigens. Am J Trop Med &Hyg 37:597–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Catmull J, Wilson ME, Kirchhoff LV, Metwali A, Donelson JE (1999) Induction of specific cell-mediated immunity in mice by oral immunization with Salmonella expressing Onchocerca volvulus glutathione S-transferase. Vaccine 17(1):31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheirmaraj K, Chenthamarakshan V, Reddy MVR, Harinath BC (1991) Immunoprophylaxis against filarial parasite, Brugia malayi: potential of excretory secretory antigens in inducing immunity. J Biosci 16:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chenthamarakshan V, Reddy MV, Harinath BC (1995) Immunoprophylactic potential of a 120 kDaBrugia malayi adult antigen fraction, BmA-2, in lymphatic filariasis. Parasite Immunol 17(6):277–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chiumiento L, Bruschi F (2009) Enzymatic antioxidant systems in helminth parasites. Parasitol Res 105(3):593–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chusattayanond W, Denham DA (1986) Attempted vaccination of jirds, Meriones unguiculatus against Brugia pahangi with radiation attenuated infective larvae. J Helminthol 60:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coler RN, Reed SG (2005) Second-generation vaccines against leishmaniasis. Trends Parasitol 21(5):244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dabir P, Dabir S, Krithika KN, Goswami K, Reddy MV (2006) Immunoprophylactic evaluation of a 37-kDa Brugia malayi recombinant antigen in lymphatic filariasis. Clin Microbiol Infect 12(4):361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daub J (2000) A survey of genes expressed in adults of the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Parasitology 120:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Day KP, Gregory WF, Maizels R (1991) Age-specific acquisition of immunity to infective larvae in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area of Papua New Guinea. Parasite Immunol 13:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Demotz S, Moulon C, Roggero MA, Fasel N, Masina S (2001) Native-like, long synthetic peptides as components of sub-unit vaccines: practical and theoretical considerations for their use in humans. Mol Immunol 38(6):415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DupreHerv M, Schacht AM, Capron A, Riveau G (1999) Control of Schistosomiasis pathology by combination of Sm28GST DNA immunization and praziquantel treatment. J Infect Dis 180(2):454–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frank GR, Tripp CA, Grieve RB (1996) Molecular cloning of a developmentally regulated protein isolated from excretory-secretory products of larval Dirofilaria immitis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 75(2):231–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fuhrman JA, Lane WS, Smith RF, Piessens WF, Perler FB (1992) Transmission-blocking antibodies recognize microfilarial chitinase in brugian lymphatic filariasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:1548–1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gnanasekar M, Rao KV, He YX, Mishra PK, Nutman TB, Kaliraj P et al (2004) Novel phage display-based subtractive screening to identify vaccine candidates of Brugia malayi. Infect Immun 72(8):4707–4715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gomez-Escobar N, Bennett C, Prieto-Lafuente L, Aebischer T, Blackburn CC, Maizels RM (2005) Heterologous expression of the filarial nematode alt gene products reveals their potential to inhibit immune function. BMC Biol 3:8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gregory WF, Atmadja AK, Allen JE, Maizels RM (2000) The abundant larval transcript −1 and −2 genes of Brugia malayi encode stage-specific candidate vaccine antigens for filariasis. Infect Immun 68:4174–4179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grieve RB, Abraham D, Mika-Grieve M, Seibert BP (1988) Induction of protective immunity in dogs to infection with Dirofilaria immitis using chemically-abbreviated infections. Am J Trop Med & Hyg 39:373–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grieve RB, Wisnewski N, Frank GR, Tripp CA (1995) Vaccine research and development for the prevention of filarial nematode infections. Pharm Biotechnol 6:737–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harrison RA, Bianco AE (2000) DNA immunization with Onchocerca volvulus genes, Ov-tmy-1 and OvB20: serological and parasitological outcomes following intramuscular or GeneGun delivery in a mouse model of Onchocerciasis. Parasite Immunol 22:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harrison RA, Wu Y, Egerton G, Bianco AE (1999) DNA immunisation with Onchocercavolvuluschitinase induces partial protection against challenge infection with L3 larvae in mice. Vaccine 18:647–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hayashi Y, Noda K, Shirasaka A, Nogami S, Nakamura M (1984) Vaccination of BALB/c mice against Brugia malayi and B. pahangi with larvae attenuated by gamma irradiation. Jpn J Exp Med 54(4):177–181Google Scholar
  35. Hayashi Y, Nakagaki K, Nogami S, Hammerberg B, Tanaka H (1989) Protective immunity against Brugia malayi infective larvae in mice. I parameters of active and passive immunity. Am J Trop Med & Hyg 41:650–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Henkle-Dührsen K, Kampkotter A (2001) Antioxidant enzyme families in parasitic nematodes. Mol Biochem Parasitol 114:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hoekstra R (2000) EST sequencing of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus suggests a shift in gene expression during transition to the parasitic stages. Mol & Biochem Parasitol 110:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Horii Y, Nakanishi H, Mori A, Ueda M, Kurokawa K, Zaitsu M, Oda T, Fujita K (1992) Induction of protective immunity to Brugia pahangi in jirds by drug-abbreviated infection. J Helminthol 66:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Irvine M, Huima T, Prince AM, Lustigman S (1994) Identification and characterization of an Onchocerca volvulus cDNA clone encoding a highly immunogenic calponin-like protein. Mol Biochem Parasitol 65:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jenkins RE, Taylor MJ, Gilvary NJ, Bianco AE (1998) Tropomyosin implicated in host protective responses to microfilariae in onchocerciasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:7550–7555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kang Y, Calvo PA, Daly TM, Long CA (1998) Comparison of humoral immune responses elicited by DNA and protein vaccines based on merozoite surface protein-1 from Plasmodium yoelii, a rodent malaria parasite. J Immunol 161:4211–4219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kazura JW, Cicirello H, McCall JW (1986) Induction of protection against Brugia malayi infection in jirds by microfilarial antigens. J Immunol 136:1422–1426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Klei TR, McDonough KC, Coleman SU, Enright FM (1987) Induction of lymphatic lesions by Brugia pahangi in jirds with large and small pre-existing homologous intraperitoneal infections. J Parasitol 73:290–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Krithika KN, Dabir P, Kulkarni S, Anandharaman V, Reddy MV (2005) Identification of 38kDa Brugia malayi microfilarial protease as a vaccine candidate for lymphatic filariasis. Indian J Exp Biol 43(9):759–768Google Scholar
  45. Lange AM, Yutanawiboonchai W, Lok JB, Trpis M, Abraham D (1993) Induction of protective immunity against larval Onchocerca volvulus in a mouse model. Am J Trop Med & Hyg 49:783–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li BW, Chandrashekar R, Weil GJ (1993) Vaccination with recombinant filarial paramyosin induces partial immunity to Brugia malayi infection in jirds. J Immunol 15:1881–1885Google Scholar
  47. Li BW, Zhang S, Curtis KC, Weil GJ (1999) Immune responses to Brugia malayi paramyosin in rodents after DNA vaccination. Vaccine 18:76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lizotte-Waniewski M, Tawe W, Guiliano DB, Lu W, Liu J, Williams SA, Lustigman S (2000) Identification of potential vaccine and drug target candidates by expressed sequence tag analysis and immunoscreening of Onchocerca volvulus larval cDNA libraries. Infect Immun 68:3491–3501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lok JB, Abraham D (1992) Animal models for the study of immunity in human filariasis. Parasitol Today 8(5):168–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. LoVerde PT, Carvalho-Queiroz C, Cook R (2004) Vaccination with antioxidant enzymes confers protective immunity against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99(Suppl. I):37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. LoVerde PT (1998) Do antioxidants play a role in Schistosome host–parasite interactions? Parasitol Today 14(7):284–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lucius R, Ruppel A, Diesfeld HJ (1986) Dipetalonema viteae: resistance in Meriones unguiculatus with multiple infections of stage-3 larvae. Exp Parasitol 62:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lucius R, Textor G, Kern A, Kirsten C (1991) Acanthocheilonema viteae: vaccination of jirds with irradiation-attenuated stage-3 larvae and with exported larval antigens. Exp Parasitol 73:184–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Madhumathi J, Prince PR, Anugraha G, Kiran P, Rao DN, Reddy MVR, Kaliraj P (2010) Identification and characterization of nematode specific protective epitopes of Brugia malayi TRX towards development of synthetic vaccine construct for lymphatic Filariasis. Vaccine 28(31):5038–5048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maizels RM (2000) Toxocara canis genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode. Int J Parasitol 30:495–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maizels RM, Balxter ML, Scott AL (2001) Immunological genomics of Brugia malayi: filarial genes implicated in immune evasion and protective immunity. Parasite Immunol 23:327–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Maizels RM, Morgan TM, Gregory WF, Selkirk ME, Purnomo S, Partono F (1988) Circulating antibodies and antigens in Presbytis monkeys infected with the filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. Trop Med Parasitol 39:214–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Maizels RM, Partono F, Oemijati S, Denham DA, Ogilvie BM (1983) Cross reactive surface antigens of three stages of Brugia malayi, B Pahangi and B timori. Parasitology 87:249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Maizels RM, Holland MJ, Falcone FH, Zang XX, Yazdanbakhsh M (1999) Vaccination against helminth parasites--the ultimate challenge for vaccinologists? Immunol Rev 171:125–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maizels RM, Yazdanbakhsh M (2003) Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Immunol 3(9):733–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McCarthy JS, Wieseman M, Tropea J, Kaslow D, Abraham D, Lustigman S, Tuan R, Guderian RH, Nutman TB (2002) Onchocerca volvulus glycolytic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase as a target for a protective immune response in humans. Infect Immun 70(2):851–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mcgonigle S, Dalton JP, James ER (1998) Peroxidoxins: a new antioxidant family. Parasitol Today 14:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mendez S, Zhan B, Goud G, Ghosh K, Dobardzic A, Wu W, Liu S, Deumic V, Dobardzic R, Liu Y, Bethony J, Hotez PJ (2005) Effect of combining the larval antigens Ancylostoma secreted protein 2 (ASP-2) and metalloprotease 1 (MTP-1) in protecting hamsters against hookworm infection and disease caused by Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Vaccine Vol. 23(24):3123–3130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Murray J, Gregory WF, Gomez-Escobar N, Atmadja AK, Maizels RM (2001) Expression and immune recognition of Brugia malayiVAL-1, a homologue of vespid venom allergens and Ancylostoma secreted proteins. Mol Biochem Parasitol 118(1):89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Murthy PK, Murthy PS, Tyagi K, Chatterjee RK (1997) Fate of infective larvae of Brugia malayi in the peritoneal cavity of Mastomys natalensis and Meriones unguiculatus. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 44(4):302–304Google Scholar
  66. Padma B (2005) Protective efficacy of Brugia malayi Venom Allergen Homologue (VAH) AND Wuchereria bancrofti Thioredoxin (TRX) homologue as a DNA and bimodal vaccine in animal models. Ph.D Dissertation, Anna UniversityGoogle Scholar
  67. Palmieri JR, Van Dellen AF, Tirtokusumo S, Masbar S, Rusch J, Connor DH (1984) Trapping, care, and laboratory management of the silvered leaf monkey (Presbytis cristatus). Lab Anim Sci 34:194–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Pankaj KM (2003) Cellular immune responses and the protective efficacy after immunization with Brugia Malayi abundant Larval transcritpion - 2 [ALT - 2] recombinant protein phage displayed Antigen or As a DNA vaccine in mice and gerbils models. Ph.D Dissertation, Anna UniversityGoogle Scholar
  69. Peralta ME, Schmitz KA, Rajan TV (1999) Failure of highly immunogenic filarial proteins to provide host-protective immunity. Exp Parasitol 91(4):334–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Philipp M, Worms MJ, Maizels RM, Ogilvie BM (1984) Rodent models of filariasis. Contemp Top Immunobiol 12:275–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Prince RP (2011) Structural elucidation and immunoprophylactic studies of recombinant parasitic proteins for therapeutic intervention in human lymphatic filariasis. Ph.D Dissertation, Anna UniversityGoogle Scholar
  72. Prince AM, Brotman B, Johnson EH, Smith A, Pascual D, Lustigman S (1992) Onchocerca volvulus: immunization of chimpanzees with X-irradiated third-stage (L3) larvae. Exp Parasitol 74:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Purcell AW, Zeng W, Mifsud NA, Ely LK, Macdonald WA, Jackson DC (2003) Dissecting the role of peptides in the immune response: theory, practice and the application to vaccine design. J Pept Sci 9(5):255–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rainczuk A, Scorza T, Spithill TW, Smooker PM (2004) A bicistronic DNA vaccine containing apical membrane antigen 1 and merozoite surface protein 4/5 can prime humoral and cellular immune responses and partially protect mice against virulent Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS malaria. Infect Immun 72(10):5565–5573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rajasekariah GR, Puri PM, Chandrashekar R, Subrahmanyam D (1988) Clearance of Brugia pahangi microfilariae in immunized mice. Immunol Cell Biol 66:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ramachandran S, Kumar MP, Rami RM, Chinnaiah HB, Nutman T, Kaliraj P et al (2004) The larval specific lymphatic filarial ALT-2: induction of protection using protein or DNA vaccination. Microbiol Immunol 48:945–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rinaudo CD, Telford JL, Rappuoli R, Seib KL (2009) Vaccinology in the genome era. J Clin Invest 119(9):2515–2525. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Sänger I, Lämmler G, Kimmig P (1981) Filarial infections of Mastomys natalensis and their relevance for experimental chemotherapy. Acta Trop 38(3):277–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Selkirk ME, Maizels RM, Yazdanbakhsh M (1992) Immunity and the prospects for vaccination against filariasis. Immunobiology 184(2–3):263–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sharmila S, Christiana I, Kiran P, Reddy MVR, Sankaran K, Kaliraj P (2013a) Bacterial lipid modification enhances immunoprophylaxis of filarial abundant larval transcript‐2 protein in Mastomys model. Parasite Immunol 35(7):201–213. Scholar
  81. Srivastava Y, Rathaur S, Bhandari YP, Reddy MV, Harinath BC (2004) Adult 175 kDa collagenase antigen of Setaria cervi in immunoprophylaxis against Brugia malayi in jirds. J Helminthol 78(4):347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Steel C, Guinea A, Ottesen EA (1996) Evidence for protective immunity to Bancroftian Filariasis in the Cook Islands. J Infect Dis 174:598–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Storey DM, Al-Mukhtar AS (1982) Vaccination of jirds, Meriones unguiculatus, against Litomosoides carinii and Brugia pahangi using irradiated larvae of L carinii. Trop Med Parasitol 33:23–24Google Scholar
  84. Subrahmanyam D, Mehta K, Nelson DS, Rao YV, Rao CK (1978) Immune reactions in human filariasis. J Clin Microbiol 8:228–232PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Taylor MJ, Abdel WN, Wu Y, Jenkins RE, Bianco AE (1995) Onchocerca volvulus larval antigen, OvB20, induces partial protection in a rodent model of onchocerciasis. Infect Immun 63:4417–4422PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Taylor MJ, Jenkins RE, Bianco AE (1996) Protective immunity induced by vaccination with Onchocerca volvulus tropomyosin in rodents. Parasite Immunol 18:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Thirugnanam S, Pandiaraja P, Ramaswamy K, Murugan V, Gnanasekar M, Nandakumar K, Reddy MV, Kaliraj P (2007) Brugia malayi: comparison of protective immune responses induced by Bm-alt-2 DNA, recombinant Bm-ALT-2 protein and prime-boost vaccine regimens in a jird model. Exp Parasitology 116(4):483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Townsend AR, Rothbard J, Gotch FM, Bahadur G, Wraith D, McMichael AJ (1986) The epitopes of influenza nucleoprotein recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be defined with short synthetic peptides. Cell 44(6):959–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Townson S, Nelson GS, Bianco AE (1985) Immunity to Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in mice. II. Effects of sensitization with a range of heterologous species. J Helminthol 59:337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vanam U, Pandey V, Prabhu PR, Dakshinamurthy G, Reddy MV, Kaliraj P (2009a) Evaluation of immunoprophylactic efficacy of Brugia malayi transglutaminase (BmTGA) in single and multiple antigen vaccination with BmALT-2 and BmTPX for human lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80(2):319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vanam U, Prabhu PR, Pandey V, Dakshinamurthy G, Reddy MV, Perumal K (2009b) Immune responses generated by intramuscular DNA immunization of Brugia malayi transglutaminase (BmTGA) in mice. Parasitology 136(8):887–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Veerapathran A, Dakshinamoorthy G, Gnanasekar M, Reddy MV, Kalyanasundaram R (2009) Evaluation of Wuchereria bancrofti GST as a vaccine candidate for lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3(6):e457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang SH, Zheng HJ, Dissanayake S, Cheng WF, Tao ZH, Lin SZ, Piessens WF (1997) Evaluation of recombinant chitinase and SXP1 antigens as antimicrofilarial vaccines’. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56:474–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weiss WM, Winch PJ, Burnham G (2009) Factors associated with missed vaccination during mass immunization campaigns. J Health Popul Nutr 27(3):358–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wenk P, Mössinger J (1991) Recovery of adult stages and microfilaraemia after low dose inoculation of third stage larvae of Litomosoides carinii in Sigmodon hispidus. J Helminthol 65(3):219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. WHO Weekly, Epidemiol Rec (2006) Informal consultation on preventing disability from lymphatic filariasis, WHO, Geneva, August 2006. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 81(40):373–383 English, FrenchGoogle Scholar
  97. Williams SA (1999) Deep within the filarial genome: progress of the filarial genome project. Parasitol Today 15(6):219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wong MM, Fredericks HJ, Ramachandran CP (1969) Studies on immunization against Brugia malayi infection in the rhesus monkey. Bull World Health Organ 40:493–501PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Wuhrer M, Rickhoff S, Dennis RD, Lochnit G, Soboslay PT, Baumeister S, Geyer R (2000) Phosphocholine-containing zwitterionic glycosphingolipids of adult Onchocerca volvulus as highly conserved antigenic structures of parasitic nematodes. J Biochem 348:417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yates JA, Higashi GI (1985) Brugia malayi: vaccination of jirds with 60cobalt-attenuated infective stage larvae protects against homologous challenge. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34:1132–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zinkernagel RM, Doherty PC (1979) MHC-restricted cytotoxic T cells: studies on the biological role of polymorphic major transplantation antigens determining T-cell restriction-specificity, function, and responsiveness. Adv Immunol 27:51–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prince R. Prabhu
    • 1
  • Jayaprakasam Madhumathi
    • 1
  • Perumal Kaliraj
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for BiotechnologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations