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  • Open Access
  • © 2022

Primary and Secondary Education During Covid-19

Disruptions to Educational Opportunity During a Pandemic

  • This open access book is the first comparative study of the impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Education

  • Shares case studies of how education systems responded to the Covid-19 pandemic, providing insights on policy responses

  • Focuses on learning loss and other negative impact of the pandemic as well as on silverlinings and gains

  • Presents a particular focus on the impact of the pandemic on educational opportunities for disadvantaged students

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (17 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-vi
  2. The Fragility of the School-in-Pandemic in Chile

    • Cristián Bellei, Mariana Contreras, Tania Ponce, Isabel Yañez, Rocío Díaz, Constanza Vielma
    Pages 79-103Open Access
  3. Covid-19 and Education on the Front Lines in Japan: What Caused Learning Disparities and How Did the Government and Schools Take Initiative?

    • Kazuaki Iwabuchi, Kouki Hodama, Yutaka Onishi, Shota Miyazaki, Sae Nakae, Kan Hiroshi Suzuki
    Pages 125-151Open Access
  4. COVID-19 and Post-pandemic Educational Policies in Mexico. What is at Stake?

    • Sergio Cárdenas, Dulce Lomelí, Ignacio Ruelas
    Pages 153-175Open Access
  5. The Portuguese Educational Policy to Ensure Equity in Learning in Times of Crises

    • Estela Costa, Mónica Baptista, Carolina Carvalho
    Pages 203-225Open Access
  6. General Education in Russia During COVID-19: Readiness, Policy Response, and Lessons Learned

    • Sergey Kosaretsky, Sergey Zair-Bek, Yuliya Kersha, Roman Zvyagintsev
    Pages 227-261Open Access
  7. The Spanish Response to the Covid-19 Pandemic: From Joint Governance to Lack of Governance

    • Javier M. Valle, Carlos de Olagüe-Smithson
    Pages 283-301Open Access
  8. The Impact of COVID-19 on a Fragile Education System: The Case of South Africa

    • Crain Soudien, Vijay Reddy, Jaqueline Harvey
    Pages 303-325Open Access
  9. Ambitious and Sustainable Post-pandemic Workplace Design for Teachers: A Portrait of the Arizona Teacher Workforce

    • R. Lennon Audrain, Andrea E. Weinberg, Ashley Bennett, Joseph O’Reilly, Carole G. Basile
    Pages 353-381Open Access
  10. The Unequal Impacts of COVID-19 on Student Learning

    • João Pedro Azevedo, Marcela Gutierrez, Rafael de Hoyos, Jaime Saavedra
    Pages 421-459Open Access
  11. Conclusions and Implications

    • Fernando M. Reimers
    Pages 461-475Open Access

About this book

This open access edited volume is a comparative effort to discern the short-term educational impact of the covid-19 pandemic on students, teachers and systems in Brazil, Chile, Finland, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Spain, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States.

One of the first academic comparative studies of the educational impact of the pandemic, the book explains how the interruption of in person instruction and the variable efficacy of alternative forms of education caused learning loss and disengagement with learning, especially for disadvantaged students. Other direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic diminished the ability of families to support children and youth in their education. For students, as well as for teachers and school staff, these included the economic shocks experienced by families, in some cases leading to food insecurity and in many more causing stress and anxiety and impacting mental health. Opportunity to learn was also diminished by the shocks and trauma experienced by those with a close relative infected by the virus, and by the constrains on learning resulting from students having to learn at home, where the demands of schoolwork had to be negotiated with other family necessities, often sharing limited space. Furthermore, the prolonged stress caused by the uncertainty over the resolution of the pandemic and resulting from the knowledge that anyone could be infected and potentially lose their lives, created a traumatic context for many that undermined the necessary focus and dedication to schoolwork. These individual effects were reinforced by community effects, particularly for students and teachers living in communities where the multifaceted negative impacts resulting from the pandemic were pervasive.

This is an open access book.


  • Open Access
  • Education and Covid-19
  • Educational Inequality
  • Education Disruption
  • Education Policy
  • Education Technology
  • Comparative Education
  • Remote learning
  • Schooling during a pandemic
  • Distance teaching
  • post-pandemic educational policies
  • Homeschooling during Pendemic
  • understanding Inequities in Instruction and Learning
  • Education in the times of Covid-19
  • Unequal Impacts of COVID-19
  • Open Access

Editors and Affiliations

  • Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA

    Fernando M. Reimers

About the editor

Fernando M. Reimers is the Ford Foundation Professor of the Practice of International Education and Director of the Global Education Innovation Initiative and of the International Education Policy Masters Program at Harvard University. An expert in the field of Global Education, his research and teaching focus on understanding how to educate children and youth so they can thrive in the 21st century. He is a member of UNESCO’s high level commission on the Futures of Education.

Bibliographic Information

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)