Abstract
Graphbased methods have been widely used for the analysis of biological networks. Their application to metabolic networks has been much discussed, in particular noting that an important weakness in such methods is that reaction stoichiometry is neglected. In this study, we show that reaction stoichiometry can be incorporated into pathfinding approaches via mixedinteger linear programming. This major advance at the modeling level results in improved prediction of topological and functional properties in metabolic networks.
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Background
The use of graph theory in the analysis of biological networks has been extensive in the past decade [1]. Particularly, in metabolic networks different relevant topics have been examined using the rich variety of graphtheoretic concepts, ranging from topological properties [2–5], evolutionary analysis [6–8], pathway analysis [9–13], transcriptional regulation [14–16], functional interpretation of 'omics' data [17–20] and prediction of novel drug targets [21–23].
Graphbased methods start by converting the metabolic network into an appropriate graph. Different representations are possible here: i) metabolite graphs, where nodes are metabolites and arcs represent reactions linking an input and output metabolite; ii) reaction graphs, in which nodes are reactions and arcs represent intermediate metabolites shared by reactions; iii) bipartite graphs, where nodes are reactions and metabolites, while arcs link metabolites to reactions (for substrates) and reactions to metabolites (for products). Note here that each type of graph can be either directed or undirected. A deeper introduction to such graphs can be found in Deville et al. [24].
Importantly, graphbased methods rely on the definition of connectivity based on paths, that is, two nodes in the graph are connected (or not) depending upon whether (or not) we have a path linking them. This definition of connectivity is debatable, however, particularly when it is claimed that such a path is a competent metabolic pathway, as recently discussed [25–27]. In this context, the major criticism raised as to pathfinding methods is that they neglect reaction stoichiometry and there is, therefore, no guarantee that any path found can operate in sustained steadystate.
The steadystate condition requires the definition of the boundary of the metabolic network under study. Metabolites inside the boundary of the network, typically called internal metabolites [28], must be in stoichiometric balance. Balancing does not apply to metabolites outside the boundaries of the system (external metabolites), which are typically input/output metabolites and (sometimes) cofactors. In other words, for internal metabolites, their production and consumption (if possible) must be captured with the reactions in the network under study.
The steadystate condition and its underlying boundary definition are critical for the performance of any method for analyzing a metabolic network and ignoring it may provide misleading insights. A nice illustration of this is the one presented in the work of de Figueiredo et al. [25], which (unsuccessfully) tested the ability of pathfinding methods to answer the question as to whether (or not) fatty acids can be converted into sugars. Klamt et al. [29] also recently emphasized this issue for different biological networks.
Note here that elementary flux modes (and extreme pathways) represent a more general and elegant concept for metabolic pathways than paths [28, 30]. Their computation is, however, much more expensive in large metabolic networks than paths and, though different efforts have been made in this area [31–33], much research is still needed to make elementary flux modes a practical tool for the analysis of large metabolic networks.
Given the limitations discussed above, a novel theoretical concept termed flux paths is introduced here. A flux path is a simple path (in the graphtheoretical sense, so no nodes revisited) from a source metabolite to a target metabolite able to operate in sustained steadystate. In essence, flux paths incorporate reaction stoichiometry into traditional pathfinding methods [4, 7, 34, 35]. By means of this concept we show that the path structure of metabolic networks is substantially altered when stoichiometry is considered. In addition, we illustrate (with several examples) that flux paths offer new perspectives for the analysis of metabolic networks at the topological and functional levels. The determination of flux paths requires going beyond graph theory via mixedinteger linear programming. We present below details as to our mathematical optimization model for determining Kshortest flux paths between source and target metabolites.
Results and discussion
Mathematical model
Assume we have a metabolic network that comprises R reactions and C metabolites. Note here that reversible reactions contribute two different reactions to the metabolic network. For this reason we can regard all fluxes as taking positive values. Let S_{cr} be the stoichiometric coefficient associated with metabolite c (c = 1,...,C) in reaction r (r = 1,...,R). As usual in the literature [28], input metabolites have a negative stoichiometric coefficient, whilst output metabolites have a positive stoichiometric coefficient.
We here used a metabolite (directed) graph representation of the network where nodes are metabolites and arcs link the input and output metabolites of each reaction. Figure 1a shows an example of the metabolite graph representation of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP): pyruvate (Pyr) phosphotransferase system for the uptake of glucose.
Suppose that we are concerned with finding a flux path from a source metabolite α to a target metabolite β. As mentioned above, a flux path is a simple path from the source metabolite α to the target metabolite β able to operate in steadystate. We present below our mathematical optimization model for flux paths.
Path finding constraints
We need to decide the arcs involved in the flux path from the source metabolite α to the target metabolite β. This fact is represented with a zeroone (binary) variable u_{ij}, where u_{ij} = 1 if the arc i→j linking metabolite i (i = 1,...,C) to metabolite j (j = 1,...,C) is active in the flux path, 0 otherwise.
Deletion of arcs from the metabolic graph is standard practice in pathfinding methods [4, 7, 34, 35]. We removed arcs not involving an effective carbon exchange. Carbon exchange is indeed essential for metabolic purposes. For this reason, we henceforth use the term carbon flux paths (CFPs).
Note here that a similar criterion has been used in [35]. In this work, however, input and output metabolites can have any type of atom or atom groups in common. This criterion is illustrated in Figure 1b, where PEP donates a phosphate group to glucose (DGlc). The focus on carbon atoms makes our approach more restrictive, as observed in Figure 1c, which shows that there is only effective carbon exchange between DGlc and glucose 6phosphate (G6P), and PEP and Pyr.
Let d_{ijr} be a binary (0/1) coefficient establishing whether (or not) there exists an effective carbon exchange between input metabolite i (S_{ir} < 0) and output metabolite j (S_{jr} > 0) in reaction r. If , so there is no reaction involving metabolites i to j in carbon exchange, then u_{ij} is also fixed to zero.
In the following lines we present constraints needed to obtain an appropriate directed path from the source metabolite (α) to the target metabolite (β). Equation 1 ensures that one arc leaves α and one arc enters β; equation 2 that no arc enters α and no arc leaves β:
Equation 3 ensures that the number of arcs entering a metabolite k is equal to the number leaving; Equation 4 ensures that a metabolite cannot be revisited in the path:
Stoichiometric constraints
Equations 1 to 4 define a simple path that preserves carbon exchange in each of its intermediate steps. We need to guarantee that this path can work in sustained steadystate. As will be shown below, to do this, it is required to find a steadystate flux distribution able to involve the path. We here introduce variables and constraints needed to define the steadystate flux space.
Any steadystate flux distribution satisfies Equation 5 for the set of internal metabolites (I). We denote v_{r} the nonnegative (continuous) flux associated with each reaction, r = 1,...,R:
External metabolites (E) are not subject to balancing constraints. If a specific growth medium (E_{m}) is introduced, however, metabolites not involved in such a medium can be produced, but cannot be consumed, as observed in Equation 6:
For convenience, we introduced a zeroone (binary) variable z_{r} (r = 1,...,R), which defines the reactions involved in a steadyflux distribution, namely z_{r} = 1 if reaction r has a nonzero flux, 0 otherwise (r = 1,...,R). We need constraints relating the reaction variables z_{r} and the flux variables v_{r}. Equation 7 ensures that no flux traverses a reaction r if z_{r} = 0:
In addition, it guarantees that v_{r} is nonzero if z_{r} = 1. Here we have scaled fluxes so that the maximum flux is M and the minimum (nonzero) flux is 1. This does not constitute an issue if we consider M sufficiently large.
As we split reversible reactions into two irreversible steps, we need to prevent a reaction and its reverse from appearing together in any steadystate flux distribution, as observed in Equation 8, where the set B = {(λ,μ) reaction λ and reaction μ are the reverse of each other}:
Current pathfinding approaches deal with this situation indirectly, namely by removing computed paths involving a reaction and its reverse.
Equations 5 to 8 define the steadystate flux space for a particular metabolic network.
Linking path finding and stoichiometric constraints
As noted above, it is required that the path defined by constraints 1 to 4 can operate in a steadystate flux distribution. For this purpose, we need to guarantee that if we use an arc i→j in a path, then some reaction r with d_{ijr} = 1, that is, involving effective carbon exchange between i and j, is contained in the steadystate flux distribution. This is a critical point in our formulation, which makes it different from previous pathfinding methods. With this condition we naturally link the topological and (steadystate) flux planes. This linking constraint is reflected in Equation 9:
Equation 9 ensures that if an arc i→j is active in the CFP (so u_{ij} = 1), then at least one reaction r containing this arc in carbon exchange (so d_{ijr} = 1) is forced to be active. By forcing z_{r} to be 1 there will be a nonzero flux associated with the reaction due to Equation 7. An important point to note from Equation 9 is that it allows reactions to be active even if they are not involved in the CFP. In other words reactions can be active with nonzero flux (to satisfy the requirements of steadystate, Equation 5) but without any of their input/output metabolites being involved in the CFP.
To illustrate constraint 9, consider the example metabolic network in Figure 2, which involves seven reactions and nine metabolites. The set of internal metabolites is I = {A,B,C,D,E,F}. Assume now that we are concerned with finding a CFP between metabolites A and F. We have only one possible path, namely A→B→C→E→F (u_{AB} = u_{BC} = u_{CE} = u_{EF} = 1). Due to Equation 9, reactions 2, 3, 4 and 5 are active, that is, z_{2} = z_{3} = z_{4} = z_{5} = 1 and, therefore, via Equation 7, their flux will be nonzero. To balance such a path and satisfy the steadystate condition, Equation 5, we require three additional reactions offpath: reaction 1 for the production of A, reaction 7 to consume F and reaction 6 to produce D. If these offpath reactions are active, the path from A to F is able to work in sustained steadystate and, therefore, it is a flux path, as denoted in the Background section. We are obviously considering that A_{ext} and D_{ext} are in the growth medium. If we remove one of these metabolites from the medium, though we still have a path from A to F at the graphtheoretical level, no flux path will exist, since the path cannot work in sustained steadystate.
Objective function
Equations 1 to 9 define the set of constraints for the determination of any CFP between metabolite α and metabolite β. However, our purpose here is to find the shortest CFP, as observed in Equation 10:
Enumerating constraint
As in other pathfinding approaches, we may be interested in computing not only the shortest CFP, but the kshortest CFPs (k = 1,..,K). Since we have an objective relating to finding the shortest CFP, we need to add constraints eliminating previously found CFPs, as shown in Equation 11. In that constraint is the binary solution value for the u_{ij} variable in the kshortest CFP:
Validation
This section is organized as follows. By means of several welldocumented examples, we first illustrate the biochemical relevance of particular constraints in our CFP approach. We then carry out a sidebyside comparison of our CFP approach with current pathfinding approaches.
Pathfinding comparison
As shown in the 'Mathematical model' section, the pathfinding strategy used in our CFP approach is based on using arcs involving effective carbon exchange and imposing the reversibility constraint, Equation 8. In this subsection we illustrate the importance of these factors and show that a pathfinding approach incorporating them outperforms existing methods in the literature. For this analysis, the effect of stoichiometry is not considered, as is common in existing approaches. Its effect will be separately considered in detail in the next subsection ('Effect of stoichiometry'). Therefore, for this analysis, Equations 5 and 6 were ignored.
Effective carbon exchange
Figure 3a shows two paths from bicarbonate (HCO3) to cytidinediphosphate (CDP) in Escherichia coli. The long path is a wellknown (canonical) metabolic pathway for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. The short path is a shortcut via ADP, which has no biological relevance. The removal of arcs not involving carbon exchange, as done in our CFP approach, considerably reduces the appearance of such nonmeaningful paths. Indeed, when we applied our approach to find a CFP from HCO3 to CDP to the genomescale metabolic network of E. coli [36], the long pathway was directly recovered. Note here that we manually removed arcs not involving carbon exchange in the network of Feist et al. [36]. The resulting list of arcs can be found in Additional file 1. This same biochemical example was recently discussed in Faust et al. [13], under different strategies. In the best case scenario, they require additional information as to the intermediate metabolites to recover this pathway. The fact that our approach can recover the pathway without intermediate metabolite information shows how effective the carbon exchange constraint is.
Reversibility
Pathfinding methods typically split reversible reactions into two irreversible steps. In contrast to current approaches [13], in our CFP approach we prevent two such irreversible steps from being active in the same path, as observed in Equation 8. To illustrate the importance of this constraint, we analyzed the shortest path from DGlc to Pyr in E. coli, which is the EntnerDoudoroff pathway, as shown in the lefthand side of Figure 3b. When we applied our CFP approach from DGlc to Pyr without including Equation 8, we obtained the path in the right handside of Figure 3b (DGlc→AcGlcD→AcCoA→LMal→Pyr). This solution has no biochemical meaning, since the first and second step in that path is a cycle involving the forward and backward step of the reversible reaction catalyzed by Dglucose Oacetyltransferase (GLCATr: DGlc + AcCoA ↔ AcGlcD + CoA). By adding Equation 8 this path is removed from the solution space and our CFP approach directly obtains the EntnerDoudoroff pathway.
Sidebyside comparison
In order to analyze the performance of any pathfinding method, it is usual in the literature to evaluate its ability in recovering wellknown metabolic pathways. For this purpose, we used a database of 40 reference E. coli (metabolic) pathways previously discussed in Planes and Beasley [37] (these 40 pathways are listed in Additional file 2).
The input metabolic graph was built from the genomescale metabolic network of E. coli [36]. We computed the 100 shortest CFPs between the source and target metabolites of each of the 40 reference pathways. As mentioned above, stoichiometric constraints are not considered in this subsection since the aim is to establish the effectiveness of carbon exchange when combined with reversibility in path finding. To compare the 100 shortest CFPs and the reference pathway, we used the recovery rate. Recovery is a 0/1 parameter, being 1 if a CFP fully matches with the reference pathway, 0 otherwise.
A similar analysis was conducted for existing pathfinding methods [4, 7, 34, 35]. These methods make use of different strategies to provide biochemical meaning to the computed paths. For comparison, we classified these strategies into different groups: the first strategy (denoted 'topology') involves the use of an unadjusted metabolic graph; the second strategy (denoted 'hubs') adjusts the metabolic graph by removing any arc involving a highly connected metabolite (hubs) [7, 34] (we took the list of hubs from Planes and Beasley [37]); the third strategy (denoted 'connectivity') assigns weights to metabolites according to their connectivity in an unadjusted metabolic graph, where connectivity is defined to be the number of reactions involving a metabolite [9]. Finding Kshortest paths is substituted here by finding K lightest paths, that is, the sum of weights of arcs involved in the path is minimized.
Note here that there are pathfinding strategies that use structural atomic mapping information. These approaches can be classified into two different groups. In the first group atomic mapping is used to build the metabolic graph, that is, an input metabolite is linked to an output metabolite in a given reaction if they share an atom mapping. In other words, an arc between a given pair of input/output metabolites exists if they have atoms in common in at least one reaction. The work of Faust et al. [35], based on the RPAIR database [38], is a reference example for these approaches. The effective carbon exchange strategy used in our CFP approach also falls into this group. However, it is slightly more restrictive than the approach presented in Faust et al. [35], since we exclusively focus on carbon atoms, that is, an arc between a given pair of input/output metabolites exists if they have carbon atoms in common in at least one reaction.
In the second group atomic mapping is used to guarantee that the pathway target metabolite involves at least one atom from the source metabolite. This concept was first introduced by Arita et al. [39], and recently revisited in Blum and Kohlbacher [40], and Heath et al. [41]. We are aware that this type of approach is, in theory, more restrictive than the effective carbon exchange strategy used in our CFP approach, since we guarantee effective carbon exchange between intermediates in the path, but not between the source and target metabolites. Tracing an atom from source to target metabolite, however, requires detailed knowledge of carbon atom mappings for each reaction. Though active research is being undertaken into this topic, more effort is still needed to release a fully curated and complete database for atomic mappings in genomescale metabolic networks, especially for those from the Biochemical Genetic and Genomic (BiGG) database [42], which we are using here. For completeness, we will include results for the most recent approach [41], denoted as atom mappingbased strategy. Results were extracted from the web service (named AtomMetaNetWeb) available from Kavraki's lab [43].
Figure 4 shows results obtained for each of the strategies discussed above. It can be observed that the hubsbased strategy increases the average recovery rate with respect to the unadjusted metabolic graph (topology) by around 20% on average. The atom mappingbased strategy is clearly less accurate than the hubsbased strategy, which reflects the point discussed above that current databases for atomic mappings require further development. In addition, the connectivitybased strategy substantially outperforms the hubsbased strategy  for example, for k = 1, 62.5% and 32.5% of reference pathways are recovered, respectively. Finally, our CFP approach outperforms the connectivitybased strategy. This analysis shows, therefore, that our CFP approach (even without considering stoichiometry) outperforms existing pathfinding methods.
Finally, note that other works [9, 13] typically used the accuracy rate, instead of the recovery rate, for comparing the computed paths and reference pathways. We repeated the same analysis using this parameter. As observed in Additional file 2, a similar result to Figure 4 is obtained, which again shows that our CFP approach outperforms current methods.
Effect of stoichiometry
To illustrate the effect of stoichiometry, we first analyze a previously considered example from the literature, which emphasizes the fact that some paths (at the graphtheoretical level) cannot perform in steadystate and therefore are not biologically meaningful. We then repeat the sidebyside comparison presented in Figure 4 when stoichiometry is considered. To emphasize its importance, we examine how the connectivity structure of several metabolites is altered when stoichiometry is considered.
Stoichiometry and infeasible paths
Figure 5 shows a simplified network from that presented in de Figueiredo et al. [25], which considered the question as to whether (or not) fatty acids can be converted into sugars. This question is answered by finding pathways from acetylCoA (AcCoA) to G6P. In that work, two scenarios were analyzed, namely pathway structure from AcCoA to G6P in the presence and absence of the enzymes of the glyoxylate shunt (indicated by dashed lines in Figure 5). In the metabolic network in Figure 5, when the glyoxylate shunt is absent, no possible pathway can exist in a stoichiometric balance from AcCoA to G6P. As observed in de Figueiredo et al. [25], this fact is not properly captured by pathfinding methods, since stoichiometry is not taken into account. In contrast, our CFP approach correctly answers this question, by finding no paths between AcCoA and G6P when the glyoxylate shunt is not active. This is due to the addition of constraint 9, which forces paths to be able to work in sustained steadystate.
Sidebyside comparison with stoichiometry
We repeated the sidebyside comparison previously presented in Figure 4 for pathfinding methods when stoichiometry is considered. Similarly, we used the 40 E. coli metabolic pathways discussed in Planes and Beasely [37], and the E. coli metabolic network in Feist et al. [36].
As we previously showed above (Figure 4) that our CFP approach (without considering stoichiometry, Equations 5 and 6) outperforms existing pathfinding methods, we here compare the performance of our CFP approach with and without Equations 5 and 6 so as to evaluate the effect of stoichiometry. For this purpose, we analyzed our CFP approach in two different scenarios, namely when we used a minimal medium based on glucose as a sole carbon source under oxic and anoxic conditions, respectively. See Additional file 3 for details.
It is important to note that the use of a specific minimal medium (as we do here) prevents some known metabolic pathways from functioning in E. coli due to stoichiometric constraints. For example, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle cannot work in anoxic conditions in E. coli. The ability to detect these false positives cannot be accomplished without the use of stoichiometry. In light of this, the definition of recovery (as used in Figure 4) is slightly modified here. Recovery rate is 1 if (under a given growth medium) the model recovers a feasible pathway or the model excludes from the solution space an infeasible pathway, 0 otherwise. For illustration, if our CFP approach (incorrectly) detects the TCA cycle in anoxic conditions, recovery would be zero. However, if our CFP approach correctly excludes the TCA cycle from the solution space, then recovery would be 1.
Figure 6a shows how recovery rate evolves over kshortest CFPs (k = 1,...,100) with/without stoichiometry in oxic conditions. We found that in these conditions, 6 out of 40 metabolic pathways cannot work in steadystate (Additional file 2). For example, the pathway for the degradation of 2,5diketoDgluconate is not functionally feasible under these conditions since it cannot be synthesized from glucose in E. coli [44]. This logically cannot be captured without considering stoichiometry. This is reflected in Figure 6a, where average recovery rate among 100 shortest CFPs decreases to 0.85 without stoichiometry. The same analysis was repeated in anoxic conditions (Figure 6b), finding two additional pathways (TCA cycle and Allantoin degradation) not able to work in steadystate (given our growth medium). Figure 6c summarizes Figure 6a and Figure 6b for some particular values (k = 1, 5, 10 and 100). See Additional file 2 for further details, including results when average accuracy rate was used instead of recovery rate. This analysis shows the importance of stoichiometry and its underlying boundary definition at the functional level.
Connectivity analysis and stoichiometry
To emphasize the effect of stoichiometry, we examined the connectivity structure of oxaloacetate (OAA) in E. coli. OAA plays an important role in the regulation of carbon flux in most organisms. Again, for this study, we used the metabolic network presented in Feist et al. [36] and a minimal medium based on glucose as a sole carbon source and oxic conditions.
We determined CFPs from OAA to all reachable metabolites (obviously some metabolites may not be reachable via a CFP from OAA). In order to organize and compare the obtained results, we plotted a connectivity curve that shows the total number of connected metabolites when we move a specified number of reaction steps away from the source metabolite. To show the effect of stoichiometry, we plot the connectivity curves when stoichiometry is included (so including Equations 5 and 6) and when it is not included (so excluding Equations 5 and 6).
Figure 7a shows the connectivity curves for OAA. For example, in five reaction steps, OAA reaches 300 metabolites when stoichiometry is included and 400 metabolites otherwise. It can also be observed that, in any number of reaction steps, the number of metabolites reachable from OAA when stoichiometry is taken into account is 834, but 1,028 metabolites when it is not considered. These results clearly show the effect of considering stoichiometry. We repeated the same analysis in two structurally different metabolites, namely arginine (LArg), an amino acid, and phosphatidic acid (PA120), an important lipid. We found a very similar behavior, as observed in Figure 7b,c. This analysis shows the importance of considering stoichiometry for the topological analysis of metabolic networks from a pathbased perspective.
Application
It is usual to find K paths between a pair of key metabolites/reactions in, for example, the interpretation of 'omics' data [13, 20]. Current pathfinding methods do not take into account stoichiometric constraints for this analysis. In the analysis presented below we show that the resulting K functional paths are strongly dependent on stoichiometric constraints. This fact is illustrated in this subsection with the pathway analysis of PyrOAA metabolism.
PEP, Pyr and OAA are important metabolites whose underlying interconversions control the carbon flux distribution in bacteria [45]. The performance of the PEPPyrOAA node changes in different organisms and growth conditions. We focus here on the structure of CFPs from Pyr to OAA in E. coli in two different scenarios, namely in oxic and anoxic conditions. Pyr and OAA are linked by two fundamental metabolic processes. Firstly, Pyr (via PEP) can be carboxylated to OAA for the replenishment of TCA cycle intermediates or for anabolic purposes (for example, amino acid biosynthesis). This process is typically referred to as anaplerosis. In addition, Pyr and OAA are strongly related via the TCA cycle, which oxidizes carbon of Pyr to CO_{2} and requires OAA to operate.
We calculated the 100 shortest CFPs in both scenarios using the metabolic network presented in Feist et al. [36]. Again, we used the list of arcs presented in Additional file 1. In addition, we used a minimal medium based on glucose. See Additional file 3 for details as to the medium used.
Figure 8 shows the 100 shortest CFPs from Pyr to OAA in oxic conditions. Both fundamental metabolic processes described above between Pyr and OAA (anaplerotic route via PEP and the TCA cycle) are recovered (see dashed lines). In addition, different alternative routes to these processes are found. In particular, several bypasses to the TCA cycle can be observed in Figure 8. The glyoxylate (GLX) shunt was recovered, as well as the γaminobutyrate (GABA) shunt, whose role as an integral part of the TCA cycle was recently hypothesized [46]. We also determined a (theoretical, nonexperimentally determined) bypass via propionylCoA (PPCoA), which was reported in a previous paper [31]. Interestingly, we also predicted a bypass to the TCA cycle via LArg catabolism. Though not shown in Figure 8, LArg is consumed in a reaction catalyzed by arginine succinyltransferase (AST; SUCCoA + LArg → SUCArg). Several links to the TCA cycle with arginineL metabolism has been previously reported [47], although more research is needed to examine whether this detour is a functionally feasible alternative route to succinylCoA synthetase (SUCOAS) (ATP + CoA + SUCC ↔ ADP + Pi + SUCCoA).
Though the number of nonmeaningful paths has been substantially reduced, it can be observed in Figure 8 that they still exist  for example, different routes via CoA. These false positives do not arise from the lack of stoichiometric balancing, but due to carbon exchange constraints. Indeed, these routes exchange carbon atoms in each of their intermediate steps but do not exchange carbon atoms between Pyr and OAA. When the current limitations described above (in the discussion of atom mappingbased approaches) are addressed, such strategies may be an effective constraint to remove these false positives.
We repeated the same analysis in anoxic conditions (Figure 9). In this situation, the main variability in the 100 shortest CFPs is found in anaplerotic routes, since the TCA cycle is not active. This is due to the fact that the balancing of coenzyme Q (CoQ) and ubiquinol is not possible without oxygen and therefore enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (CoQ + SUCC → Fum + CoQH2) cannot work in sustained steadystate. This meant that several other reactions involved in the TCA cycle do not appear in the 100 shortest CFPs, namely isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICit + NADP ↔ AKG + CO_{2} + NADPH), 2oxogluterate dehydrogenase (AKG + CoA + NAD → CO_{2} + NADH + SUCCoA) and SUCOAS (ATP + CoA + SUCC ↔ ADP + Pi + SUCCoA) are not in Figure 9. This is also the case for metabolite AKG, which is now not involved in the 100 shortest CFPs from Pyr to OAA, while in oxic conditions it appeared in five solutions. In addition, most of the bypasses previously mentioned in oxic conditions are not involved in Figure 9; indeed just the glyoxylate shunt is kept in the solution.
Finally, as observed in Figures 8 and 9, our CFP approach properly captures the metabolic changes induced when oxygen is removed from the medium. These changes cannot be captured if stoichiometric constraints are not considered, showing again the strength of our CFP approach.
Conclusions
Graphbased methods have been widely used for the analysis of metabolic networks, but suffer from the important weakness that reaction stoichiometry is neglected. In this paper we show that, using the novel concept of CFPs, reaction stoichiometry can be incorporated into pathfinding approaches, which constitute a clear progress over the state of the art at the methodological level.
Our results show that, when stoichiometry is incorporated into pathfinding methods, the resulting set of functional pathways is substantially altered, as observed in the analysis of the 40 reference pathways. This idea is also reflected in the analysis of aerobic and anaerobic PyrOAA metabolism, which emphasizes the importance of the steadystate condition and its underlying boundary definition for the analysis of metabolic networks. In addition, connectivity analysis revealed important differences when stoichiometry was considered, as we illustrated with regard to a number of metabolites. In summary, CFPs open new avenues for analyzing metabolic networks at the topological and functional levels and constitute a major advance.
Though the incorporation of stoichiometry into a pathfinding method is the main feature of our work, our CFP approach focuses on paths involving effective carbon exchange in each of their intermediate steps. The results we have presented confirm the relevance of this strategy when analyzing metabolic networks using a pathfinding approach. Our public release of the manually curated E. coli database incorporating effective carbon exchange information (based on BiGG [42] and the work of Feist et al. [36]) represents a valuable dataset available for the scientific community, which can be used for further analysis.
It is important to mention that our CFP approach is formulated as a mixedinteger linear program, which cannot be solved using classical algorithms from graph theory and requires a branch and bound approach. Computational experience shows that the determination of CFPs is not expensive, namely in the order of milliseconds. This fact makes our approach an effective tool for addressing other relevant questions previously addressed by pathfinding approaches.
Our analysis of CFPs in aerobic PyrOAA metabolism allowed us to detect several bypasses to the TCA cycle. Some of these bypasses have been recently reported using a different pathway analysis technique, namely elementary flux patterns for the bypass via the GABA shunt [48] and generating flux modes for the bypass via PPCoA [31]. In addition, we found an alternative bypass to the TCA cycle via LArg. This novel pathway is currently theoretical (it should be treated with caution) and requires experimental validation; however, it shows the capability of our CFP approach to generate new hypothesis.
Finally, despite much debate in the field comparing the performance of pathfinding methods and stoichiometric methods [25, 27, 49], this article shows that both approaches can work in a synergic fashion so as to explore the huge complexity in cellular metabolism.
Materials and methods
Equations 1 to 11 presented in the 'Mathematical model' subsection define a mixedinteger linear problem and, algorithmically, such problems are solved by linear programmingbased tree search. Modern software packages to perform this task, such as ILOG CPLEX, which we used, are well developed and highly sophisticated. ILOG CPLEX was run in a Matlab environment version 7.5 (R2007b).
The computation of the shortest CFP and the 100 shortest CFPs took us (on average) 300 ms and 2.5 minutes, respectively, on a 64bit, 2.00 GHz PC with 12 Gb RAM. Analysis using regression indicated that, over the range of K values examined (up to K = 250), the total time for computing the K shortest CFPs was (approximately) proportional to K^{1.4}. This implies that the computation time of CFPs grows only as a low power of the number of paths (K) sought.
Abbreviations
 AcCoA:

acetylCoA
 AcGlcD:

6acetylDglucose
 AKG:

2oxoglutarate
 AST:

Arginine succinyltransferase
 BiGG:

Biochemical Genetic and Genomic
 CDP:

cytidinediphosphate
 CFP:

carbon flux path
 CoA:

coenzyme A
 CoQ:

coenzyme Q
 DGlc:

glucose
 Fum:

fumarate
 G6P:

glucose 6phosphate
 GABA:

gammaaminobutyric acid
 GLCATr:

Dglucose Oacetyltransferase
 GLX:

Glyoxylate
 PA120:

phosphatidic acid
 HCO3:

bicarbonate
 ICit:

isocitrate
 LArg:

arginine
 LMal:

acetylmaltose
 OAA:

oxaloacetate
 PEP:

phosphoenolpyruvate
 PPCoA:

propionylCoA
 Pyr:

pyruvate
 SUCArg:

SuccinylLarginine
 SUCC:

Succinate
 SUCCoA:

succinylcoenzyme A
 SUCOAS:

succinylCoA synthetase
 TCA:

tricarboxylic acid.
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Acknowledgements
The work of JPe was supported by the Basque Government. The authors would like to thank two anonymous referees for their valuable comments improving the manuscript.
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Authors' contributions
JPe developed and implemented the method, wrote the manuscript and performed analyses; JPr developed the method and carbon exchange database; JEB developed the method and wrote the manuscript; FJP conceived the study, developed the method and wrote the manuscript. All authors discussed the results, and read, commented and approved the final manuscript.
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13059_2011_2553_MOESM1_ESM.PDF
Additional file 1: Database of carbon exchange arcs. PDF document containing a list of arcs involving effective carbon flux in the metabolic network of Feist et al. [36]. (PDF 306 KB)
13059_2011_2553_MOESM2_ESM.DOC
Additional file 2: Supporting data for sidebyside comparison. Word document containing a list of 40 reference pathways used in the sidebyside comparison, a sidebyside comparison using accuracy rate, and a discussion on infeasible pathways in Figure 6 [7, 9, 12, 13, 35–37, 41, 44, 50–56]. (DOC 2 MB)
13059_2011_2553_MOESM3_ESM.PDF
Additional file 3: Supporting data for Figures 8 and 9. Details of the 100 shortest CFPs in oxic and anoxic conditions from Pyr to OAA. (PDF 34 KB)
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Pey, J., Prada, J., Beasley, J.E. et al. Path finding methods accounting for stoichiometry in metabolic networks. Genome Biol 12, R49 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1186/gb2011125r49
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/gb2011125r49