, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 1–22 | Cite as

A review of friction models in interacting joints for durability design

  • Zulfiqar A. KhanEmail author
  • Vivek Chacko
  • Hammad Nazir
Open Access
Review Article


This paper presents a comprehensive review of friction modelling to provide an understanding of design for durability within interacting systems. Friction is a complex phenomenon and occurs at the interface of two components in relative motion. Over the last several decades, the effects of friction and its modelling techniques have been of significant interests in terms of industrial applications. There is however a need to develop a unified mathematical model for friction to inform design for durability within the context of varying operational conditions. Classical dynamic mechanisms model for the design of control systems has not incorporated friction phenomena due to non-linearity behaviour. Therefore, the tribological performance concurrently with the joint dynamics of a manipulator joint applied in hazardous environments needs to be fully analysed. Previously the dynamics and impact models used in mechanical joints with clearance have also been examined. The inclusion of reliability and durability during the design phase is very important for manipulators which are deployed in harsh environmental and operational conditions. The revolute joint is susceptible to failures such as in heavy manipulators these revolute joints can be represented by lubricated conformal sliding surfaces. The presence of pollutants such as debris and corrosive constituents has the potential to alter the contacting surfaces, would in turn affect the performance of revolute joints, and puts both reliability and durability of the systems at greater risks of failure. Key literature is identified and a review on the latest developments of the science of friction modelling is presented here. This review is based on a large volume of knowledge. Gaps in the relevant field have been identified to capitalise on for future developments. Therefore, this review will bring significant benefits to researchers, academics and industry professionals.


friction dynamics joint clearance numerical models impact durability 


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Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NanoCorr, Energy & Modelling (NCEM) Research, Department of Design & EngineeringBournemouth UniversityBournemouthUK

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