Conflict of interest
José C. Nicolau has received research grants from CSL Behring, Sanofi, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Viforpharma, Dalcorpharma, Janssen, and Novartis; has served as a consultant/advisory board member for Bayer, Merck, Novartis, Sanofi, Servier, Amgen, and AstraZeneca; and a steering committee member for Eisai, Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, Sanofi, CSL Behring, Viforpharma, and Dalcorpharma. Deepak L. Bhatt discloses the following relationships: Advisory Board: Cardax, Cereno Scientific, Elsevier Practice Update Cardiology, Medscape Cardiology, PhaseBio, Regado Biosciences; Board of Directors: Boston VA Research Institute, Society of Cardiovascular Patient Care, TobeSoft; Chair: American Heart Association Quality Oversight Committee; Data Monitoring Committees: Baim Institute for Clinical Research (formerly Harvard Clinical Research Institute, for the PORTICO trial, funded by St. Jude Medical, now Abbott), Cleveland Clinic (including for the ExCEED trial, funded by Edwards), Duke Clinical Research Institute, Mayo Clinic, Mount Sinai School of Medicine (for the ENVISAGE trial, funded by Daiichi Sankyo), Population Health Research Institute; Honoraria: American College of Cardiology (Senior Associate Editor, Clinical Trials and News, ACC.org; Vice-Chair, ACC Accreditation Committee), Baim Institute for Clinical Research (formerly Harvard Clinical Research Institute; RE-DUAL PCI clinical trial steering committee funded by Boehringer Ingelheim; AEGIS-II executive committee funded by CSL Behring), Belvoir Publications (Editor-in-Chief, Harvard Heart Letter), Duke Clinical Research Institute (clinical trial steering committees, including for the PRONOUNCE trial, funded by Ferring Pharmaceuticals), HMP Global (Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Invasive Cardiology), Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Guest Editor; Associate Editor), Medtelligence/ReachMD (CME steering committees), Population Health Research Institute (for the COMPASS operations committee, publications committee, steering committee, and USA national co-leader, funded by Bayer), Slack Publications (Chief Medical Editor, Cardiology Today’s Intervention), Society of Cardiovascular Patient Care (Secretary/Treasurer), WebMD (CME steering committees); other: Clinical Cardiology (Deputy Editor), NCDR-ACTION Registry Steering Committee (Chair), VA CART Research and Publications Committee (Chair); Research Funding: Abbott, Afimmune, Amarin, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chiesi, CSL Behring, Eisai, Ethicon, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Forest Laboratories, Fractyl, Idorsia, Ironwood, Ischemix, Lilly, Medtronic, PhaseBio, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sanofi Aventis, Synaptic, The Medicines Company; Royalties: Elsevier (Editor, Cardiovascular Intervention: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease); Site Co-Investigator: Biotronik, Boston Scientific, CSI, St. Jude Medical (now Abbott), Svelte; Trustee: American College of Cardiology; Unfunded Research: FlowCo, Merck, Novo Nordisk, PLx Pharma, Takeda. Stefan H. Hohnloser has received personal fees from Bayer HealthCare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Medtronic, Pfizer, SJM, and ZOLL. Takeshi Kimura has received grants from Boehringer Ingelheim. Gregory Y.H. Lip has served as a consultant for Bayer/Janssen, Bristol-Meyers Squibb/Pfizer, Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Verseon, and Daiichi Sankyo. He has been a speaker for Bayer, Bristol-Meyers Squibb/Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, and Medtronic. No fees are personally received. Corinna Miede is an employee of Mainanalytics ma GmbH, contracted by Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. Matias Nordaby is an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. Jonas Oldgren has received fees to his institution from AstraZeneca, Bayer HealthCare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Pfizer, Portola, Roche Diagnostics, and Sanofi. Philippe Gabriel Steg has received research grants from Amarin, Bayer, Sanofi, and Servier; speaking or consulting fees from Amarin, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer/Janssen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Idorsia, Lilly, Merck, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi, and Servier. Jurriën M. ten Berg has received advisory/consulting/speaker fees from Accumetrics, AstraZeneca, Bayer HealthCare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lily, Ferrer, The Medicines Company, and Pfizer, and has received research grants from AstraZeneca, ZonMw. Lucas C. Godoy has no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article. Christopher P. Cannon has received research grants from Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Janssen, Merck, and Pfizer and consulting fees from Aegerion, Alnylam, Amarin, Amgen, Applied Therapeutics, Ascendia, BGB, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Corvidia, HLS Therapeutics, Innovent, Janssen, Kowa, Merck, Pfizer, and Sanofi.
The study was approved by the ethics committee at each participating center and all procedures were performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.