Skip to main content

In situ reduced MXene/AuNPs composite toward enhanced charging/discharging and specific capacitance


In this work, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated Ti3C2Tx nanosheets (MXene/AuNPs composite) are fabricated through a self-reduction reaction of Ti3C2Tx nanosheets with HAuCl4 aqueous solution. The obtained composite is characterized as AuNPs with the diameter of about 23 nm uniformly dispersing on Ti3C2Tx nanosheets without aggregation. The composite (MXene decorated on 4.8 wt% AuNPs) is further employed to construct supercapacitor for the first time with a higher specific capacitance of 278 F·g−1 at 5 mV·s−1 than that of pure Ti3C2Tx and 95% of cyclic stability after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, MXene/AuNPs composite symmetric supercapacitor with filter paper as separator and H2SO4 as electrolyte, is assembled. The supercapacitor exhibits a high volumetric energy density of 8.82 Wh·L−1 at a power density of 264.6 W·L−1 and ultrafast-charging/discharging performance. It exhibits as a promising candidate applied in integrated and flexible supercapacitors.


  1. [1]

    Wang BX, Zhou AG, Liu FF, et al. Carbon dioxide adsorption of two-dimensional carbide MXenes. J Adv Ceram 2018, 7: 237–245.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    Yang CH, Tang Y, Tian YP, et al. Flexible nitrogen-doped 2D titanium carbides (MXene) films constructed by an ex situ solvothermal method with extraordinary volumetric capacitance. Adv Energy Mater 2018, 8: 1802087.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    Gao YP, Wang LB, Li ZY, et al. Electrochemical performance of Ti3C2 supercapacitors in KOH electrolyte. J Adv Ceram 2015, 4: 130–134.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    Tan CL, Cao XH, Wu XJ, et al. Recent advances in ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials. Chem Rev 2017, 117: 6225–6331.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    Naguib M, Mochalin VN, Barsoum MW, et al. 25th anniversary article: MXenes new family of two-dimensional materials. Adv Mater 2014, 26: 992–1005.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    Liang X, Garsuch A, Nazar LF. Sulfur cathodes based on conductive MXene nanosheets for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Angewandte Chemie Int Ed 2015, 54: 3907–3911.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    Berdiyorov GR, Madjet ME, Mahmoud KA. Ionic sieving through Ti3C2(OH)2 MXene: First-principles calculations. Appl Phys Lett 2016, 108: 113110.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    Naguib M, Kurtoglu M, Presser V, et al. Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2. Adv Mater 2011, 23: 4248–4253.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    Liu YT, Zhu XD, Pan L. Hybrid architectures based on 2D MXenes and low-dimensional inorganic nanostructures: Methods, synergies, and energy-related applications. Small 2018, 14: 1803632.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    Xu YX, Lin ZY, Huang XQ, et al. Functionalized graphene hydrogel-based high-performance supercapacitors. Adv Mater 2013, 25: 5779–5784.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    Yu HT, Xu PC, Lee DW, et al. Porous-layered stack of functionalized AuNP-rGO (gold nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide) nanosheets as a sensing material for the micro-gravimetric detection of chemical vapor. J Mater Chem A 2013, 1: 4444.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    Zhao MQ, Ren CE, Ling Z, et al. Flexible MXene/carbon nanotube composite paper with high volumetric capacitance. Adv Mater 2015, 27: 339–345.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    Yan J, Ren CE, Maleski K, et al. Flexible MXene/graphene films for ultrafast supercapacitors with outstanding volumetric capacitance. Adv Funct Mater 2017, 27: 1701264.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. [14]

    Xu SK, Wei GD, Li JZ, et al. Flexible MXene-graphene electrodes with high volumetric capacitance for integrated co-cathode energy conversion/storage devices. J Mater Chem A 2017, 5: 17442–17451.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    Boota M, Anasori B, Voigt C, et al. Pseudocapacitive electrodes produced by oxidant-free polymerization of pyrrole between the layers of 2D titanium carbide (MXene). Adv Mater 2016, 28: 1517–1522.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    Chen C, Boota M, Xie XQ, et al. Charge transfer induced polymerization of EDOT confined between 2D titanium carbide layers. J Mater Chem A 2017, 5: 5260–5265.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    VahidMohammadi A, Moncada J, Chen HZ, et al. Thick and freestanding MXene/PANI pseudocapacitive electrodes with ultrahigh specific capacitance. J Mater Chem A 2018, 6: 22123–22133.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    Khamlich S, Khamliche T, Dhlamini MS, et al. Rapid microwave-assisted growth of silver nanoparticles on 3D graphene networks for supercapacitor application. J Colloid Interface Sci 2017, 493: 130–137.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. [19]

    Dong XC, Huang W, Chen P. In situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide and gold nanocomposites for nanoelectronics and biosensing. Nanoscale Res Lett 2010, 6: 1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    Yan Y, Wang TY, Li XR, et al. Noble metal-based materials in high-performance supercapacitors. Inorg Chem Front 2017, 4: 33–51.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    Alhabeb M, Maleski K, Anasori B, et al. Guidelines for synthesis and processing of two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene). Chem Mater 2017, 29: 7633–7644.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    Zhang LB, Chen GY, Hedhili MN, et al. Three-dimensional assemblies of graphene prepared by a novel chemical reduction-induced self-assembly method. Nanoscale 2012, 4: 7038.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    Tang Y, Zhu JF, Yang CH, et al. Enhanced capacitive performance based on diverse layered structure of two-dimensional Ti3C2 MXene with long etching time. J Electrochem Soc 2016, 163: A1975–A1982.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. [24]

    Rakhi RB, Ahmed B, Hedhili MN, et al. Effect of postetch annealing gas composition on the structural and electrochemical properties of Ti2CTx MXene electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Chem Mater 2015, 27: 5314–5323.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. [25]

    Peng C, Yang XF, Li YH, et al. Hybrids of two-dimensional Ti3C2 and TiO2 exposing {001} facets toward enhanced photocatalytic activity. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016, 8: 6051–6060.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. [26]

    Halim J, Cook KM, Naguib M, et al. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes). Appl Surf Sci 2016, 362: 406–417.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. [27]

    Cheng RF, Hu T, Hu MM, et al. MXenes induce epitaxial growth of size-controlled noble nanometals: A case study for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). J Mater Sci Technol 2020, 40: 119–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. [28]

    Zhou XZ, Huang X, Qi XY, et al. In situ synthesis of metal nanoparticles on single-layer graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide surfaces. J Phys Chem C 2009, 113: 10842–10846.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. [29]

    Li HY, Hou Y, Wang FX, et al. Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitances boosted by solution processable MXene and electrochemically exfoliated graphene. Adv Energy Mater 2017, 7: 1601847.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. [30]

    Singh SK, Dhavale VM, Boukherroub R, et al. N-doped porous reduced graphene oxide as an efficient electrode material for high performance flexible solid-state supercapacitor. Appl Mater Today 2017, 8: 141–149.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. [31]

    Tang J, Mathis TS, Kurra N, et al. Tuning the electrochemical performance of titanium carbide MXene by controllable in situ anodic oxidation. Angewandte Chemie 2019, 131: 18013–18019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. [32]

    Zhang B, Chen JD, Zhu H, et al. Facile and green fabrication of size-controlled AuNPs/CNFs hybrids for the highly sensitive simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions. Electrochimica Acta 2016, 196: 422–430.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. [33]

    Atar N, Eren TJ, Yola ML, et al. Fe@Ag nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide as ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium-ion battery. Ionics 2015, 21: 3185–3192.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. [34]

    Ghidiu M, Kota S, Halim J, et al. Alkylammonium cation intercalation into Ti3C2 (MXene): Effects on properties and ion-exchange capacity estimation. Chem Mater 2017, 29: 1099–1106.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. [35]

    Ghidiu M, Lukatskaya MR, Zhao MQ, et al. Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide ‘clay’ with high volumetric capacitance. Nature 2014, 516: 78–81.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. [36]

    Mashtalir O, Lukatskaya MR, Kolesnikov AI, et al. The effect of hydrazine intercalation on the structure and capacitance of 2D titanium carbide (MXene). Nanoscale 2016, 8: 9128–9133.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. [37]

    Boota M, Anasori B, Voigt C, et al. Pseudocapacitive electrodes produced by oxidant-free polymerization of pyrrole between the layers of 2D titanium carbide (MXene). Adv Mater 2016, 28: 1517–1522.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. [38]

    Wen YY, Rufford TE, Chen XZ, et al. Nitrogen-doped Ti3C2Tx MXene electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. Nano Energy 2017, 38: 368–376.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. [39]

    Zhao MQ, Ren CG, Ling Z, et al. Flexible MXene/carbon nanotube composite paper with high volumetric capacitance. Adv Mater 2015, 27: 339–345.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. [40]

    Ren YY, Zhu JF, Wang L, et al. Synthesis of polyaniline nanoparticles deposited on two-dimensional titanium carbide for high-performance supercapacitors. Mater Lett 2018, 214: 84–87.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. [41]

    Xu SK, Wei GD, Li JZ, et al. Binder-free Ti3C2Tx MXene electrode film for supercapacitor produced by electrophoretic deposition method. Chem Eng J 2017, 317: 1026–1036.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. [42]

    Zhou YH, Maleski K, Anasori B, et al. Ti3C2Tx MXene-reduced graphene oxide composite electrodes for stretchable supercapacitors. ACS Nano 2020, 14: 3576–3586.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. [43]

    Liu Q, Yang JJ, Luo XG, et al. Fabrication of a fibrous MnO2@MXene/CNT electrode for high-performance flexible supercapacitor. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 11874–11881.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. [44]

    Couly C, Alhabeb M, van Aken KL, et al. Asymmetric flexible MXene-reduced graphene oxide micro-supercapacitor. Adv Electron Mater 2018, 4: 1700339.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. [45]

    Xia QX, Fu JJ, Yun JM, et al. High volumetric energy density annealed-MXene-nickel oxide/MXene asymmetric supercapacitor. RSC Adv 2017, 7: 11000–11011.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. [46]

    Lukatskaya MR, Mashtalir O, Ren CE, et al. Cation intercalation and high volumetric capacitance of two-dimensional titanium carbide. Science 2013, 341: 1502–1505.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. [47]

    Fan ZM, Wang YS, Xie ZM, et al. A nanoporous MXene film enables flexible supercapacitors with high energy storage. Nanoscale 2018, 10: 9642–9652.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work is supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 52025041), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51974021, 51902020, and 51904021), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. FRF-TP-18-045A1 and FRF-TP-19-004B2Z), the National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents (No. BX20180034), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2018M641192), and the Open Foundation of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metals and Featured Materials, Guangxi University (No. 2021GXYSOF12).

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Tao Yang or Xinmei Hou.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zheng, Z., Wu, W., Yang, T. et al. In situ reduced MXene/AuNPs composite toward enhanced charging/discharging and specific capacitance. J Adv Ceram 10, 1061–1071 (2021).

Download citation


  • supercapacitors
  • MXene
  • gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)
  • self-reduction
  • composite