Anjana RM, Deepa M, Pradeepa R, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017;5:585–96.
Bennett PH, Burch TA, Miller M. Diabetes mellitus in American (Pima) Indians. Lancet. 1971;2:125–8.
Herman WH, Zimmet P. Type 2 diabetes: an epidemic requiring global attention and urgent action. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:943–4.
India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Collaborators. Nations within a nation: variations in epidemiological transition across the states of India, 1990–2016 in the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 2017;390:2437–60.
West KM, Kalbfleisch JM. Influence of nutritional factors on prevalence of diabetes. Diabetes. 1971;20:99–108.
India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Collaborators. The increasing burden of diabetes and variations among the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2016. Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6:e1352–62.
Pradeepa R, Mohan V. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its complications in India and economic costs to the nation. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017;71:816–24.
Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Shetty AS, Nanditha A. Trends in prevalence of diabetes in Asian countries. World J Diabetes. 2012;3:110–7.
Shrivastava U, Misra A, Mohan V, Unnikrishnan R, Bachani D. Obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in india: public health challenges. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2017;13:65–80.
Majeed A, El-Sayed AA, Khoja T, et al. Diabetes in the Middle-East and North Africa: an update. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103:218–22.
Robert AA, Al Dawish MA, Braham R, Musallam MA, Al Hayek AA, Al Kahtany NH. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia: major challenges and possible solutions. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2017;13:59–64.
Li Y, Wang DD, Ley SH, et al. Time trends of dietary and lifestyle factors and their potential impact on diabetes burden in China. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:1685–94.
Lv J, Yu C, Guo Y, et al. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46:1410–20.
Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1047–53.
Guariguata L, Whiting DR, Hambleton I, et al. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103:137–49.
Andersen SE, Christensen M. Hypoglycaemia when adding sulphonylurea to metformin: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;82:1291–302.
Chan SP, Colagiuri S. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and hypoglycemic safety of gliclazide versus other insulinotropic agents. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015;110:75–81.
Schopman JE, Simon AC, Hoefnagel SJ, et al. The incidence of mild and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sulfonylureas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014;30:11–22.
Harrower A. Comparison of efficacy, secondary failure rate, and complications of sulfonylureas. J Diabetes Complications. 1994;8:201–3.
Schernthaner G, Grimaldi A, Di Mario U, et al. GUIDE study: double-blind comparison of once-daily gliclazide MR and glimepiride in type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2004;34:535–42.
Ioannidis I. Diabetes treatment in patients with renal disease: is the landscape clear enough? World J Diabetes. 2014;5:651.
Ferrannini E, DeFronzo RA. Impact of glucose-lowering drugs on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:2288–96.
Kardas P. The DIACOM study (effect of DosIng frequency of oral Antidiabetic agents on the COMpliance and biochemical control of type 2 diabetes). Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005;7:722–8.
Leiter LA, Shestakova MV, Trubitsyna NP, Piletič M, Satman I. Implementing an optimized glucose-lowering strategy with a novel once daily modified release gliclazide formulation. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016;112:50–6.
Leiter LA, Shestakova MV, Satman I. Effectiveness of gliclazide MR 60 mg in the management of type 2 diabetes: analyses from the EASYDia trial. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2018;10:30.
Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:193–203.
Guillausseau P, Greb W. 24-hour glycemic profile in type 2 diabetic patients treated with gliclazide modified release once daily. Diabetes Metab. 2001;27:133–7.
Frey N, Laveille C, Paraire M, et al. Population PKPD modelling of the long-term hypoglycaemic effect of gliclazide given as a once-a-day modified release (MR) formulation. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;55:147–57.
Kalra S, Bahendeka S, Sahay R, et al. Consensus recommendations on sulfonylurea and sulfonylurea combinations in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus—International Task Force. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;22:132.
Lipska KJ, Yao X, Herrin J, et al. Trends in drug utilization, glycemic control, and rates of severe hypoglycemia, 2006–2013. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:468–75.
Gu K, Cowie CC, Harris MI. Mortality in adults with and without diabetes in a national cohort of the U.S. population, 1971–1993. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:1138–45.
Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Neil HA, Matthews DR. Long-term follow-up after tight control of blood pressure in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1565–76.
Stratton IM, Cull CA, Adler AI, et al. Additive effects of glycaemia and blood pressure exposure on risk of complications in type 2 diabetes: a prospective observational study (UKPDS 75). Diabetologia. 2006;49:1761–9.
Stratton IM, Kohner EM, Aldington SJ, et al. UKPDS 50: risk factors for incidence and progression of retinopathy in type II diabetes over 6 years from diagnosis. Diabetologia. 2001;44:156–63.
UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352:837–53.
ADVANCE Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560–72.
Zoungas S, de Galan BE, Ninomiya T, et al. Combined effects of routine blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: new results from the ADVANCE trial. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:2068–74.
Perkovic V, Heerspink HL, Chalmers J, et al. Intensive glucose control improves kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Kidney Int. 2013;83:517–23.
Wong MG, Perkovic V, Chalmers J, et al. Long-term benefits of intensive glucose control for preventing end-stage kidney disease: ADVANCE-ON. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:694–700.
Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2545–59.
Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, et al. Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2117–28.
Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:311–22.
Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, et al. Semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:1834–44.
Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-Year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1577–89.
van Dalem J, Brouwers MC, Stehouwer CD, et al. Risk of hypoglycaemia in users of sulphonylureas compared with metformin in relation to renal function and sulphonylurea metabolite group: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2016;354:i3625.
American Diabetes Association. 9. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41:S86–S104.
Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet. 1994;344:1383–9.
Lehrke M, Marx N. Diabetes mellitus and heart failure. Am J Med. 2017;130:S40–50.
Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, et al. Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal events in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:644–57.
Roche N, Reddel H, Martin R,, et al. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11(Suppl 2):S99–104.
Sherman RE, Anderson SA, Dal Pan GJ, et al. Real-world evidence—what is it and what can it tell us? N Engl J Med. 2016;375:2293–7.
Phung OJ, Scholle JM, Talwar M, Coleman CI. Effect of noninsulin antidiabetic drugs added to metformin therapy on glycemic control, weight gain, and hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2010;303:1410–8.
American Diabetes Association. 8. Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care. 2018; 41:S73–S85.
Saturni S, Bellini F, Braido F, et al. Randomized controlled trials and real life studies. Approaches and methodologies: a clinical point of view. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2014;27:129–38.
Saunders C, Byrne CD, Guthrie B, et al. External validity of randomized controlled trials of glycaemic control and vascular disease: how representative are participants? Diabet Med. 2013;30:300–8.
McGovern A, Feher M, Munro N, de Lusignan S. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor: comparing trial data and real-world use. Diabetes Ther. 2017;8:365–76.
Khunti K, Davies MJ. Clinical inertia-time to reappraise the terminology? Prim Care Diabetes. 2017;11:105–6.
Khunti K, Wolden ML, Thorsted BL, Andersen M, Davies MJ. Clinical inertia in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study of more than 80,000 people. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:3411–7.
Khunti K, Damci T, Meneghini L, et al. Study of Once Daily Levemir (SOLVE): insights into the timing of insulin initiation in people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in routine clinical practice. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14:654–61.
Khunti K, Caputo S, Damci T, et al. The safety and efficacy of adding once-daily insulin detemir to oral hypoglycaemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes in a clinical practice setting in 10 countries. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14:1129–36.
Rosenstock J, Davies M, Home PD, et al. A randomised, 52-week, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with insulin glargine when administered as add-on to glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008;51:408–16.
Khunti K, Gomes MB, Pocock S, et al. Therapeutic inertia in the treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20:427–37.
Khunti K, Godec TR, Medina J, et al. Patterns of glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiating second-line therapy after metformin monotherapy: retrospective data for 10 256 individuals from the United Kingdom and Germany. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20:389–99.
Wilding J, Godec T, Khunti K, et al. Changes in HbA1c and weight, and treatment persistence, over the 18 months following initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. BMC Med. 2018;16:116.
Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:129–39.
Edridge CL, Dunkley AJ, Bodicoat DH, et al. Prevalence and incidence of hypoglycaemia in 532,542 people with type 2 diabetes on oral therapies and insulin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population based studies. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0126427.
Zaccardi F, Davies MJ, Dhalwani NN, et al. Trends in hospital admissions for hypoglycaemia in England: a retrospective, observational study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016;4:677–85.
Simpson SH, Lee J, Choi S, et al. Mortality risk among sulfonylureas: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3:43–51.
Pantalone KM, Kattan MW, Yu C, et al. The risk of overall mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving glipizide, glyburide, or glimepiride monotherapy: a retrospective analysis. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1224–9.
Varvaki Rados D, Catani Pinto L, Reck Remonti L, Bauermann Leitão C, Gross JL. The association between sulfonylurea use and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS Med. 2016;13:e1001992.
Mendis S, Fukino K, Cameron A, et al. The availability and affordability of selected essential medicines for chronic diseases in six low- and middle-income countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:279–88.
Nicolucci A, Arya N, Charbonnel B, et al. Treatment patterns and associated factors in 13,379 patients with type 2 diabetes initiating a second-line therapy: the DISCOVER study. In: 77th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association; 2017 June 9–13; San Diego, CA, USA.
Chow CK, Ramasundarahettige C, Hu W, et al. Availability and affordability of essential medicines for diabetes across high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective epidemiological study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018;6:798–808.
Roglic G, Norris SL. Medicines for treatment intensification in type 2 diabetes and type of insulin in type 1 and type 2 diabetes in low-resource settings: synopsis of the World Health Organization guidelines on second- and third-line medicines and type of insulin for the control of blood glucose levels in nonpregnant adults with diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169:394–7.
Klarenbach S, Cameron C, Singh S, Ur E. Cost-effectiveness of second-line antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin. CMAJ. 2011;183:E1213–20.
Zhang Y, McCoy RG, Mason JE, et al. Second-line agents for glycemic control for type 2 diabetes: are newer agents better? Diabetes Care. 2014;37:1338–45.
Mohan V, Shanthi Rani CS, Amutha A, et al. Clinical profile of long-term survivors and nonsurvivors with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:2190–7.
Misra A, Sattar N, Tandon N, et al. Clinical management of type 2 diabetes in south Asia. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018;6:979–91.