Treede RD, Rief W, Barke A, et al. A classification of chronic pain for ICD-11. Pain. 2015;156(6):1003–7.
Jensen TS, Baron R, Haanpää M, et al. A new definition of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2011;152(10):2204–5.
Meacham K, Shepherd A, Mohapatra DP, Haroutounian S. Neuropathic pain: central vs peripheral mechanisms. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2017;21(6):28.
Klit H, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS. Central post-stroke pain: clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and management. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8(9):857–68.
Hoy D, Brooks P, Woolf A, et al. Assessing risk of bias in prevalence studies: modification of an existing tool and evidence of interrater agreement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2012;65:934–9.
Nguyen KA, Peer N, Mills EJ, Kengne AP. A meta-analysis of the metabolic syndrome prevalence in the global HIV-infected population. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0150970.
Higgins JP, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, et al. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ. 2011;18(343):d5928.
Wells GA, Shea B, O’Connell D, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. 2008. Available from URL: http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp.
Manchikanti L, Falco FJ, Benyamin RM, Kaye AD, Boswell MV, Hirsch JA. A modified approach to grading of evidence. Pain Physician. 2014;17(3):E319–E325325.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000097.
Langfelder P, Horvath S. WGCNA: an R package for weighted correlation network analysis. BMC Bioinform. 2008;9:559–559.
Higgins JP, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2002;21:1539–58.
Kim NY, Lee SC, An YS, Shin JC, Kim YW. Metabolic changes in central poststroke pain following thalamic intracerebral hemorrhage: an 18F-FDG PET study. Clin Nucl Med. 2018;43(3):62–6.
Sprenger T, Seifert CL, Valet M, et al. Assessing the risk of central post-stroke pain of thalamic origin by lesion mapping. Brain. 2012;135(8):2536–45.
Krause T, Brunecker P, Pittl S, et al. Thalamic sensory strokes with and without pain: differences in lesion patterns in the ventral posterior thalamus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83(8):776–84.
Hong JH, Bai DS, Jeong JY, et al. Injury of the spino-thalamo-cortical pathway is necessary for central post-stroke pain. Eur Neurol. 2010;64(3):163–8.
Fitzek S, Baumgärtner U, Fitzek C, et al. Mechanisms and predictors of chronic facial pain in lateral medullary infarction. Ann Neurol. 2001;49(4):493–500.
MacGowan DJ, Janal MN, Clark WC, et al. Central poststroke pain and Wallenberg's lateral medullary infarction: frequency, character, and determinants in 63 patients. Neurology. 1997;49(1):120–5.
Kim JS, Han YS. Medial medullary infarction: clinical, imaging, and outcome study in 86 consecutive patients. Stroke. 2009;40(10):3221–5.
Kim JS, Choi-Kwon S. Sensory sequelae of medullary infarction: differences between lateral and medial medullary syndrome. Stroke. 1999;30(12):2697–703.
Kim JS. Patterns of sensory abnormality in cortical stroke. Evidence for a dichotomized sensory system. Neurology. 2007;68(3):174–80.
Osama A, Abo Hagar A, Elkholy S, Negm M, Abd El-Razek R, Orabi M. Central post-stroke pain: predictors and relationship with magnetic resonance imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials. Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg. 2018;54(1):40–40.
Vukojevic Z, Dominovic Kovacevic A, Peric S, Grgic S, Bjelica B, Basta I. Frequency and features of the central poststroke pain. J Neurol Sci. 2018;391:100–3.
Bashir AH, Abdullahi A, Abba MA, Mukhtar NB. Central poststroke pain: its profile among stroke survivors in Kano. Nigeria Behav Neurol. 2017;2017:9318597.
Kumar A, Bhoi SK, Kalita J, Misra UK. Central poststroke pain can occur with normal sensation. Clin J Pain. 2016;32(11):955–60.
Choi-Kwon S, Choi SH, Suh M, et al. Musculoskeletal and central pain at 1 year post-stroke: associated factors and impact on quality of life. Acta Neurol Scand. 2017;135(4):419–25.
Şahin-Onat Ş, Ünsal-Delialioğlu S, Kulaklı F, Özel S. The effects of central post-stroke pain on quality of life and depression in patients with stroke. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28(1):96–101.
Paolucci S, Iosa M, Toni D, et al. Prevalence and time course of post-stroke pain: a multicenter prospective hospital-based study. Pain Med. 2015;17(5):924–30.
Klit H, Hansen AP, Marcussen NS, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS. Early evoked pain or dysesthesia is a predictor of central poststroke pain. Pain. 2014;155(12):2699–706.
Krause T, Asseyer S, Taskin B, et al. The cortical signature of central poststroke pain: gray matter decreases in somatosensory, insular, and prefrontal cortices. Cereb Cortex. 2014;26(1):80–8.
Pellicane AJ, Millis SR. Efficacy of methylprednisolone versus other pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of central post-stroke pain: a retrospective analysis. J Pain Res. 2013;6:557–63.
O'Donnell MJ, Diener HC, Sacco RL, et al. Chronic pain syndromes after ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2013;44(5):1238–43.
Zeilig G, Rivel M, Weingarden H, Gaidoukov E, Defrin R. Hemiplegic shoulder pain: evidence of a neuropathic origin. Pain. 2013;154(2):263–71.
van Kollenburg EG, Lavrijsen JC, Verhagen SC, Zuidema SU, Schalkwijk A, Vissers KC. Prevalence, causes, and treatment of neuropathic pain in dutch nursing home residents: a retrospective chart review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(8):1418–25.
Hong JH, Choi BY, Chang CH, et al. The prevalence of central poststroke pain according to the integrity of the spino-thalamo-cortical pathway. Eur Neurol. 2012;67(1):12–7.
Klit H, Finnerup NB, Andersen G, Jensen TS. Central poststroke pain: a population-based study. Pain. 2011;152(4):818–24.
Kong KH, Woon VC, Yang SY. Prevalence of chronic pain and its impact on health-related quality of life in stroke survivors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(1):35–40.
Weimar C, Kloke M, Schlott M, Katsarava Z, Diener HC. Central poststroke pain in a consecutive cohort of stroke patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2002;14(3–4):261–3.
Andersen G, Vestergaard K, Ingeman-Nielsen M, Jensen TS. Incidence of central post-stroke pain. Pain. 1995;61(2):187–93.
Choi-Kwon S, Choi JM, Kwon SU, Kang DW, Kim JS. Factors that affect the quality of life at 3 years post-stroke. J Clin Neurol. 2006;2(1):34–41.
Raffaeli W, Minella CE, Magnani F, Sarti D. Population-based study of central post-stroke pain in Rimini district. Italy J Pain Res. 2013;6:705–11.
Jönsson AC, Lindgren I, Hallström B, Norrving B, Lindgren A. Prevalence and intensity of pain after stroke: a population based study focusing on patients' perspectives. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(5):590–5.
Harno H, Haapaniemi E, Putaala J, et al. Central poststroke pain in young ischemic stroke survivors in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry. Neurology. 2014;83(13):1147–54.
Bowsher D. Stroke and central poststroke pain in an elderly population. J Pain. 2001;2(5):258–61.
Khedr EM, Kotb H, Kamel NF, Ahmed MA, Sadek R, Rothwell JC. Longlasting antalgic effects of daily sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in central and peripheral neuropathic pain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76(6):833–8.
Saitoh Y, Kato A, Ninomiya H, et al. Primary motor cortex stimulation within the central sulcus for treating deafferentation pain. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2003;87:149–52.
Tang SC, Lee LJ, Jeng JS, et al. Pathophysiology of central poststroke pain: motor cortex disinhibition and its clinical and sensory correlates. Stroke. 2019;50(10):2851–7.
Zhang X, Zhu H, Tao W, Li Y, Hu Y. Motor cortex stimulation therapy for relief of central post-stroke pain: a retrospective study with neuropathic pain symptom inventory. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2018;96(4):239–43.
Jang SH, Lee J, Yeo SS. Central post-stroke pain due to injury of the spinothalamic tract in patients with cerebral infarction: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study. Neural Regen Res. 2017;12(12):2021–4.
Yamamoto T, Watanabe M, Obuchi T, et al. Importance of pharmacological evaluation in the treatment of poststroke pain by spinal cord stimulation. Neuromodulation. 2016;19(7):744–51.
Kobayashi M, Fujimaki T, Mihara B, Ohira T. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation once a week induces sustainable long-term relief of central poststroke pain. Neuromodulation. 2015;18(4):249–54.
Im SH, Ha SW, Kim DR, Son BC. Long-term results of motor cortex stimulation in the treatment of chronic intractable neuropathic pain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2015;93(3):212–8.
Hasan M, Whiteley J, Bresnahan R, et al. Somatosensory change and pain relief induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with central poststroke pain. Neuromodulation. 2014;17(8):731–6.
Hosomi K, Kishima H, Oshino S, et al. Cortical excitability changes after high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for central poststroke pain. Pain. 2013;154(8):1352–7.
Bowsher D, Leijon G, Thuomas KA. Central poststroke pain: correlation of MRI with clinical pain characteristics and sensory abnormalities. Neurology. 1998;51(5):1352–8.
Aly MM, Saitoh Y, Hosomi K, Oshino S, Kishima H, Yoshimine T. Spinal cord stimulation for central poststroke pain. Oper Neurosurg. 2010;67(3):206–12.
Misra UK, Kalita J, Kumar B. A study of clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and somatosensory-evoked potential in central post-stroke pain. J Pain. 2008;9(12):1116–22.
Shimizu T, Hosomi K, Maruo T, et al. Efficacy of deep rTMS for neuropathic pain in the lower limb: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial of an H-coil and figure-8 coil. J Neurosurg. 2017;127(5):1172.
Katayama Y, Fukaya C, Yamamoto T. Poststroke pain control by chronic motor cortex stimulation: neurological characteristics predicting a favorable response. J Neurosurg. 1998;89(4):585.
Yamamoto T, Katayama Y, Hirayama T, Tsubokawa T. Pharmacological classification of central post-stroke pain: comparison with the results of chronic motor cortex stimulation therapy. Pain. 1997;72(1):5–12.
Nuti C, Peyron R, Garcia-Larrea L, et al. Motor cortex stimulation for refractory neuropathic pain: four year outcome and predictors of efficacy. Pain. 2005;118(1–2):43–52.
Vestergaard K, Nielsen J, Andersen G, Ingeman-Nielsen M, Arendt-Nielsen L, Jensen TS. Sensory abnormalities in consecutive, unselected patients with central post-stroke pain. Pain. 1995;61(2):177–86.
Kalita J, Chandra S, Misra UK. Pregabalin and lamotrigine in central poststroke pain: a pilot study. Neurol India. 2017;65(3):506–11.
Widar M, Samuelsson L, Karlsson-Tivenius S, Ahlström G. Long-term pain conditions after a stroke. J Rehabil Med. 2002;34(4):165–70.
Leijon G, Boivie J, Johansson I. Central post-stroke pain—neurological symptoms and pain characteristics. Pain. 1989;36(1):13–25.
Shimodozono M, Kawahira K, Kamishita T, Ogata A, Tohgo S, Tanaka N. Reduction of central poststroke pain with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. Int J Neurosci. 2002;112(10):1173–81.
Leijon G, Boivie J. Central post-stroke pain—a controlled trial of amitriptyline and carbamazepine. Pain. 1989;36(1):27–36.
Onouchi K, Koga H, Yokoyama K, Yoshiyama T. An open-label, long-term study examining the safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain. J Pain Res. 2014;7:439–47.
Kim JS, Bashford G, Murphy TK, Martin A, Dror V, Cheung R. Safety and efficacy of pregabalin in patients with central post-stroke pain. Pain. 2011;152(5):1018–23.
Vestergaard K, Andersen G, Gottrup H, Kristensen BT, Jensen TS. Lamotrigine for central poststroke pain. A randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2001;56(2):184–90.
Hesami O, Gharagozli K, Beladimoghadam N, Assarzadegan F, Mansouri B, Sistanizad M. The efficacy of gabapentin in patients with central post-stroke pain. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015;14(Suppl):95–101.
Jungehulsing GJ, Israel H, Safar N, et al. Levetiracetam in patients with central neuropathic post-stroke pain—a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Neurol. 2013;20(2):331–7.
Kim NY, Lee SC, Kim YW. Effect of duloxetine for the treatment of chronic central poststroke pain. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2019;42(3):73–6.
Bainton T, Fox M, Bowsher D, Wells C. A double-blind trial of naloxone in central post-stroke pain. Pain. 1992;48(2):159–62.
de Oliveira RA, de Andrade DC, Mendonça M, et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left premotor/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex does not have analgesic effect on central poststroke pain. J Pain. 2014;15(12):1271–81.
Ohn SH, Chang WH, Park CH, et al. Neural correlates of the antinociceptive effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on central pain after stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012;26(4):344–52.
Tanei T, Kajita Y, Takebayashi S, Aoki K, Nakahara N, Wakabayashi T. Predictive factors associated with pain relief of spinal cord stimulation for central post-stroke pain. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2019;59(6):213–21.
Mertens P, Nuti C, Sindou M, et al. Precentral cortex stimulation for the treatment of central neuropathic pain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1999;73(1–4):122–5.
Katayama Y, Yamamoto T, Kobayashi K, Kasai M, Oshima H, Fukaya C. Motor cortex stimulation for post-stroke pain: comparison of spinal cord and thalamic stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2001;77(1–4):183–6.
Lampl C, Yazdi K, Röper C. Amitriptyline in the prophylaxis of central poststroke pain. Preliminary results of 39 patients in a placebo-controlled, long-term study. Stroke. 2002;33(12):3030–2.
Goto T, Saitoh Y, Hashimoto N, et al. Diffusion tensor fiber tracking in patients with central post-stroke pain; correlation with efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Pain. 2008;140(3):509–18.
Zis P, Shafique F, Hadjivassiliou M, et al. Safety, tolerability, and nocebo phenomena during transcranial magnetic stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials. Neuromodulation. 2019;23:291–300.
Aamir A, Girach A, Sarrigiannis PG, et al. Repetitive magnetic stimulation for the management of peripheral neuropathic pain: a systematic review. Adv Ther. 2020;37(3):998–1012.