Petroleum Science

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 560–569 | Cite as

HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts in petroleum and petrochemical enterprises

Open Access
Original Paper Special Issue: Safety in the Oil & Gas Industry

Abstract

This paper aims to standardize health, safety and environment (HSE) training matrices for effectively identifying training requirements and enhancing job competency of grassroots posts in petroleum and petrochemical enterprises. After an investigation into HSE training performance in petroleum and petrochemical enterprises, HSE training matrices templates for 239 grassroots posts involving 22 primary petroleum and petrochemical disciplines were developed based on the technical requirements of HSE training matrices templates and the studies of template development processes and technical methods at grassroots level. Applications of these templates in 12 companies demonstrate their effectiveness in improving HSE training and management for grassroots posts, strengthening risk control and promoting the application of HSE system and tools in grassroots units.

Keywords

Petroleum and petrochemical enterprise Grassroots posts HSE Training matrices Template 

1 Introduction

Statistical data in recent years indicate that more than 80% of incidents and accidents affecting production safety, environment pollution and staff health in petroleum and petrochemical enterprises were caused by illegal operations by grassroots staff with weak HSE awareness and competency (Bush and Ingram 1996; Gitomer 2012; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences 2002; Hu 2012; Jing 2012; Shafiababy et al. 2007; Wang et al. 2008; Wen et al. 2012; Yao 2011). HSE training is an important means to publicize corporate HSE policies and improve employees’ HSE knowledge and skills and their abilities in job-related risk identification and control. It is also an integral part of HSE management system and a significant measure to ensure job under control, build HSE culture and continuously improve HSE performance. HSE training for grassroots posts in domestic and foreign petroleum and petrochemical industries mainly has the following four problems: (1) Training content and post demands are not consistent; (2) Training methods are simple and boring, making trainees reluctant to accept them; (3) Positive initiatives for attending training are not strong, without direct relation to staff performance assessment; and (4) Responsibilities of training management are not clear, even none is fixed be in charge of training management in some corporation, so it is difficult to implement linear responsibility. However, so far, no training matrices based on HSE technical requirements of grassroots posts are available in China to specific professional classifications (He 2013; Kernberg 2014; Li 2010; Shevchenko and Kudryavtsev 2012; Weldy et al. 2014; Yao et al. 2011, 2012; Zhang et al. 2016). Since 2007, Chinese oil enterprises began to introduce and explore HSE training matrices management tools, promote HSE training in grassroots units with HSE training matrices as the basic carrier and implement “training-on-demand” models to meet job HSE needs (Carr et al. 2000; Finke 2004; Graff and Karsten 2012; Yang et al. 2013). Through effective identification, HSE training matrices can be an effective tool to link HSE training needs and posts and acquire clear instructions on training contents, grasp level, training frequency, etc. (Ahmed and Kolachi 2013; Falkenstein et al, 2016; Puhakainen and Siponen 2010; Yan 2011; Zia et al. 2014). It spells out HSE training requirements in an adequate, vivid, clear and concise manner. However, more applications of HSE training matrices demonstrate deficiencies such as unreasonable design, inaccurate identification of training need and lack of consistency of posts with competence, which restricts the role of HSE training matrices (Hogan et al 2014). Facing the fact that training status is not completely based on real needs of enterprises, it is necessary to research and develop HSE training matrices templates which should be operative, general and suitable for the competency and requirements of grassroots posts and bring a positive effect on the application of HSE training matrices. This paper studies HSE training matrices templates based on technical requirements and following the professional classification of grassroots posts and designs training content, period and methods. Using these templates, hierarchical responsibilities could be implemented and training requirements and technical support measures are defined. Applications of these templates have proved that they can effectively solve training problems of grassroots posts and significantly improve training performance.

2 Technical requirements for template development

Application of HSE training matrices to strengthen HSE training for grassroots posts is very different in training mode, form design, requirement analysis and application effect in Chinese oil enterprises. To identify basic training requirements and develop general HSE training matrices templates for key posts in different disciplines (MacDuffie 2007; Montreuil 1996; Nor 2009; Glushenkov 2009; Shadlovskiy and Kovaliov 2013; Shafiabady et al. 2007), the following requirements should be considered:

2.1 Scope

HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts should cover primary business activities in petroleum and petrochemical enterprises, such as exploration and development, refining and petrochemistry, marketing, natural gas and pipelines, engineering technology, surface construction and equipment manufacturing. The specific HSE training matrices template for every business type should cover primary jobs, such as oil production, oil gathering and transportation, refining, petrochemistry, gas stations, oil storage, drilling, downhole operations, geophysical exploration, well logging, surface construction and equipment manufacturing.

2.2 Operability

HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts shall have adequate operability. They should be specific to target posts and specify procedures required for every workplace. Training content should be detailed down to the smallest unit of an operation.

2.3 Generality

The development process of HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts should be standardized by defining business types, breaking down operation, minimizing operating unit and specifying training period, form, trainer and mastery of training content, etc.

2.4 Suitability

HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts should include necessary training content for meeting specific job competency, design appropriate training methods and provide training courses and training materials consistent with grassroots posts. After being trained, all trainees should grasp job skills, understand and be able to control job risks.

3 Process and technical methods of template development

After analyzing the HSE training performance in petroleum and petrochemical enterprises, and combing the technical requirements for developing HSE training matrices, the following development process of HSE training matrices for grassroots units was proposed (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1

Development process of HSE training matrices for grassroots units

3.1 Technical preparation

These data should be prepared as the base for HSE training matrices development, including applicable laws and regulations for related disciplines, grassroots posts, job descriptions and responsibilities, staff structure, available equipment and facilities, processes, procedures.

3.2 Division of management units

Aiming at production and management characteristics, job management units should be divided in consideration of related equipment and facilities, processes and (or) worksites. For example, oil production activity can be divided into 30 management units in accordance with specific scope of work, job description, workflow, equipment and facilities. Table 1 shows the management unit list.
Table 1

Job management unit list of oil production

S/N

Management unit

S/N

Management unit

1

Pumping unit installation, uninstallation, transportation, operation, monitoring, adjustment and maintenance

16

Water buffer tank operation and maintenance

2

Screw pump operation, adjustment and maintenance

17

Water tank maintenance

3

Oil well operation, monitoring and maintenance

18

Centrifugal pump installation, operation and maintenance

4

Christmas tree maintenance

19

Processes in oil gathering and transportation room, and accessories maintenance

5

Well test

20

Operation and maintenance of gas /oil vacuum/phase change furnace

6

Metering separator operation, monitoring and maintenance

21

Processes in furnace operating room and accessories maintenance

7

Maintenance of processes and fittings in the production allocation room

22

Pump operation and maintenance in deep water well

8

High-pressure injection pump (piston pump) operation and maintenance

23

Test and analysis of produced oil

9

Injection well operation, monitoring and maintenance

24

Electrical equipment and facilities maintenance

10

Maintenance of processes and fittings in the water distribution room

25

Maintenance equipment inspection, operation and maintenance

11

Two-phase separator operation and maintenance

26

Inspection tour

12

Three-phase separator operation and maintenance

27

Upgrading and fixing of oil/gas/water pipelines

13

Oil skimmer operation and maintenance

28

General accessories maintenance

14

Dryer operation and maintenance

29

Single-well tank installation, operation, maintenance and adjustment

15

Air purifier operation and maintenance

30

Logistics support and management

3.3 Analysis of operations

To meet the requirements for keeping every operation relatively independent and complete, operational risks can be identified and control measures can be implemented, and management units should be detailed to the most basic activities. In Table 2, 30 management units in oil production can be broken down into 245 activities.
Table 2

List of basic activities in oil production (partial)

S/N

Basic activity

S/N

Basic activity

2.1

Installation of pumping unit

2.3

Oil well operation, monitoring and maintenance

2.1.1

Overall installation of pumping unit

2.3.1

Measurement of tubing pressure

2.1.2

Assembly and disassembly of pumping unit

2.3.2

Measurement of casing pressure

···

···

2.3.3

Well sampling

2.2

Screw pump operation, adjustment and maintenance

2.3.4

Adjustment of collision avoidance distance for pumping well

2.2.1

Screw pump start-up

···

···

2.2.2

Screw pump shutdown

2.4

Well test

···

···

···

···

3.4 Hazard identification and risk assessment

For each activity, it is recommended to break down operating procedures or how to dismantle key components of equipment and facilities, conduct hazard identification and risk assessment and develop risk control measures using the job safety analysis (JSA) method, to ensure that the whole process risk management, risk control and emergency response measures are brought into the training needs, laying the foundation for job training matrices application.

3.5 Training requirement analysis

According to job responsibilities, operating procedures, risk control and emergency response measures, job-related training requirements are analyzed and determined. Training requirements mainly involve the following four aspects.

3.5.1 General HSE knowledge

The general part of HSE training matrices, i.e., general HSE knowledge closely related to staff’s activities, daily life and jobs and that should be mastered, includes job-related laws and regulations, job HSE risks, equipment and material used, emergency response and prevention measures and typical incidents as shown in Table 3.
Table 3

JSA before well shut-in (example)

Unit

Unit name

All hazards and risks and the corresponding measures to eliminate, mitigate and control these hazards and risks have been discussed, understood and confirmed by all personnel involved in this job, including emergency response measures, so the work can be started.

Duty holder

Brief description of the task

Procedure

Hazard(s)

Risk control measure(s)

Emergency response measure(s)

1. Check work preparation and recorded data

1. Mechanical injury

1. Wear necessary personal protective equipment (PPE)

1. First-aid kit available on the site and send to the medical clinic in the work area in serious cases

2. Notify central control room (CCR) and close secondary nozzles and then primary nozzles on site

1. Mechanical injury

1. Wear necessary PPE and stand aside while operating valves

1. First-aid kit available on the site and send to the medical clinic in the work area in serious cases

3. Remote/on-site well shut-in

1. Suffocation injury: Entry into cellar valve chamber may cause suffocation due to gas leakage

2. Mechanical injury

1. Entry into the valve chamber shall comply with the Regulations on Entry into Cellar Valve Chamber by Gas Production Crew

2. Wear necessary PPE; stand aside while operating valves; do not stand near Christmas tree and pipelines; do not open the back door of the hydraulic control cabinet

1. Once a suffocation injury occurs, the monitoring personnel shall immediately wear positive pressure breathing apparatus and enter the valve chamber to move the injured out and give first-aid treatment.

2. Once a mechanical injury occurs, immediately give first-aid treatment, and then send to the medical clinic in the work area

4. Long shut-in: Close all nozzles, hydraulic wing valves, manual wing valves, hydraulic master valves, manual master valves and downhole safety valves, and decide the branch pressure according to real situations; report well shut-in to CCR and record valve switch status

1. Mechanical injury

1. Wear necessary PPE and stand aside while operating valves

1. First-aid kit available on the site and send to the medical clinic in the work area in serious cases

3.5.2 Basic job skills

Professional skills of HSE training matrices refer to the training contents set specifically to a job based on job requirement analysis. It mainly includes training in operation procedures, such as technical skills for equipment management, operational activities and processes (Table 4). Through training, employees can grasp job-related skills, hazard identification and risk control methods, emergency response procedures, etc.
Table 4

Job skills for oil production (partial)

S/N

Group/post

Well group

Pump station

Geology group

Mechanic group

Logistics group

Remarks

(Job) Training content

Group leader

Juniors

Night shift

Data recorder

Group leader

Pump

Boiler

Group leader

Laboratory technician

Tester

Group leader

Mechanic

Electrician

Electric welding

Driver

Other

 

2

Job-related basic skills

2.1

Installation, operation, adjustment and maintenance of pumping unit

2.2.1

Inspection of pumping unit

   

 

   

2.1.2

Well start-up/shut-in

   

 

    

2.1.3

Replacing belt

      

    

2.1.4

Collision avoidance distance adjustment

         

   

2.1.5

Balance adjustment

          

   

2.1.6

Stroke adjustment

          

 

   

2.1.7

Stroke frequency adjustment

          

   

2.1.8

Walking beam adjustment

          

 

   

2.1.9

Replacing crane pin

          

 

   

2.1.10

Replacing wire rope

          

 

   

2.1.11

Brake replacing (repair)

          

 

   

2.1.12

Maintenance (filling lubricants and fastening screws)

          

 

   

2.1.13

Oil well operation, monitoring and maintenance

       

     

2.2

Oil well inspection

2.2.1

Oil well start-up and shut-in

   

  

 

   

2.2.2

Gas measurement in oil well

   

  

     

2.2.3

Casing pressure measurement

   

         

2.2.4

Oil well sampling

   

         

2.2.5

Pressure buildup

   

         

2.2.6

Washing well

   

  

     

2.2.7

Disposal of coagulated pipes

      

     

2.2.8

      

     

3.5.3 Controlled production management process

According to the training requirements set for controlled production management, all employees should understand or master related controlled management requirements applicable to their jobs and apply them to HSE management, which mainly includes related controlled management activities and contents, e.g., permit-to-work management, process and equipment management, management of change and contractor management.

3.5.4 HSE knowledge, methods and tools

According to the training requirements set for an HSE management system, all employees are required to understand or master related national, industrial and corporate HSE requirements which mainly include basic HSE knowledge, tools and methods, e.g., JSA, job cycle analysis (JCA), safety observation and communication, and safety experience sharing. Besides, all employees should be able to apply HSE management methods and tools to routine HSE work using with their HSE knowledge.

3.6 Training requirements and training matrices development

Training requirements set up training goals and performance indicators. Four points of every post, training requirement, namely duration, frequency and trainers (Table 5), should be defined and specific HSE training matrices should be established based on job responsibilities, training requirement, courses and trainees as shown in Table 6.
Table 5

Typical HSE training matrices for oil production juniors (partial)

S/N

Training description

Duration (hours)

Frequency

Method

Requirement

Trainer

1

General HSE knowledge

1.1

HSE responsibilities, rights and obligations

0.50

Every 1 year

Lecturing or meeting

Mastery

Group leader/HSE officer

1.2

Crude oil HSE knowledge

0.25

Every 3 years

Lecturing

Mastery

Group leader/HSE officer

1.3

Gas HSE knowledge

0.25

Every 3 years

Lecturing

Mastery

Group leader/HSE officer

1.4

Emergency escape knowledge

0.50

Every 1 year

Lecturing + field

Mastery

Group leader/HSE officer

1.5

···

···

···

···

···

···

2

Basic job skills

2.1

Operation, maintenance and adjustment of pumping unit

     

2.1.1

Start-up and shutdown of pumping unit

0.50

3 years

Lecturing + field

Mastery

Group leader/HSE officer

2.1.2

Replacing the belt of a pumping unit

0.5

3 years

Lecturing + field

Mastery

Group leader/HSE officer

2.1.3

Pumping unit maintenance (fill lubricants and fasten screws)

0.50

3 years

Lecturing + field

Mastery

Group leader/HSE officer

2.1.4

···

···

···

···

···

···

3

Controlled management process

3.1

Permit to work

0.50

3 years

Lecturing + field

Understanding

Squad leader or HSE officer

3.2

Lock out and tag out

0.50

3 years

Lecturing + field

Mastery

Squad leader or HSE officer

3.3

···

···

···

···

···

···

4

HSE knowledge, methods and tools

4.1

JSA

0.25

3 years

Lecturing or meeting

Understanding

Squad leader or HSE officer

4.2

Site management

0.50

3 years

Lecturing or meeting

Mastery

Squad leader or HSE officer

4.3

···

···

···

···

···

···

Table 6

Training outlines

Outlines for basic job skills

Outlines for controlled management procedure

Outlines for HSE knowledge, methods and tools

1. Pre-job preparation

2. Procedures (hazard identification and risk control)

3. Emergency response and accident prevention (cases)

1. Basic definitions

2. Management process and requirements

3. Typical cases

4. Cautions

1. Basic definitions and explanations

2. Why promote?

3. How to implement effectively?

4. Cautions and summary

3.7 Training outline (if required)

Training outlines should be consistent, relatively complete, simple and concise (Table 2). Materials like video, audio and photographs can be used to illustrate HSE principles and practices in order to attract trainees to interactive participation.

3.8 Optimization of operating procedures

Training contents should be determined based on operating procedures. It is recommended to use tools and methods such as JCA and JSA to analyze the effectiveness of job-related procedures which should be revised when necessary. To keep continuous improvement in training work, training matrices should be improved in accordance with the revision of operating procedures.

4 Application and improvement in HSE training matrices templates

4.1 Results of templates development

Using the technical methods above, 239 grassroots posts in 22 primary disciplines in petroleum and petrochemical industries (based on an investigation of 12 petroleum and petrochemical enterprises) were studied, and based on which 983 management units covering 4566 activities were proposed and defined, and accordingly, 239 HSE training matrices and 1726 training outlines were established.

4.2 Templates application

Application of these HSE training matrices templates was used in an oil field company and obtained the following results:
  1. 1.

    These HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts can standardize job requirements and competency building, make HSE training for grassroots posts standard, systematic and scientific, enhance on-site risk management and control levels, improve job operating procedures and enlarge the application of HSE management tools and methods.

     
  2. 2.

    These HSE training matrices embody job-related basic HSE training requirements. Training is given by line managers. Training contents focus on safety and environmental risks on specific work and are concise, understandable, operable and interesting.

     
  3. 3.

    With appropriate incentive mechanism, all employees at all levels are active to pursue their initiatives and participate in development and revision of operating procedures and training matrices. This practice is supported and understood by all employees.

     
  4. 4.

    Dynamic management and sustainable improvement in the HSE training matrices make them adapt to changing management structure processes.

     

4.3 Future improvement

Analysis of the actual applications of these HSE training matrices templates indicates that future improvement can be carried out in the following aspects:
  1. 1.

    The department in charge of training should fully play a leading role in strengthening the compliance with the enterprise’s overall human resource management policies, unifying the management of output interfaces and effectively integrating various resources.

     
  2. 2.

    As different enterprises have different organizations, production techniques, equipment, facilities, allocations of posts and responsibilities, businesses and activities, they have different requirements for job-related HSE competency. The generality of the HSE training matrices templates may not meet specific requirements. Therefore, as equipment, technologies and processes upgrade, the templates should be improved and revised accordingly.

     
  3. 3.

    Less professional technologies and human resources for developing exclusive training materials result in repeated development of general materials in enterprises. To increase the utilization of training resources, it is necessary to establish resource sharing and incentives and performance assessment policies.

     

5 Conclusions

  1. 1.

    HSE training matrices templates were developed for 239 grassroots posts in 22 primary disciplines of petroleum and petrochemical industries. The development of these HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts complies with the training requirement of HSE management and is a re-innovation in HSE training for Chinese oil enterprises.

     
  2. 2.

    The application of these HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts strengthens risk management and control, optimizes operating procedures, promotes the application of HSE systems and tools, highlights HSE responsibilities and improves training management mechanisms in grassroots units.

     
  3. 3.

    Future work should focus on dynamic and sustainable improvement in HSE training matrices templates, development of training resources sharing platforms and promotion and application technologies of training matrices, to meet the ever-developing enterprises, processes and technologies, equipment and facilities, laws, regulations, standards and specifications, and stringent job-related risks and control requirements.

     

References

  1. Ahmed I, Kolachi NA. Employee payroll and training budget: Case study of a non-teaching healthcare organization. J Bus Econ Res. 2013;11(5):229. doi: 10.19030/jber.v11i5.7838.Google Scholar
  2. Bush VD, Ingram T. Adapting to diverse customers: a training matrices for international marketers. Ind Market Manag. 1996;25(5):373–83. doi: 10.1016/0019-8501(96)00039-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carr JE, Nicolson AC, Higbee TS. Evaluation of a brief multiple-stimulus preference assessment in a naturalistic context. J Appl Behav Anal. 2000;33:353–7. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2000.33-353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Falkenstein M, Gajewski PD, Michael F, Patrick DG. Changes of electrical brain activity after cognitive training in old adults and older industrial workers. In: Strobach T, Karbac J, editors. Cognitive training. Berlin: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 177–86. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-42662-4_17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Finke M. GMP aspects in practice: topical items concerning GMP regulations-training demands on staff in GMP conforming areas—Establishing a training system. Die Pharmazeutische Industrie. 2004;66(6):765–8.Google Scholar
  6. Gitomer J. The hard side of training and the soft side of learning. Enterp Salt Lake City. 2012;41(47):8.Google Scholar
  7. Glushenkov DA. Applying systems of video conference communication based on a software endec in the training of state employees. Sci Techn Inf Process. 2009;36(2):90–1. doi: 10.3103/S014768820902004X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Harvard model training management, vol. 1–3. Beijing: People’s Daily Press; 2002. p. 1–27 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  9. Graff RB, Karsten AM. Evaluation of a self-instruction package for conducting stimulus preference assessments. J Appl Behav Anal. 2012;45(1):69–82. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2012.45-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. He H. Tailored training based on unique post needs: brief analysis on the application of HSE training matrices in the Tahe Oilfield. China Sci Technol Inf. 2013;17:124–5 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  11. Hogan DA, Greiner BA, O'Sullivan L. The effect of manual handling training on achieving training transfer, employee's behavior change and subsequent reduction of work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review. Ergonomics. 2014;57(1):93–107. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2013.862307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hu YT. Training matrices management: an effective model for improving the effectiveness of training. J Beijing Pet Manag Train Inst. 2012;5:72 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  13. Jing WR. HSE-based workover job skill requirements and training design of an oil and gas field. Master Thesis Jilin University; 2012. p. 15 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  14. Kernberg OF. The twilight of the training analysis system. Psychoanal Rev. 2014;101(101):151–74. doi: 10.1521/prev.2014.101.2.151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li J. Application of training matrices in HSE management of pipeline construction contractor. Health Saf Environ. 2010;10(7):10–2 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  16. MacDuffie JP. Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance: organizational logic and flexible production systems in the world auto-industry. Ind Lab Relat Rev. 2007;48(2):197–221. doi: 10.2307/2524483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Montreuil S. Ergonomics training for managers, employees and designers involved in the design and organization of work systems. Saf Sci. 1996;23(2):97–106. doi: 10.1016/0925-7535(96)00035-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nor NM. A requirements model for employees training management system: applying WAE-UML. Information Management and Engineering, 2009. ICIME'09. International Conference on. IEEE, 2009. p. 569–73.  10.1109/ICIME.2009.67.
  19. Puhakainen P, Siponen M. Improving employees’ compliance through information systems security training: an action research study. MIS Q. 2010;34(4):757–78.Google Scholar
  20. Shadlovskiy EL, Kovaliov YT. Cognitive training in older employees: a comparison between office and industrial workers. J Psychophysiol. 2013;27:69. doi: 10.1027/0269-8803/a000095.Google Scholar
  21. Shafiabady N, Teshnehlab M, Shooredeli MA. Training matrices parameters by particle swarm optimization using a fuzzy neural network for identification. In: International conference on intelligent & advanced systems, 2007. p. 188–93. doi: 10.1109/ICIAS.2007.4658372.
  22. Shevchenko DI, Kudryavtsev AA. The “Oil and Gas Enterprise” integrated training system. Oil Gas Eur Mag. 2012;38(4):218–9.Google Scholar
  23. Wang XX, Su GS, Zhang Y. Inspiration on HSE education and training of petrochemical enterprises. Saf Health Environ. 2008;8(1):14–5 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  24. Weldy CR, Rapp JT, Capocasa K. Training staff to implement brief stimulus preference assessments. J Appl Behav Anal. 2014;47(1):214–8. doi: 10.1002/jaba.98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wen ZG, Dong PJ, Liu B. Matrices-type HSE training for oil depot employees. Saf Health Environ. 2012;12(9):52–3 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  26. Yan XY. Instructional system design in employee training in the industrial area: take research on the “Blue-Collar Talent” project in Xiasha Economic and Technological Development Zone of Hangzhou as the example. Appl Mech Mater. 2011;121–126:912–7. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.121-126.912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yang DL, Liu SY, Yang B, et al. Research the training system of the oil field staff simulation based on virtual reality technology. Adv Mater Res. 2013;807–809:2863–7. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.807-809.2863.Google Scholar
  28. Yao GY. HSE training practice and work direction in petrochemical enterprises. Safety, Health and Environment. 2011;11(2):11 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  29. Yao GY, Liu ZH, Zhao LQ. Establishment of HSE training matrices in petrochemical enterprises. Saf Environ Eng. 2011;18(5):74–7 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  30. Yao G, Wang J, Wu B. The establishment of HSE training matrices for HSE professional management staffs in refining-chemical enterprises. Technol Superv Pet Ind. 2012;1:24–9 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  31. Zhang Q, Zhao G, Wang L, et al. Application of training matrices in the top level design of enterprise HSE Training. Environ Prot Oil Gas Fields. 2016;26(3):55–8 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  32. Zia H, Ishaq HM, Zahir S, et al. To investigate the impact of training, employee empowerment and organizational climate on job performance. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol. 2014;7(22):4832–7. doi: 10.19026/rjaset.7.872.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.China University of Petroleum (Beijing)BeijingChina
  2. 2.CNPC Research Institute of Safety and Environment TechnologyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations