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Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Gladiolus cultivars and related taxa of family Iridaceae

Abstract

The plastid genome regions of two intergenic spacers, psbA–trnH and trnL–trnF, were sequenced to study the nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Gladiolus cultivars. Nucleotide diversity of psbA–trnH region was higher than trnL–trnF region of chloroplast. We employed Bayesian, maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbour-joining (NJ) approaches for phylogenetic analysis of Gladiolus and related taxa using combined datasets from chloroplast genome. The psbA–trnH and trnL–trnF intergenic spacers of Gladiolus and related taxa-like Babiana, Chasmanthe, Crocus, Iris, Moraea, Sisyrinchium, Sparaxis and two out group species (Hymenocallis littoralis and Asphodeline lutea) were used in the present investigation. Results showed that subfamily Iridoideae have sister lineage with subfamily Ixioideae and Crocoideae. H. littoralis and A. lutea were separately attached at the base of tree as the diverging Iridaceae relative’s lineage. Present study revealed that psbA–trnH region are useful in addressing questions of phylogenetic relationships among the Gladiolus cultivars, as these intergenic spacers are more variable and have more phylogenetically informative sites than the trnL–trnF spacer, and therefore, are suitable for phylogenetic comparison on a lower taxonomic level. Gladiolus cultivars are extensively used as an ornamental crop and showed high potential in floriculture trade. Gladiolus cultivation still needs to generate new cultivars with stable phenotypes. Moreover, one of the most popular methods for generating new cultivars is hybridization. Hence, information on phylogenetic relationships among cultivars could be useful for hybridization programmes for further improvement of the crop.

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Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi under AGTEC (BSC0110) project.

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Correspondence to TIKAM SINGH RANA.

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Corresponding editor: Umesh C. Lavania

[Singh N., Meena B., Pal A. K., Roy R. K., Tewari S. K., Tamta S. and Rana T. S. 2017 Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Gladiolus cultivars and related taxa of family Iridaceae. J. Genet. 96, xx–xx]

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SINGH, N., MEENA, B., PAL, A.K. et al. Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Gladiolus cultivars and related taxa of family Iridaceae. J Genet 96, 135–145 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12041-017-0755-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12041-017-0755-1

Keywords

  • Gladiolus
  • Iridaceae
  • plastid genome
  • phylogenetic analyses.