Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis Care Res. 2010;62:600–10.
Mease PJ, Arnold LM, Crofford LJ, et al. Identifying the clinical domains of fibromyalgia: contributions from clinician and patient delphi exercises. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59:952–60.
Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:26–35.
McLoughlin MJ, Colbert LH, Stegner AJ, Cook DB. Are women with fibromyalgia less physically active than healthy women? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:905–12.
Jones CJ, Rutledge DN, Aquino J. Predictors of physical performance and functional ability in people 50+ with and without fibromyalgia. J Aging Phys Act. 2010;18:353–68.
Inanici F, Ozdemir O, Aydog T, et al. The frequency of fibromyalgia in sport professionals. Rheumatol Int. 2010; http://www.springerlink.com/content/5360rtl762170546/fulltext.pdf.
Howley ET. Type of activity: resistance, aerobic and leisure versus occupational physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:S364–9.
•• Busch AJ, Overend TJ, Schachter CL: Fibromyalgia treatment: the role of exercise and physical activity. Int J Clin Rheumtol. 2009;4:343–80. This comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs up to 2008 examines the effects of all forms of exercise interventions, including aerobic, strength, flexibility, mixed aerobic and strength, and combination interventions (exercise when combined with nonexercise) for individuals with fibromyalgia.
Maher CG, Sherrington C, Herbert RD, et al. Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther. 2003;83:713–21.
Shea BJ, Grimshaw JM, Wells GA, et al. Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2007;7:10. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/7/10.
McCain GA, Bell DA, Mai FM, Halliday PD. A controlled study of the effects of a supervised cardiovascular fitness training program on the manifestations of primary fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum. 1988;31:1135–41.
Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Hootman JM, Jones DL. Exercise and global well-being in community-dwelling adults with fibromyalgia: a systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:198. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/198.
•• Hauser W, Klose P, Langhorst J, et al. Efficacy of different types of aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R79. http://arthritis-research.com/content/12/3/R79. In this systematic review and meta-analysis of aerobic exercise interventions for persons with fibromyalgia, subgroup analyses and head-to-head comparisons were used to assess which types, volumes, and intensities of aerobic exercise are most effective.
Dinler M, Diracoglu D, Kasikcioglu E, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise training on oxygen uptake and kinetics in patients with fibromyalgia. Rheumatol Int. 2009;30:281–4.
Kingsley JD, McMillan V, Figueroa A. The effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training on disease severity and autonomic modulation at rest and after acute leg resistance exercise in women with fibromyalgia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91:1551–7.
Mannerkorpi K, Nordeman L, Ericsson A, Arndorw M. Pool exercise for patients with fibromyalgia or chronic widespread pain: a randomized controlled trial and subgroup analyses. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41:751–60.
Tomas-Carus P, Gusi N, Hakkinen A, et al. Improvements of muscle strength predicted benefits in HRQOL and postural balance in women with fibromyalgia: an 8-month randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:1147–51.
Carbonell-Baeza A, Aparicio VA, Ortega FB, et al. Does a 3-month multidisciplinary intervention improve pain, body composition and physical fitness in women with fibromyalgia? Br J Sports Med. 2010; http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/early/2010/06/01/bjsm.2009.070896.full.pdf?sid=8ec58377-62bf-4900-a518-3338af5ba1da.
Sanudo B, de Hoyo M, Carrasco L, et al. The effect of 6-week exercise programme and whole body vibration on strength and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: a randomised study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28:S40–5.
Calandre EP, Rodriguez-Claro ML, Rico-Villademoros F, et al. Effects of pool-based exercise in fibromyalgia symptomatology and sleep quality: a prospective randomised comparison between stretching and Ai Chi. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27:S13–20.
McLoughlin MJ, Stegner AJ, Cook DB. The relationship between physical activity and brain responses to pain in fibromyalgia. J Pain 2011;1–12. http://www.sciencedirect.com/.
Wang C, Schmid CH, Rones R, et al. A randomized trial of tai chi for fibromyalgia. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:743–54.
Carson JW, Carson KM, Jones KD, et al. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the Yoga of awareness program in the management of fibromyalgia. Pain. 2010;151:530–9.
Ide MR, Laurindo LMM, Rodrigues-Junior AL, Tanaka C. Effect of aquatic respiratory exercise-based program in patients with fibromyalgia. Int J Rheum Dis. 2008;11:131–40.
Altan L, Korkmaz N, Bingol U, Gunay B. Effect of Pilates training on people with fibromyalgia syndrome: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90:1983–8.
Gusi N, Parraca JA, Olivares PR, et al. Tilt vibratory exercise and the dynamic balance in fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res. 2010;62:1072–8.
Mannerkorpi K, Nordeman L, Cider A, Jonsson G. Does moderate-to-high intensity Nordic walking improve functional capacity and pain in fibromyalgia? A prospective randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R189. http://arthritis-research.com/content/12/5/R189.
Fontaine KR, Conn L, Clauw DJ. Effects of lifestyle physical activity on perceived symptoms and physical function in adults with fibromyalgia: results of a randomized trial. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R55. http://arthritis-research.com/content/12/2/R55.
Fontaine KR, Conn L, Clauw DJ. Effects of lifestyle physical activity in adults with fibromyalgia: results at follow-up. J Clin Rheumatol. 2011;17:64–8.
Leavitt F, Katz RS, Mills M, Heard AR. Cognitive and dissociative manifestations in fibromyalgia. J Clin Rheumatol. 2002;8:77–84.
Etnier JL, Karper WB, Gapin JI, et al. Exercise, fibromyalgia, and fibrofog: a pilot study. J Phys Act Health. 2009;6:239–46.
Mannerkorpi K. Physical activity and body functions in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Musculoskelet Pain. 2009;17:287–94.
Cazzola M, Atzeni F, Salaffi F, et al. Which kind of exercise is best in fibromyalgia therapeutic programmes? A practical review. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28:S117–24.
Sanudo B, Galiano D. Using cardiovascular parameters and symptom severity to prescribe physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27:S62–6.
• van Koulil S, van Lankveld W, Kraaimaat FW, et al.: Tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise training for high-risk patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Care Res. 2010;62:1377–85. The authors report the results of an RCT examining customization of exercise interventions for women with fibromyalgia based on coping style (pain avoidance vs. pain persistence).
• Newcomb LW, Koltyn KF, Morgan WP, Cook DB. The influence of preferred versus prescribed exercise on pain in fibromyalgia. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010; Epub ahead of print. The authors reported the results of an RCT examining customization of exercise interventions for women with fibromyalgia based on participant preference.
Hoeger Bement MK, Weyer A, Hartley S, et al. Pain perception after isometric exercise in women with fibromyalgia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92:89–95.
•• Jones KD, Liptan GL. Exercise interventions in fibromyalgia: clinical applications from the evidence. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2009;35:373–91. This topical review of exercise interventions for fibromyalgia presents physiological obstacles and 10 principles for exercise prescription.
Nijs J, Mannerkorpi K, Descheemaeker F, Van Houdenhove B. Primary care physical therapy in people with fibromyalgia: opportunities and boundaries within a monodisciplinary setting. Phys Ther. 2010;90:1815–22.
Thomas EN, Blotman F. Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia: a practical review. Rheumatol Int. 2010;30:1143–50.
Busch AJ, Barber KA, Overend TJ, et al. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;CD003786. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003786.pub2.
Hakkinen A, Hakkinen K, Hannonen P, Alen M. Strength training induced adaptations in neuromuscular function of premenopausal women with fibromyalgia: comparison with healthy women. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60:21–6.
Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A, Hannonen P, et al. Effects of strength training on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, maximal electromyographic activity, and serum hormones in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:1287–95.
Valkeinen H, Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A, et al. Muscle hypertrophy, strength development, and serum hormones during strength training in elderly women with fibromyalgia. Scan J Rheumatol. 2005;34:309–14.
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.
Lemos MC, Valim V, Zandonade E, Natour J. Intensity level for exercise training in fibromyalgia by using mathematical models. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:54. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/11/54.
Tudor-Locke C, Lutes L. Why do pedometers work?: a reflection upon the factors related to successfully increasing physical activity. Sports Med. 2009;39:981–93.
Lorig KR, Sobel DS, Ritter PL, et al. Effect of a self-management program on patients with chronic disease. Eff Clin Pract. 2001;4:256–62.
Wagner EH, Austin BT, Davis C, et al. Improving chronic illness care: translating evidence into action. Health Aff (Millwood). 2001;20:64–78.
Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev. 1977;84:191–215.
Bandura A. Social foundation of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall; 1986.
Busch AJ, Thille P, Barber KA, et al. Best practice: E-Model–prescribing physical activity and exercise for individuals with fibromyalgia. Physiother Theory Pract. 2008;24:151–66.
Brachaniec M, DePaul V, Elliott M, et al. Partnership in action: an innovative knowledge translation approach to improve outcomes for persons with fibromyalgia (Editorial). Physiother Canada. 2009;61:123–7.
Brown P, Brunnhuber K, Chalkidou K, et al. How to formulate research recommendations. BMJ. 2006;333:804–6.
Rooks DS. Talking to patients with fibromyalgia about physical activity and exercise. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2008;20:208–12.
Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.
Sanudo B, Galiano D, Carrasco L, et al. Aerobic exercise versus combined exercise therapy in women with fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91:1838–43.
Valencia M, Alonso B, Alvarez MJ, et al. Effects of 2 physiotherapy programs on pain perception, muscular flexibility, and illness impact in women with fibromyalgia: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009;32:84–92.