Invasive plant species generally reduce the abundance and diversity of local plant species, which may translate into alterations at higher tropic levels, such as arthropods. Due to the diverse functional roles of arthropods in the ecosystems, it is critical to understand how arthropod communities are affected by plant invasions. Here, we investigated the impact of the invasive ornamental herb Lupinus polyphyllus (Lindl.) on arthropod communities during its main flowering period in southwestern Finland over two years. The total number of arthropods was about 46% smaller at the invaded sites than at the uninvaded sites in both study years, and this difference was mainly due to a lower abundance of beetles, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and ants. However, the number of bumblebees (particularly Bombus lucorum) was about twice as high at invaded sites compared with uninvaded sites, even though bumblebee richness did not differ between sites. There was no statistically significant difference between invaded and uninvaded sites in the abundances of the other arthropod groups considered (Hymenoptera (excluding bumblebees and ants), Hemiptera, and Arachnida). In addition, L. polyphyllus affected the relative abundance of four arthropod groups, with the order Lepidoptera being less common at invaded sites than at uninvaded sites, while the opposite was true for bumblebees, Hemiptera, and Arachnida. Overall, these results demonstrate that the negative impact of L. polyphyllus on biodiversity goes beyond its own trophic level, suggesting that this species has the potential to alter the abundance of different arthropod groups and, consequently, the structure of arthropod communities at a large scale.
Arthropods Insects Invasive species Species abundance Species richness
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We are grateful to Evans Effah and Oluwatobi Badejo for identifying the arthropod groups, and to two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments and suggestions. This study was financially supported by the Emil Aaltonen Foundation and the Academy of Finland (#285746 to SR).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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