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Lipids

, Volume 51, Issue 6, pp 655–676 | Cite as

Fatty Acid Binding Protein-1 (FABP1) and the Human FABP1 T94A Variant: Roles in the Endocannabinoid System and Dyslipidemias

  • Friedhelm SchroederEmail author
  • Avery L. McIntosh
  • Gregory G. Martin
  • Huan Huang
  • Danilo Landrock
  • Sarah Chung
  • Kerstin K. Landrock
  • Lawrence J. Dangott
  • Shengrong Li
  • Martin Kaczocha
  • Eric J. Murphy
  • Barbara P. Atshaves
  • Ann B. Kier
Review

Abstract

The first discovered member of the mammalian FABP family, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP), occurs at high cytosolic concentration in liver, intestine, and in the case of humans also in kidney. While the rat FABP1 is well studied, the extent these findings translate to human FABP1 is not clear—especially in view of recent studies showing that endocannabinoids and cannabinoids represent novel rat FABP1 ligands and FABP1 gene ablation impacts the hepatic endocannabinoid system, known to be involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) development. Although not detectable in brain, FABP1 ablation nevertheless also impacts brain endocannabinoids. Despite overall tertiary structure similarity, human FABP1 differs significantly from rat FABP1 in secondary structure, much larger ligand binding cavity, and affinities/specificities for some ligands. Moreover, while both mouse and human FABP1 mediate ligand induction of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα), they differ markedly in pattern of genes induced. This is critically important because a highly prevalent human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (26–38 % minor allele frequency and 8.3 ± 1.9 % homozygous) results in a FABP1 T94A substitution that further accentuates these species differences. The human FABP1 T94A variant is associated with altered body mass index (BMI), clinical dyslipidemias (elevated plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol), atherothrombotic cerebral infarction, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Resolving human FABP1 and the T94A variant’s impact on the endocannabinoid and cannabinoid system is an exciting challenge due to the importance of this system in hepatic lipid accumulation as well as behavior, pain, inflammation, and satiety.

Keywords

Liver Fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) Triglyceride 

Abbreviations

ACC

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

ACOX1

Acyl-CoA oxidase 1, palmitoyl

AEA

N-Arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide)

2-AG

2-Arachidonoylglycerol

ALB

Albumin

ARA

C20:4n-6 arachidonic acid

CB1

Cannabinoid receptor-1

CB2

Cannabinoid receptor-2

CPT1A

Carnitine palmitoyl transferase IA, liver

CPT2

Carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase II

DAGLα

Diacylglycerol lipase-α

DAGLβ

Diacylglycerol lipase-β

DAUDA

11-(Dansylamino)undecanoic acid

DGAT2

Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2

DHA

C22:6n-3 docosahexaenoic acid

EC

Arachidonic acid-containing endocannabinoids (AEA, 2-AG)

EC*

Non-ARA-containing N-acylethanolamides and 2-monoacylglycerols

EPA

C20:5n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid

FAAH

Fatty acid amide hydrolase

FABP1

Liver fatty acid binding protein or FABP1

FABP1 T94A

Human FABP1 T94A variant

FABP1 T94T

Wild-type (WT) human FABP1

FABP3

Heart fatty acid binding protein

FABP4

Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein

FABP5

Epidermal fatty acid binding protein

FABP7

Brain fatty acid binding protein

FABP1 KO

FABP1 gene ablated mouse on C57BL/6NCr background

FAS

Fatty acid synthase

FF

Fenofibrate

GPAM

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial

GPCR*

G protein-coupled receptors other than CB1/CB2

GPR119

G protein-coupled receptor 119

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HNF4α

Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α

LCFA

Long chain fatty acids, unesterified

LCFA-CoA

Long chain fatty acid-CoA thioester

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LDL-C

Low-density lipoprotein-C

LDLR

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor

LPL

Lipoprotein lipase

LSCM

Laser scanning confocal microscopy

MAGL

Monoacylglycerol lipase

MTTP

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

NAAA

N-Acylethanolamide acid amide hydrolase

NAFLD

Non-alcohol fatty liver disease

NAPE-PLD

N-Acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D

NBD-AEA

NBD-N-arachidonoylethanolamide or [20-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino] arachidonoylethanolamide

NBD-2-AG

NBD-2-arachidonoylglycerol or 2-[20-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino] arachidonoyl glycerol

NBD-ARA

NBD-arachidonic acid or [20-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]arachidonic acid

NBD-cholesterol

22-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol

NBD-stearic acid

[12-N-Methyl-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazo)aminostearic acid]

OEA

Oleoylethanolamide

2-OG

2-Oleoylglycerol

PEA

Palmitoylethanolamide

2-PG

2-Palmitoylglycerol

PL

Phospholipid

cis-PnCoA

cis-Parinaroyl-CoA

PPARα, β/δ, or γ

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, beta/delta, or gamma

SCD1

Stearoyl CoA desaturase

SCP-2

Sterol carrier protein-2

SCP-x

Sterol carrier protein-X

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

SRB1

Scavenger receptor class B member 1

SREBP1c

Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c

TAG

Triacylglycerol

VLDL

Very-low-density lipoprotein

WT

Wild-type C57BL/6NCr mouse

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the US Public Health Service/National Institutes of Health Grant R25 OD016574 (A.B.K.), Merial Veterinary Scholars Program, CVM (A.B.K.), and DA035923 and DA032232 (M.K.).

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Copyright information

© AOCS 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friedhelm Schroeder
    • 1
    Email author
  • Avery L. McIntosh
    • 1
  • Gregory G. Martin
    • 1
  • Huan Huang
    • 1
  • Danilo Landrock
    • 2
  • Sarah Chung
    • 2
  • Kerstin K. Landrock
    • 2
  • Lawrence J. Dangott
    • 3
  • Shengrong Li
    • 4
  • Martin Kaczocha
    • 5
  • Eric J. Murphy
    • 6
  • Barbara P. Atshaves
    • 7
  • Ann B. Kier
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathobiologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and BiophysicsTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  4. 4.Avanti Polar LipidsAlabasterUSA
  5. 5.Department of AnesthesiologyStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA
  6. 6.Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics and ChemistryUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA
  7. 7.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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