Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 34, pp 26213–26226 | Cite as

Quantitative study on nitrogen deposition and canopy retention in Mediterranean evergreen forests

  • Anna AvilaEmail author
  • Laura Aguillaume
  • Sheila Izquieta-Rojano
  • Héctor García-Gómez
  • David Elustondo
  • Jesús Miguel Santamaría
  • Rocío Alonso
(E)merging directions on air pollution and climate change research in Mediterranean Basin ecosystems

Abstract

To assess the impact of nitrogen (N) pollutants on forest ecosystems, the role of the interactions in the canopy needs to be understood. A great number of studies have addressed this issue in heavily N-polluted regions in north and central Europe. Much less information is available for the Iberian Peninsula, and yet this region is home to mountain forests and alpine grasslands that may be at risk due to excessive N deposition. To establish the basis for ecology-based policies, there is a need to better understand the forest response to this atmospheric impact. To fill this gap, in this study, we measured N deposition (as bulk, wet, and throughfall fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and air N gas concentrations from 2011 to 2013 at four Spanish holm oak (Quercus ilex) forests located in different pollution environments. One site was in an area of intensive agriculture, two sites were influenced by big cities (Madrid and Barcelona, respectively), and one site was in a rural mountain environment 40 km north of Barcelona. Wet deposition ranged between 0.54 and 3.8 kg N ha−1 year−1 for ammonium (NH4 +)-N and between 0.65 and 2.1 kg N ha−1 year−1 for nitrate (NO3 )-N, with the lowest deposition at the Madrid site for both components. Dry deposition was evaluated with three different approaches: (1) a canopy budget model based in throughfall measurements, (2) a branch washing method, and (3) inferential calculations. Taking the average dry deposition from these methods, dry deposition represented 51–67% (reduced N) and 72–75% (oxidized N) of total N deposition. Canopies retained both NH4 +-N and NO3-N, with a higher retention at the agricultural and rural sites (50–60%) than at sites located close to big cities (20–35%, though more uncertainty was found for the site near Madrid), thereby highlighting the role of the forest canopy in processing N pollutant emissions.

Keywords

Wet deposition Throughfall Canopy uptake Mediterranean Nitrogen Critical loads 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support from the Spanish Government projects EDEN (CGL2009-13188-C03-01/02/03) is fully acknowledged. This research was also funded by the project from Autonomous Government of Madrid AGRISOST-CM (P2013/ABI-2717) and by the European Projects ECLAIRE (FP7-ENV-2011/282910) and Life RESPIRA (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000417). CIEMAT work in this study was partially supported by an agreement between the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment and CIEMAT on Critical loads and levels. The utilization of Tres Cantos monitoring site was possible thanks to an agreement between CIEMAT and Ayuntamiento de Madrid.

References

  1. Adon M, Galy-Lacaux C, Delon C et al (2013) Dry deposition of nitroben compounds (NO2, HNO3, NH3), sulfur dioxide and ozone in west and central African ecosystems using the inferential method. Atmos Chem Phys 13:11351–11374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriaenssens S, Hansen K, Staelens J et al (2012) Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Sci Total Environ 420:168–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguillaume L, Rodrigo A, Avila A (2016) Long-term effects of changing atmospheric pollution on throughfall, bulk deposition and streamwaters in a Mediterranean forest. Sci Total Environ 544:919–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aguillaume L, Izquieta-Rojano S, García-Gómez H, Elustondo D, Santamaría JM, Alonso R, Avila A (2017) Dry deposition and canopy uptake in Mediterranean holm-oak forest estimated with a canopy budget: a focus on N estimations. Atmos Environ 152:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariño A, Gimeno B, de Zabalza AP, Ibáñez R, Ederra A, Santamaría J (2000) Influence of nitrogen deposition on plant biodiversity at Natura 2000 sites in Spain. Nitrogen Deposition and Natura 2000:140Google Scholar
  6. Avila A, Rodà F (2012) Changes in atmospheric deposition and streamwater chemistry over 25 years in undisturbed catchments in a Mediterranean mountain environment. Sci Total Environ 434:18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avila A, Molowny-Horas R, Gimeno BS, Peñuelas J (2010) Analysis of decadal time series in wet N concentrations at five rural sites in NE Spain. Water Air Soil Pollut 207:123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balestrini R, Tagliaferri A (2001) Atmospheric deposition and canopy exchange processes in alpine forest ecosystems (northern Italy). Atmos Environ 35:6421–6433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balestrini R, Arisci S, Brizzio MC et al (2007) Dry deposition of particles and canopy exchange: comparison of wet, bulk and throughfall deposition at five forest sites in Italy. Atmos Environ 41:745–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bobbink R, Hicks K, Galloway J, Spranger T et al (2010) Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis. Ecol Appl 2:30–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyce RL, Friedland AJ, Chamberlain CP, Poulson SR (1996) Direct canopy nitrogen uptake from N15 labeled wet deposition by mature red spruce. Canadian Journal Forest Research 26:1539–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bytnerowicz A, Miller P, Olszyk DM, Dawson PJ, Fox CA (1987) Gaseous and particulate air pollution in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Atmos Environ 21:1805–1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bytnerowicz A, Sanz MJ, Arbaugh MJ, Paddgett PE, Jones DP, Davila A (2005) Passive sampler for monitorin ambient nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrous acid (HNO2) concentrations. Atmos Environ 39:2655–2660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bytnerowicz A, Johnson RF, Zhang L et al (2015) An empirical inferential method of estimating nitrogen deposition to Mediterranean-type ecosystems: the San Bernardino Mountains case study. Environ Pollut 203:69–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cape JN, Sheppard LJ, Crossley A, van Dijk N, Tang YS (2010) Experimental field estimation of organic nitrogen formation in tree canopies. Environ Pollut 158:2926–2933Google Scholar
  16. De Schrijver A, Geudens G, Augusto L, Staelens J, Mertens J, Wuyts K, Gielis L, Verheyen K (2007) The effect of forest type on throughfall deposition and seepage flux: a review. Oecologia 153:663–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Vries W, Vel E, Reinds G et al (2003) Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe: 1. objectives, set-up and evaluation strategy. For Ecol Manag 174:77–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dentener F et al (2006) Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750 prescribed data-sets for AeroCom. Atmos Chem Phys 6:4321–4344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Draaijers G, Erisman JW (1995) A canopy budget model to assess atmospheric deposition from throughfall measurements. Water Air Soil Pollut 85:2253–2258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Draaijers G, Erisman JW, van Leeuwen NFM et al (1997) The impact of canopy exchange on differences observed between atmospheric deposition and throughfall fluxes. Atmos Environ 31:387–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drapelova I (2013) Evaluation of deposition fluxes in two mountain Norway spruce stands with different densities using the extended canopy budget model. J For Sci 59:72–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Duyzer JH, Dorsey JR, Gallagher MW, Pilegaard K, Walton S (2004) Oxidized nitrogen and ozone interaction with forests. II: multi-layer process-oriented modelling results and a sensitivity study for Douglas fir. Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:1957–1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Enders G, Teichmann U (1986) GASDEP—gaseous deposition measurements of SO2, NOx, and O3 to a spruce stand: conception, instrumentation, and first results of an experimental project. In: Georgii HW (ed) Atmospheric pollutants in forest areas. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  24. Endo T, Yagoh H, Sato K, Matsuda K, Hayashi K, Noguchi I, Sawada K (2011) Regional characteristics of dry deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds at EANET sites in Japan from 2003 to 2008. Atmos Environ 45:129–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Erisman JW, Beier C, Draaijers G, Lindberg S (1994) Review of deposition monitoring methods. Tellus 46:79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fenn ME, Ross CS, Schilling SL et al (2013) Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur and preferential consumption of nitrate in forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. For Ecol Manag 302:240–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Flechard CR, Nemitz E, Smith RI et al (2011) Dry deposition of reactive nitrogen to European ecosystems: a comparison of inferential models across the NitroEurope network. Atmos Chem Phys 11:2703–2728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri (2006) Instruction Manual for Radiello sampler. Edition 01/2006. http://www.radiello.com
  29. Gaige E, Dail D, Hollinger D et al (2007) Changes in canopy processes following whole-forest canopy nitrogen fertilization of a mature spruce-hemlock forest. Ecosystems 10:1133–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gallagher M, Fontan J, Wyers P, Ruijgrok W et al (1997) Atmospheric particles and their interactions with natural surfaces. In: Slanina S (ed) Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of pollutants and trace substances. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 45–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. García-Gómez H (2016). Atmospheric concentration and deposition of reactive nitrogen in Spanish forests of Quercus ilex. PhD dissertation. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos. Universidad Politécnica de MadridGoogle Scholar
  32. García-Gómez H, Garrido J, Vivanco M et al (2014) Nitrogen deposition in Spain: modeled patterns and threatened habitats within the Natura 2000 network. Sci Total Environ 485:450–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. García-Gómez H, Aguillaume L, Izquieta-Rojano S et al (2016a) Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:6400–6413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. García-Gómez H, Izquieta-Rojano S, Aguillaume L et al (2016b) Atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen in Spanish forests of Quercus ilex measured with ion-exchange resins and conventional collectors. Environ Pollut. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.06.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garten CT Jr, Hanson PJ (1990) Foliar retention of 15N.nitrate and 15-N ammonium by red maple (Acer rubrum) and white oak (Quercus alba) leaves from simulated rain. Environmental Experimental Botany 30:333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Geßler A, Rienks M, Rennenberg H (2002) Stomatal uptake and cuticular adsorption contribute to dry deposition of NH3 and NO2 to needles of adult spruce (Picea abies) trees. New Phytol 156:179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Granat L, Johnson C (1983) Dry deposition of SO2 and NOx in winter. Atmos Environ 17:191–193Google Scholar
  38. Guerrieri R, Vanguelova E, Michalski G, Heaton TH, Mencuccini M (2015) Isotopic evidence for the occurrence of biological nitrification and nitrogen deposition processing in forest canopies. Glob Chang Biol 21:4613–4626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hanson PJ, Lindberg SE (1991) Dry deposition of reactive nitrogen compounds: a review of leaf, canopy and non-foliar measurements. Atmos Environ 25:1615–1634Google Scholar
  40. Harrison AF, Schulze ED, Gebauer G, Bruckner G (2010) Canopy uptake and utilization of atmospheric pollutant nitrogen. In: Schulze ED (ed) Carbon and nitrogen cycling in European forest ecosystems. Ecological studies, vol 142. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  41. Hicks BB, Hosker RP, Meyers TP, Womack JD (1991) Dry deposition inferential measurement techniques—I. design and tests of a prototype meteorological and chemical system ofr determining dry deposition. Atmos Environ 25:2345–2359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holland EA, Braswell BH, Sulzman J, Lamarque JF (2005) Nitrogen deposition onto the United States and Western Europe: synthesis of observations and models. Ecol Appl 15:38–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Horváth L (2003) Dry deposition velocity of PM2.5 ammonium sulfate particles to a Norway spruce forest on the basis of S and N balance estimations. Atmos Environ 37:4419–4424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hosker RP, Lindberg SE (1982) Review: atmospheric deposition and plant assimilation of gases and particles. Atmos Environ 5:889–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. ICP-Forests Manual (2010) Manual on methods and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. UNECE ICP Forests Programme Coordinating Centre, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  46. Ignatova N, Dambrine E (2000) Canopy uptake of N deposition in spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) stands. Ann For Sci 57:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Izquierdo R, Avila A (2012) Comparison of collection methods to determine atmospheric deposition in a rural Mediterranean site (NE Spain). J Atmos Chem 69:351–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Izquieta-Rojano S, García-Gomez H, Aguillaume L et al (2016) Throughfall and bulk deposition of dissolved organic nitrogen to holm oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula: flux estimation and identification of potential sources. Environ Pollut 210:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnson DW, Lindberg SE (1992) Atmospheric deposition and forest nutrient cycling: a synthesis of the integrated forest study, vol 91. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  50. Li Y, Schichtel BA, Walker JT et al (2016) Increasing importance of deposition of reduced nitrogen in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences USA. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1525736113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Llorens P, Domingo F (2007) Rainfall partitioning by vegetation under Mediterranean conditions. A review of studies in Europe. Journal of Hydrology 335:37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lovett G, Lindberg S (1984) Dry deposition and canopy exchange in a mixed oak forest as determined by analysis of throughfall. J Appl Ecol 21:1013–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lovett G, Lindberg S (1986) Dry deposition of nitrate to a deciduous forest. Biogeochemsitry 2:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Meyers TP, Huebert BJ, Hicks BB (1989) HNO3 deposition to a deciduous forest. Bound-Layer Meteorol 49:395–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moreno G, Gallardo JF, Bussotti F (2001) Canopy modification of atmospheric deposition in oligotrophic Quercus pyrenaica forests of an unpolluted region (central-western Spain). For Ecol Manag 149:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Neff JC, Holland EA, Dentener FJ, McDowell WH, Russell KM (2002) The origin, composition and rates of organic nitrogen deposition: a missing piece of the nitrogen cycle? Biogeochemistry 57:99–136Google Scholar
  57. Ochoa-Hueso R, Arróniz-Crespo M, Bowker MA et al (2014) Biogeochemical indicators of elevated nitrogen deposition in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems. Environ Monit Assess 186:5831–5842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Padgett PE, Cook H, Bytnerowicz A, Heath RL (2009) Foliar loading and metabolic assimilation of dry deposited nitric acid air pollutants by trees. Journal Environmental Monitoring 11:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pan YP, Wang YS, Tang GQ, Wu D (2012) Wet and dry deposition of atmospheric nitrogen at ten sites in Northern China. Atmos Chem Phys 12:6515–6535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Parker G (1983) Throughfall and stemflow in the forest nutrient cycle. Adv Ecol Res 13:57–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Peñuelas J, Filella I (2001) Herbaria century record of increasing eutrophication in Spanish terrestrial ecosystems. Glob Chang Biol 7:427–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pérez N, Pey J, Castillo S, Viana M, Alastuey A, Querol X (2008) Interpretation of the variability of levels of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean. Sci Total Environ 407:527–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pey J, Pérez N, Castillo S et al (2009) Geochemistry of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean. Atmos Res 94:422–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Puxbaum H, Gregori M (1998) Seasonal and annual deposition rates of sulphur, nitrogen and chloride species to an oak forest in north-eastern Austria (Wolkersdorf, 240 m ASL). Atmos Environ 32:3557–3568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Querol X, Mantilla E, Ruiz CR, Lopez-Soler A, Juan R (1998) Seasonal evolution of suspended particles around a large coal-fired power station: chemical characterization. Atmos Environ 32:719–731Google Scholar
  66. Rodrigo A, Avila A (2002) Dry deposition to the forest canopy and surrogate surfaces in two Mediterranean holm oak forests in Montseny (NE Spain). Water Air Soil Pollut 136:269–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rodriguez-Puebla C, Encinas A, Nieto S, Garmendia J (1998) Spatial and temporal patterns of annual precipitation variability over the Iberian Peninsula. Int J Climatol 18:299–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Salvador P, Artiñano B, Viana MM et al (2011) Spatial and temporal variations in PM10 and PM2.5 across Madrid metropolitan area in 1999-2008. Urban Environmental Pollution 4:198–208Google Scholar
  69. Sparks JP (2009) Ecological ramifications of the direct foliar uptake of nitrogen. Oecologia 159:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stachurski A, Zimka JR (2002) Atmospheric deposition and ionic interactions within a beech canopy in the Karkonosze Mountains. Environ Pollut 1118:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Staelens J, Houle D, De Schrijver A, Neirynck J, Verheyen K (2008) Calculating dry deposition and canopy exchange with the canopy budget model: review of assumptions and application to two deciduous forests. Water Air Soil Pollut 191:149–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sutton MA, Howard CM, Erisman JW et al (2011) The European nitrogen assessment: sources, effects and policy perspectives. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thimonier A, Schmitt M, Waldner P, Rihm B (2005) Atmospheric deposition on Swiss long-term forest ecosystem research (LWF) plots. Environ Monit Assess 104:81–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ulrich B (1983) Interaction of forest canopies with atmospheric constituents: SO2, alkali and earth alkali cations and chloride. In: Ulrich B, Pankrath J (eds) Effects of accumulation of air pollutants in forest ecosystems. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Uscola M, Villar-Salvador P, Oliet J, Warren CR (2014) Foliar absorption and root translocation of nitrogen from different chemical forms in seedlings of two Mediterranean trees. Environ Exp Bot 104:34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wesely ML, Hicks BB (2000) A review of the current status of knowledge on dry deposition. Atmos Environ 34:2261–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhang G, Zeng GM, Jiang YM et al (2006) Effects of weak acids on canopy leaching and uptake processes in a coniferous-deciduous mixed evergreen forest in central-south China. Water Air Soil Pollut 172:39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhang L, Cet R, O’Brien JM, Mihele C, Liang Z, Wiebe A (2009) Dry deposition of individual nitrogen species at eight Canadian rural sites. Journal Geophysical Research 114. doi: 10.1029/2008JD010640
  79. Zinke PJ (1967) Forest interpretation studies in the United States. In: Sopper WE, Lull HE (eds) International symposium on forest hydrology. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 137–161Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CREAFUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterraSpain
  2. 2.LICAUniversidad de NavarraPamplonaSpain
  3. 3.Ecotoxicology of Air PollutionCIEMATMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations