Field-induced π-polarization in barrelene derivatives: a computational study based on structural variation
Barrelene, H–C(CH=CH)3C–H, is an unsaturated polycyclic hydrocarbon containing three isolated double bonds in a non-planar arrangement. We have studied the transmission of field effects through the barrelene framework by analyzing the small structural changes occurring in the phenyl group of many Ph–C(CH=CH)3C–X molecules, where X is a variable substituent. Molecular geometries have been determined by quantum chemical calculations at the HF/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-311++G** levels of theory. Comparison with the results obtained for the corresponding saturated molecules, the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives Ph–C(CH2–CH2)3C–X, reveals a small, but significant, field-induced π-polarization of the barrelene cage, especially when the remote substituent is a charged group. Additional evidence of π-polarization is obtained by comparing the electric dipole moments of the two sets of uncharged molecules. The structural variation of the barrelene cage caused by the variable substituent in Ph–C(CH=CH)3C–X molecules has also been investigated. It is much larger than that of the phenyl group and depends primarily on the electronegativity of the substituent. Particularly pronounced is the concerted variation of the non-bonded distance between the bridgehead carbons of the cage, r(C···C) 1 BARR , and the average of the three C–C–C angles at the cage carbon bonded to the variable substituent, α 1 BARR . A scattergram of r(C···C) 1 BARR versus the corresponding parameter for bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives, r(C···C) 1 BCO , shows that the variation of r(C···C) 1 BARR becomes gradually less pronounced than that of r(C···C) 1 BCO as the electronegativity of the substituent increases.
KeywordsSubstituted barrelenes Substituted bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes Structural variation Dipole moments Field effect Electronegativity effect Field-induced π-polarization
This work was supported by the CINECA Supercomputing Center, Bologna, with Project IsC10_DYNGEO_E, and by the Department of Chemistry, Sapienza - University of Rome, through the Supporting Research Initiative 2013.
- 12.Frisch MJ, Trucks GW, Schlegel HB, Scuseria GE, Robb MA, Cheeseman JR, Scalmani G, Barone V, Mennucci B, Petersson GA, Nakatsuji H, Caricato M, Li X, Hratchian HP, Izmaylov AF, Bloino J, Zheng G, Sonnenberg JL, Hada M, Ehara M, Toyota K, Fukuda R, Hasegawa J, Ishida M, Nakajima T, Honda Y, Kitao O, Nakai H, Vreven T, Montgomery JA Jr, Peralta JE, Ogliaro F, Bearpark M, Heyd JJ, Brothers E, Kudin KN, Staroverov VN, Keith T, Kobayashy R, Normand J, Raghavachari K, Rendell A, Burant JC, Iyengar SS, Tomasi J, Cossi M, Rega N, Millam JM, Klene M, Knox JE, Cross JB, Bakken V, Adamo C, Jaramillo J, Gomperts R, Stratmann RE, Yazyev O, Austin AJ, Cammi R, Pomelli C, Ochterski JW, Martin RL, Morokuma K, Zakrzewski VG, Voth GA, Salvador P, Dannenberg JJ, Dapprich S, Daniels AD, Farkas O, Foresman JB, Ortiz JV, Cioslowski J, Fox DJ (2010) Gaussian 09, Revision C.01. Gaussian, Inc., WallingfordGoogle Scholar
- 21.Taft RW, Topsom RD (1987) Prog Phys Org Chem 16:1–83Google Scholar