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Reading and Writing

, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 821–843 | Cite as

Two-year follow-up of a code-oriented intervention for lower-skilled first-graders: the influence of language status and word reading skills on third-grade literacy outcomes

  • Patricia F. Vadasy
  • Elizabeth A. Sanders
Article

Abstract

For 2 years we followed lower-performing English learner (EL) and native English speaking (non-EL) students who participated in an efficacy trial of a supplemental first-grade code-oriented intervention implemented by paraeducators. At the end of grade three, across all students (n = 180 of the original 187 students), treatment effects were maintained on word reading (approximate d = .45), spelling (.36) and reading comprehension (.24). However, treatment effects tended to be smaller for EL students, and were significantly smaller for spelling in particular. While pretest grade one word reading did not moderate treatment response for either ELs or non-ELs, it was found to strongly predict all three end-of- grade-three outcomes, although to a lesser extent for ELs on reading comprehension. Findings add support to previous research on the benefits of early code-oriented tutoring.

Keywords

English language learner Language minority Reading Intervention Longitudinal studies Multilevel modeling Randomized trial Follow-up First-grade Third-grade 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education through Grant #R305A070324. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Washington Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  2. 2.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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