Minireview: algal natural compounds and extracts as antifoulants



Marine biofouling is a paramount phenomenon in the marine environment and causes serious problems to maritime industries worldwide. Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal, and anti-macrofouling properties, inhibiting the settlement and growth of other marine fouling organisms. Significant investigations and progress have been made in this field in the last two decades and several antifouling extracts and compounds have been isolated from micro- and macroalgae. In this minireview, we have summarized and evaluated antifouling compounds isolated and identified from macroalgae and microalgae between January 2010 and June 2016. Future directions for their commercialization through metabolic engineering and industrial scale up have been discussed. Upon comparing biogeographical regions, investigations from Southeast Asian waters were found to be rather scarce. Thus, we have also discussed the need to conduct more chemical ecology based research in relatively less explored areas with high algal biodiversity like Southeast Asia.


Algae Biofouling Natural products Antifouling defense Antibacterial Anti-diatom Anti-macrofouling 



P. Bhadury acknowledges ARF grant of IISER Kolkata.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahasweta Saha
    • 1
    • 2
  • Franz Goecke
    • 3
  • Punyasloke Bhadury
    • 4
  1. 1.Benthic EcologyHelmholtz Center for Ocean ResearchKielGermany
  2. 2.School of Biological ScienceUniversity of EssexColchester, CO 43 SQUK
  3. 3.Department of Plant and Environmental Science (IPV)Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)ÅsNorway
  4. 4.Integrative Taxonomy and Microbial Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological SciencesIndian Institute of Science Education and Research KolkataNadiaIndia

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